Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Yoga

A Cross Sectional Prospective Study to Evaluate the Effect of Yoga on Blood Sugar and Body Mass Index (BMI) Values for Different Time Durations of Yoga Training at Tertiary Care Center

Anshu Tandon, Ashutosh Tandon

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 2198-2205

Yoga asanas and pranayama can control the blood sugar in a cost-effective manner, as there is no requirement of any sophisticated equipment with maximum space or fitness classes. The aim of this study to evaluate the effect of Yoga on blood sugar and body mass index (BMI) values for different time durations of Yoga training at tertiary care center.
Materials & Methods: A cross sectional observational study done on 200 subjects of both the genders in the age group 20-50 years were performed in the Department of physiology and Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial (LLRM) Medical College, Meerut, U.P., India during one year period. Subjects performed asanas supervised by primary investigator, in sitting, standing and lying position for 45 minutes daily, five days a week. Each asana was performed for 3 repetitions and the end position of each repetition was hold for 30 seconds. Purak and Rechak (deep breathing) was coordinated with the different posture of every asana. Thirty seconds rest period was given between each asana. Cool down was done with Shavasana for 5 minutes.Appropriate descriptive and implemented statistics were carried out using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 22.0 software.
Results: Our study showed that 62% of participants were between 41-50 years among males and 92% of participants between 31-50 year’s  in females. Both male and female participants showed a negative correlation between the blood sugar level and yoga performance. Also, a negative correlation existed between the BMI and their yoga performance. Positive correlation is seen between the blood sugar levels and BMI values in both genders.
Conclusion: Yoga cannot cure diabetes but keeps a beneficial check on blood sugar values. Hence yoga is more of cost effective, does not need any equipment as in exercise, it can be done within four walls   with adequate ventilation and long term effect of this yoga can explore the beneficial effects on glucose and other hormonal homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, it can improve cognition, and keep the body in shape with a sense of well-being.

Association Of BMI And Lipid Profile In Overweight Young Adults After 3 Months Of Yoga Practice

Jay Prakash Singh Rajput; Asha Gandhi; Sanjiv K Bansal; P.N Singh; Nimarpreet Kaur; Deepti Dwivedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1426-1433

Background: Many studies have applied aspects of Yoga to different health conditions. Obesity is a major health problem and the 5th leading risk for death globally. Reasons for these health problems are improper lifestyle and stress, which cause hormonal and chemical imbalance and disturb the proper coordination of metabolic and biochemical functions. So, the aim and objective of the present study is to assess the beneficial effects of 3 months of yoga practice on BMI, and lipid profile as well as correlate BMI with lipid parameters in overweight medical students between the age group 18-24 years.
Material and Methods: This prospective follow-up study included 50 Medical students having overweight of either sex (male & female) as per the inclusion criteria. Their BMI, and Lipid Profile were estimated before the start of yoga, after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of yoga practice, and their mean values were compared from baseline by using student t-Test, and correlation was done by using Pearson correlation test.
Results: Statistically significant decreased mean values of BMI, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL were recorded when compared from baseline. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis between the BMI, TC and TG at three levels of yoga practice was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Yoga therapy is useful to overcome the complications of obesity. It is one of the non-pharmacological and cost-effective therapies to maintain better health by regulating BMI and other biochemical functions of the body.

Impact of 8 Weeks of Yoga on Inflammatory Cytokine Markers in Uncomplicated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Vishakha, Manish Gupta, Savita Singh, Amitesh Aggarwal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 2623-2630

Objectives: To assess the effect of yoga on inflammatory cytokine markers in uncomplicated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients when compared to routine conventional therapyalone. To compare inflammatory cytokine markers in T2DM patients before and after yoga.
Materials & methods:
Setting: It is a follow-up, randomized case–control study done in a tertiary care hospital.
Participants: Sixty Type 2 diabetic patients in the age group of 30-60 years, 0-10 years duration of DM  were randomly divided into Yoga Group and Control Group, age and sex matched. Control Group received only conventional therapy for DM and Yoga Group received yoga therapy in the form of asanas and pranayama along with the conventional therapy for 8 weeks. Both groups were assessed twice (pre- and post-study).
Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using SPSS v 20.0. Repeated measure ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results were expressed as mean ± SD.
Results: After 8 weeks of yogic intervention, Yoga Group patients showed a significant reduction in their inflammatory markers.
Conclusion: Yoga can be used as an adjunct to the routine treatment for DM, for improvement of health as depicted by reduced inflammatory insult.


