Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : evil


KARMA: "THE GITA" AND "THE GITA-RAHASHYA"

Dr. Rupjyoti Dutta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 2763-2768

The philosophy of 'karma' is a doctrine considered to be the foundation stone of the entire Indian Philosophical outlook. The concept of karma is common to almost all traditional as well as contemporary Indian philosophical and religious systems. It is accepted as the dominating force throughout all the ages. Though the inquiry into the nature of karma and its significance takes us back to the Vedas in Indian philosophical tradition it is still a vibrating problem in philosophy. It has not only academic value but a clear understanding of karma has a perennial impact on life and existence even today. The Bhagavad Gita is the most beloved scripture of Indian thought and one of the prime chapters of this scripture is the 'law of karma'. According to it every man profits what he does and suffers what he does. Good deeds must bear the fruits of happiness and good fortune whereas evil deeds must bear the fruits of sorrow, misery, and ill-fortune. Good and evil thoughts, feelings, and actions have their corresponding results but the action is the greater part of life. The Gita said that the nature of karma was natural, inherent in man's existence and everybody has to work. As work is inevitable in one's life, one should work without seeking the result and the work without attachment to fruit will lead him to the highest attainment of God's consciousness. So, no one can remain unoccupied even for a moment. Bal Gangadhar Tilak is a great exponent of the philosophy of karma in Contemporary Indian thought. The most religious percept of Bhagavad Gita was a characteristic feature of Tilak's teaching. Tilak holds that the role of the philosophy of karma, as expounded in the Gita is pivotal in Indian thought through the ages. Tilak gives a new interpretation of the law of karma. He defined the philosophy of karma in terms of karma-yoga and it is well described by Tilak in his work entitled "Gita –Rahashya" or the "Karma-yoga-sastra". Hence an attempt is made here to discuss the law of karma as considered by the "Bhagavad Gita" and the "Gita-Rahashya".

Ravana In Advertising: Contemporary Interpretations Of The Mythological Evil

Dr. Manavpreet Kaur Arora; Dr. Kirandeep Singh; Dr. Pavitar Parkash Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6345-6355

Religion and mythology has been ubiquitous to the development of cultural ideas and their representations in various mediums.The idea of god as a personification of abstract values has fascinated the creative mind for generations. In India, the popular pantheon of Hindu gods and goddesseshas been worshippedforestablishing and upholding these positive valuesby subduing the negative characters in various narratives.Within this broad spectrum is the dominant character of Ravana who has varied literary descriptions and visual representations. This paper while investigating into the dichotomy that exists between the neutral literary portrayal of Ravana and his preferred negative visual depictions, will elaborate on the various cultural notions that are signifiedwith him in the context of contemporary India.
It is a qualitative enquiry for which Indian print advertisements published in the last two decades depicting Ravana have been analysed for their content and form.Formal analysis reveals that the visual representation of Ravana can be broadly categorized as realistic, illustrated or symbolic, wherein the realistic is the least preferred style. Though maximum advertisers have preferred an illustrated version, a growing trend towards its symbolic representation can be seen in the end of the current decade. Content analysis unveils that safety while travelling and unhealthy eating or hunger in India is two prominent evilsthat have been visually associated with Ravana. Maximumreference to Ravana in advertising is during the festival of Dussehra but there are a few brands which use his iconography for promotion at any time of the year.