Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Nosocomial infection


Prevalence and Determinants of nosocomial inflections among patients in ventilator in a Tertiary Care Hospital at Makkah Al-mukarramh 2022

Mohammed Hasan Alsharif, Esraa Abbas Bokhari, Anwar Rashad Hakeem, Rahaf yaseen Almutawa, Imtinan Abdullah Alhazmi, Raniyah Abdulrahim Alsiyami, Sohaib Osama Baarimah, Bashayer Saad Altowerqy, Ataa Fouad Mesbah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 398-413

Nosocomial infections or healthcare-acquired infections are a common cause of increased morbidity and mortality among hospitals patients. Patients are at an increased risk for these infections due to their health states. Considering these adverse effects on and the socioeconomic burden, efforts should be made to minimize the transmission of these infections and make the hospitals a safer environment. These infection rates can be significantly reduced by the implementing and improving compliance with the “care bundles.” the common nosocomial infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and surgical site infections (SSI).ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit (ICU). It is a pulmonary infection that occurs after at least 48 hours of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV), and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of VAP ranges from 10% to 65% of intubated patients depending on the risk factors. This study aimed: To assess prevalence and determinants for nosocomial inflections (NI) among patients in ventilator at Makkah Al-mukarramh hospital Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross -sectional research design was carried out between Feb 2021 to May 2021 included 300 of patients in ventilator, who were randomly selected from hospitals. A structured questionnaire and observation checklist was used for data collection.  using 3part Questionnaire and analyzed via SPSS v24 software. Chi-square test was run to analyses associations between socio-demographic data. Results: The distribution of pathogens is demonstrated, level of education, monthly income, hospital stays, BMI, chronic Medical conditions show that a significant relation between Nosocomial infection and Chronic Medical conditions were P-value=0.000 Conclusion: The study's found that prevalence of nosocomial inflections among patients in ventilator in a Tertiary Care Hospital . Therefore careful disinfection and strict procedures of nosocomial inflections are necessary in places that serve nosocomial inflections patient. Moreover, a vision for the improvement of reports and studies in hospitals to report the rate of the nosocomial inflections, hence, there is a need to raise awareness as well as training on nosocomial inflections among patients in ventilator

“A study to assess the knowledge regarding the nosocomial infection and its prevention among the staff nurses of Krishna hospital karad.”

Ms. Shweta Shitole , Mr Mahesh Chendake, Ms Shruti Sam ,Mr. Ranjeet Yadav ,Mr.Sangram Yedage Dr. Mrs Lekshmi Nair

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8366-8373

BACKGROUND :- Nosocomial infections (NIs), also known as a hospitalacquiredinfection, are defined as infections which areacquired after 48 h of patient admission. Such infectionsare neither present nor incubating prior to a patient’sadmission to a given hospital. NIs represent a universallyserious health problem and a major concern forthe safety of both patients and the health care providers[1–4]. Although the incidence rate for nosocomial infection vary from country to country, at any given time,almost seven patients from developed countries to ten
patients from developing countries out of each100patients admitted to hospitals gain at least one kind of nosocomial infections

Study of risk factors, bacteriological profile and antibiogram of surgical site infections in a tertiary care teaching hospital

Dr.Sadaf Guldin, Dr.Ghulam Hassan Bhat, Dr.Sameena Jawaid, Dr. Anjali Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2837-2845

Introduction: Surgical site infections (SSI) constitute a major public health problem worldwide and are the second most frequently reported nosocomial infections. They are responsible for increasing the treatment cost, length of hospital stay and significant morbidity and mortality.Aim: To isolate, identify and study bacteriological profile of surgical site infections,with  antibiogram.Materials and Methods: Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs from 190 patients clinically diagnosed of having SSIs and were processed as per standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. This Prospective study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2016 to December 2016) in the Department of Microbiology at Yenepoya Medical college hospital, Mangalore, India.Results:. Out of total 190 samples, 170 (89.4%) yielded bacterial growth.Most common predisposing factors causing surgical site infections were patients having Diabetes mellitus(23.53%) followed by Smokers(14.12),Hypertension(11.76).Escherichia coli (24.12%) was the commonest organism followed by Staphylococcus aureus(18.82%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.24%) and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (14.12%). Antimicrobial profile of gram positive isolates revealed maximum sensitivity to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Linezolid, whereas among gram negative isolates Imepenem, Piperacillin-tazobactam, and Amikacin were found to be most sensitive.Conclusion: The rate of SSI observed in this study was comparable to other similar studies, however we observed a higher degree of antimicrobial resistance. Adherence to strict infection control measures, maintenance of proper hand hygiene and optimal preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative patient care will surely reduce the incidence of SSIs.

A STUDY ON CLINICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ABDOMINAL SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS (SSI)-OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Chennaiah M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11514-11526

Background:A surgical site infection is an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. SSIs previously called Post-operative wound infection result from bacterial contamination during or after a surgical procedure.Surgical Site Infection (SSI) by definition refers to an infection which occurs within 30 days after the surgery or within 1 year when an implant is left in place after the surgery and involving the incision or deep tissues at the operated site or infections involving organ or body space other than the incision, which was opened or manipulated during an operation. Surgical site infections (SSI) constitute a major public health problem worldwide and are the second most frequently reported nosocomial infections. They are responsible for increasing the treatment cost, length of hospital stays and significant morbidity and mortality. A surgical site infection is an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. This study is an attempt to know the pre-operative, Operative and post-operative factors predisposing to Surgical site infections and the bacteriological profile of those infection so as to establish Antibiotic guidelines in our tertiary care centre.
Materials and Methods: All adult male and female patients of age more than 18 yrs undergoing abdominal surgeries for various reasons were included in the study. This prospective study was conducted in the department of general surgery in SVS Medical College between 1-6-2020 to 6-5-2021.
Results: This study included 100 patients who underwent abdominal surgery, out of which 30 patients developed Surgical site infections. So the incidence is 30%. Incidence of SSI among males was 29.3 % whereas incidence of infection among females was 33.3 %. Clean wounds had least SSI (6.7%) and the Dirty wounds had the highest SSI (50%). Using drain was associated with increased incidence of SSI (44%) and mesh usage was not associated with SSI. SSI was most commonly detected on Post op day (POD) 4 (20 out of 45 cases). The SSI rate increased with increasing age and it also increased significantly with the increasing duration of pre-operative hospitalization. The SSI rate was significantly higher in emergency surgeries as compared to the elective surgeries. The infection rate was significantly higher as the duration of the surgery increased. The most commonly isolated organism from surgical site infections were Enterococci (22.2%) and staphylococcus aureus (22.2%) and other bacteria. Most of the organisms which were isolated were multidrug resistant. The high rate of resistance to many antibiotics underscored the need for a policy that could promote more rational use of antibiotics.
Conclusion: The rate of SSI observed in this study was comparable to other similar studies, however we observed a higher degree of antimicrobial resistance. Adherence to strict infection control measures, maintenance of proper hand hygiene and optimal preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative patient care will surely reduce the incidence of SSIs.