Dr Naveen Bhartia Porwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2230-2234

Background: The autonomic nervous system plays a major part in preparing the human body to adapt to the constant environmental changes and stress by correcting the sensory, visceral, motor, and neuro endocrine functions. The present study was conducted to assess effect of yoga on autonomic nervous system of human body.
Materials & Methods: 80subjects of both genders were divided into 2 groups. Group I were on regular yoga and group II had healthy subjects who do not practice yoga (control). Anthropometric measurements like height, weight was taken. BMI was calculated, and recordings of AFT were done in the morning.
Results: Group I had 22 males and 18 females and group II had 20 males and 20 females. The mean age of group I was 18.6 years and in group II was 20.4 years. The mean height was 164.2 cm in group I and 165.3 cm in group II. The mean weight was 53.2 Kgs in group I and 57.5 Kgs in group II. The mean BMI was 20.1 Kg/cm2 in group I and 21.3 Kg/cm2 in group II. The difference was non- significant (P>0.05). The resting HR (bpm) was 80.3 and 69.4, DBT (bpm) was 1.43 and 1.72, 30:15 ratio (bpm) was 1.12 and 1.26, VR (bpm) was 1.52 and 1.81, HGT (mm Hg) was 16.8 and 10.2 and BP response to standing (mm Hg)          was 6.32 and 8.43 in group I and II respectively. The difference was non- significant (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Regular long‑term yoga training showed significant effects which streamline autonomic functions that help to prevent lifestyle diseases and their complications.


Dr. Abhishek Pandey, Dr Sameer Srivastava, Dr Vijay Kumar Srivastava, Dr Nandini Srivastava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3034-3038

Yoga is a group of disciplines which includes physical, mental, and spiritual practices, originated in ancient India and aim to control and calm the mind and body. Pranayama is the yogic practice of focusing on breath. In Sanskrit, prana means "vital life force", and yama means to gain control. In yoga, breath is associated with the prana, thus, pranayama is a means to elevate the prana shakti, or life energies. Pranayama is described in Hindu texts like the Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga Sutras. In ancient literatures 8 different types of pranayam are described out of which nadi shuddhi or nadi shodhan pranayama is one. Anuloma Viloma is known as the level 3 of nadi shodhana pranayama.  Nadi Shuddhi pranayama aasana is closing the right nostril with the right hand’s thumb, inhaling fresh air through the left nostril (puraka) and holding the breath for some time (kumbhaka), followed by exhalation through right nostril (rechaka) while closing the left nostril with the right hand’s index finger and then reversing the process. This is one complete cycle of Nadishuddi pranayama. Pulse rate and reaction times were examined and recorded before and after twelve cycles of Nadi Shuddhi  pranayam. The pulse rate dropped from80.9±6.4 to 71.6±8.1. Reaction time dropped from 0.44± 0.13 seconds to 0.39 ± 0.07 seconds .The changes are statistically significant at p< 0.001. The subjects were very comfortable to this aasana. They felt deep mental peace and were calmer. Alternate nostril breathing is a process of continuous deep inhalation, holding the breath and exhalation. Every cycle of pranayama gives an increased supply of oxygen through the lungs and this oxygen oxidizes the waste products like carbon dioxide, in the venous blood. During exhalation, large expulsion of CO2 from the lungs enhances this process of purification. As a result very little waste material of the body tissue remains in the blood. After 2 or 3 cycles a large proportion of impurities is cleared and there is less need for the breath, as purification process in the lungs for the purification of blood slows down. Many organs of body are given maximum rest including lungs and heart.


