Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : osteoprotegerin


Review On Hypothyroidism In Women: An Update

I.Mufida Begum, D.Kumudha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9680-9691

Hypothyroidism, an autoimmune common endocrinopathies, where the TSH level elevates, which impairs activity in tissue level. It is the second most endocrine disorder, where the prevalence in females is more compared to males in second and third decades, with lifelong treatment. During the gestation period in women, there is increase in the demand of the thyroid hormone for the development of brain, essential functions of body cells, tissues, maintains the metabolism and other vital body functions in fetus. Iodine and zinc are essential components for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is characterized into primary, secondary (or) central, subclinical, chronic (or) transient, overt hypothyroidism and congenital hypothyroidism. The primary cause is chronic auto immune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) due to damage caused by chronic inflammation by one’s own immune system. The secondary cause is due to disruption in feedback loop at the level of pituitary gland. The complications in women due to hypothyroidism are varied. Women often present myriad symptoms as age increases. TSH is highly sensitive screening test along with T3 and T4 index also to be measured. The damage of thyroid gland can be detected by presence of antithyroid peroxide. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) screening indicates the bone resorption defect. Monotherapy of levothyroxine is the standard treatment and dose depends of patient’s age. Initial dose is 12.5 to 28 µg/day. Levothyroxine is safe during pregnancy, as it does not cross placental barrier. Hypothyroidism paves ways for the development of other co-morbid diseases. Undiagnosed dysfunction of thyroid hormone leads to mortality. Pharmacist role is to educate patients about basics of thyroid functions, risk and optimal therapy where by the observation gap and ineffective treatment can be rectified.
 

A Study on serum level of Osteoprotegerin (OPG) in chronic kidney disease

Dr. Mohan R, Dr. Suresh SR, Dr. Darshan Kumar HS, Dr. Karthik N Sasalu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1811-1816

Introduction: Neutralization of a key Wnt inhibitor elevated in the circulation in CKD, Dkk1, and inhibited CKD induced vascular dedifferentiation, vascular calcification, and renal osteodystrophy. This effect was surprising since Wnt signalling in the vascular smooth muscle is implicated in stimulating osteoblastic transition and vascular calcification. However, recent studies demonstrate that Dkk1 mediated inhibition of aortic Wnt7b stimulates smad mediated aortic endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and vascular calcificatio. EndMT is a developmental physiologic process involved in the development of the cardiac valves, the cardiac septum and the aortic root, and it may or may not contribute to cardiac fibrosis in various adult disease states.
Methodology: This is an observational study with no interventions carried out on any subject. Furthermore, all the CKD individuals were divided in to two groups based on the dialysis. Finally, the statistical analyses were performed between the predialysis, dialysis and control population to find the possible or potential diagnostic marker for CKD-MBD. Results: A total 68 individuals were genotyped for this study which includes 19 control subjects, 25 Non Dialysis patients and 24 Dialysis patients. The distribution of OPG gene polymorphisms among the control, Non dialysis and dialysis group were documented. Of the 19 studied control subjects 17 (85%) TT, 2 (10% TC) and 1 (5%) TC genotypes were observed.
Conclusion: Among the 25 non dialysis patients the observed genotypes are 15 (60%) TT, 6 (24%) and 4 (16%)TC. The Dialysis group 11 TT (45.8%), 8 TC (33.3%) and 5 TC (20.8%) genotypes were observed.

Relationship between the gene polymorphism of osteoprotegerin, serum osteoprotegerin level and chronic kidney disease in south Indian populations

Dr. Mohan R, Dr. Darshan Kumar HS, Dr. Suresh SR, Dr. Neethu C Annigeri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1818-1824

Introduction: CKD-MBD is thus thought to be a major contributor to the high mortality among patients with CKD. The negative regulation of osteoclastic bone resorption exerted by OPG could increase BMD and bone volume by decreasing the active osteoclasts as demonstrated by in vitro studies
Methodology: This is an observational study with no interventions carried out on any subject. Furthermore, all the CKD individuals were made two groups based on the dialysis. Finally, the analyses was done between the predialysis, dialysis and control population to find the possible or potential diagnostic marker for CKD-MBD.
Results: Distribution of rs3102735genotypes between the non-dialysis and dialysis groups were not found significant differences for allelic (OR: 1.54, 95% CI (0.65-3.60)), genetic TT vs TC (OR: 1. 81, 95% CI (0.48-6.76) p=0.37) TT vs CC (OR: 1. 70, 95% CI (0.36-7.85) p=0.49) and dominant (OR: 1.77, 95% CI (0.57-5.50) p=0.32) models. Similarly, we have not found significant difference for rs3102735 in recessive model (OR: 0.72, 95% CI (0.16-3.09) p=0.662).
Conclusion: The serum OPG may be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of CKD-MBD.