Keywords : ASCUS – Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance
STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF ONE THOUSAND CERVICAL PAP SMEARS; EXPERIENCE OF A RURAL TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN EASTERN U.P.
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 452-458
Introduction: Cancer is the leading causes of adult deaths worldwide. However there is a marked difference in the distribution of cancer sites across different regions of the world. In contrast to developed countries cervical cancer is a public health problem in developing countries like India. Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women with an estimation of 6.6 percent of all female cancers and representing 3.2 percent of all cancer deaths in women . In India cancer cervix constitutes 14 percent of cancer incidence among women. The standardized death rate is about 6.5 per 100,000 population . Infection with HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) is the primary cause of cancer of cervix and its precursor lesions . Specific high risk HPV types account for about 90% of high grade intraepithelial lesions and cancer. The carcinogenic HPV strains are HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 . HPV – 16 is the most common HPV found in invasive cancer and in CIN2 & CIN3 . HPV—18 is more specific for invasive tumors . HPV infection usually resolves in 9-15 months in a vast majority of cases . A small minority of women exposed to HPV develop persistent infection and many progress to CIN and frank invasive carcinoma later over 15-20 years . This long latent period provides us the opportunity to prevent the disease and to screen and treat the disease in its pre-malignant phase only.