Dr.M.ArputhaBibiana .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3496-3504

Yoga is an ancient Indian way of life, which includes changes in mental attitude, diet, and the practice of specific techniques such as yoga asanas (postures), breathing practices (pranayamas), and meditation to attain the highest level of consciousness. The relationship between yoga practice and positive changes in health behaviors remains unclear. Only three studies were found examining relationships between yoga practice and aspects of health in individuals who practice yoga. These studies contributed valuable evidence that there may be a favorable relationship between regular yoga practice and BMI, diet, and weight maintenance. However, these studies looked only at yoga practice in general and did not examine the relative contributions of the different aspects of yoga practice. This review adds up additional information about yoga practice and its health benefits in our entire body functions. The practice of yoga enhances all the systems viz., pulmonary, circulatory, excretory, musculoskeletal and immune system

Effect OfYoga Practice On Anxiety During The COVID-19 Pandemic

Dr. PoojaTripathi Pandey,Dr.Manila Jain, Dr. Sapana Jaiswal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 140-145

Stress and anxiety have been implicated as contributors to many chronic diseases and to
decreased quality of life, even with pharmacologic treatment. Efforts are underway to find
non-pharmacologic therapies to relieve stress and anxiety, and yoga is one option for
which results are promising. The focus of this review is on the results of human trials
assessing the role of yoga in improving the signs and symptoms of stress and anxiety. A
significant decrease in stress and/or anxiety symptoms when a yoga regimen was
implemented; however, many of the studies were also hindered by limitations, such as
small study populations, lack of randomization, and lack of a control group. Biochemical
and physiological markers of stress and anxiety, but yielded inconsistent support of yoga
for relief of stress and anxiety. Evaluation of the current primary literature is suggestive of
benefits of yoga in relieving stress and anxiety, but further investigation into this
relationship using large, well-defined populations, adequate controls, randomization and
long duration should be explored before recommending yoga as a treatment option.


Dr. Rupjyoti Dutta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 2763-2768

The philosophy of 'karma' is a doctrine considered to be the foundation stone of the entire Indian Philosophical outlook. The concept of karma is common to almost all traditional as well as contemporary Indian philosophical and religious systems. It is accepted as the dominating force throughout all the ages. Though the inquiry into the nature of karma and its significance takes us back to the Vedas in Indian philosophical tradition it is still a vibrating problem in philosophy. It has not only academic value but a clear understanding of karma has a perennial impact on life and existence even today. The Bhagavad Gita is the most beloved scripture of Indian thought and one of the prime chapters of this scripture is the 'law of karma'. According to it every man profits what he does and suffers what he does. Good deeds must bear the fruits of happiness and good fortune whereas evil deeds must bear the fruits of sorrow, misery, and ill-fortune. Good and evil thoughts, feelings, and actions have their corresponding results but the action is the greater part of life. The Gita said that the nature of karma was natural, inherent in man's existence and everybody has to work. As work is inevitable in one's life, one should work without seeking the result and the work without attachment to fruit will lead him to the highest attainment of God's consciousness. So, no one can remain unoccupied even for a moment. Bal Gangadhar Tilak is a great exponent of the philosophy of karma in Contemporary Indian thought. The most religious percept of Bhagavad Gita was a characteristic feature of Tilak's teaching. Tilak holds that the role of the philosophy of karma, as expounded in the Gita is pivotal in Indian thought through the ages. Tilak gives a new interpretation of the law of karma. He defined the philosophy of karma in terms of karma-yoga and it is well described by Tilak in his work entitled "Gita –Rahashya" or the "Karma-yoga-sastra". Hence an attempt is made here to discuss the law of karma as considered by the "Bhagavad Gita" and the "Gita-Rahashya".