Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Lipoproteins

Assessment of Cardiac Biochemical Markers Cystatin C and Lipoprotein(a) and their Relationship with Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Indian Population

Dr. Sunita Aghade1, Dr. Sarika Argade2, Dr. Bhakti Chandekar3, Dr. Jayshree Bavikar4 .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 292-306

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a worldwide public health challenge, is one of the predominant health emergencies of this century. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with raised morbidity and mortality in diabetes, contributing to substantial share of community expenditure on health. The interrelation linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease is significant and has incited screening policies to facilitate early recognition of high-risk diabetic population who would benefit from aggressive preventive strategies. Cardiac biomarkers like Cystatin C and Lipoprotein (a) might hold the potential to improve cardiovascular risk prediction in diabetes mellitus.

Comparative Evaluation And Correlation Of Various Clinical Parameters In Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With Or Without Hemodialysis: An Original Research Study

Dr. Himadri Shankar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1867-1872

Background & Aim: Most of the early kidney diseases do not represent any clinical symptoms therefore left undetected. Chronic kidney disease is characteristically identified by usual testing of blood serum. Advanced cases of chronic kidney disease also manifest with some peculiar symptoms fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, metallic taste, inadvertent weight loss. This study was conducted to compare and correlate various clinical parameters in chronic kidney disease patients with or without hemodialysis.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a year time on 80 chronic kidney disease patients. 45 male and 35 female patients in the age range of 30 to 50 years were studied in detail. Parameters and factors associated to chronic kidney disease were considered; Serum Cholesterol, Triglycerides, High Density Lipoproteins, Low Density Lipoproteins, Albumin (urine), Creatinine. Albumin is a type of proteins seen in blood normally. Group 1 patients consisted of 40 patients who underwent hemodialysis procedure. Group 2 patients consisted of 40 patients those have not undergone hemodialysis procedure. All data was forwarded for statistical analysis for further investigation and interpretations. P value less than 0.05 was taken as significant.
Statistical Analysis & Results: Statistical analysis was done by using software statistical package for the Social Sciences In group 1, mean Serum Cholesterol level was 179.41 (mg/dl) while mean Triglycerides level was 133.26 (mg/dl). P value was highly significant (0.01) for Serum Cholesterol level. In group 2, the mean Serum Cholesterol level was 201.41 (mg/dl) while mean Triglycerides level was 165.36 (mg/dl). P value was highly significant (0.02) for Serum Cholesterol level. Mean Albumin and mean Creatinine was 29.22 and 1.44 respectively. One-way ANOVA analysis of both study groups revealed highly significant p value.
Conclusion: Authors concluded that chronic kidney disease patients without hemodialysis exhibit deleterious discrepancies of tested lipid parameters (Dyslipidemia). Nevertheless, Albumin and Creatinine levels are also increased in chronic kidney disease patients (without hemodialysis). Accordingly chronic kidney disease patients without hemodialysis are at higher risk of possibility of blocked arteries and other related dilemmas.

Study of lipoproteins in type 1 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Vanja Swarna Latha, Dr. Maraju Sireesha, Dr. Jonnadula Mohana Lakshmi, Dr. Veeranki Indira

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3730-3736

Aim and Objectives: Type I Diabetes mellitus previously classified as juvenile diabetes is supposed to cause derangements in lipid metabolism, consequent on impaired glucose metabolism just like type II diabetes mellitus. If these patients are early diagnosed and properly treated, with good control of diabetes, degenerative changes may be postponed or stopped (or) onset may not occur. Aim is to Study lipoprotein patterns and disturbances in lipid metabolism in cases of type I diabetes mellitus, who are on regular treatment with Insulin.
Materials and Methods: Glucose tolerance test and lipid profile in IDDM patients is done and compared with same biochemical parameters with the healthy non diabetic controls. Cases are being selected from the medical wards of Govt., General Hospital, and Guntur. Cases of about 35 diabetics (IDDM) of both sexes, of various age groups from 6 to 40 years, without clinically manifested complications were investigated. At the same time about 35 controls of nondiabetic healthy persons without hyperglycemia and glycosuria were investigated for comparison with the cases.
Results: The mean HDL cholesterol level for IDDM patients is 37.514 mg % (S.D = + 6.213). In case of normals, the HDL-C is 43.57 mg% (S.D = +6.31) P value is 0.01. So there is significant decrease in HDLC in IDDMpatients compared with normals. The mean VLDL-C level for IDDM patients is 46.25 mg% (S.D= + 9.419) and the mean VLDLC concentration in case of normals is 29.71mg% (S.D± 10.53) P value is 0.01. So VLDL-C is increased in IDDMpatients compared with normals.The mean LDL-C concentration for IDDM patients is 141.971ng% (S.D+51.64) and the mean LDL-C concentration in case of normal94.51 mg% (S.D± 21.88) P value is .01. So there is increasedconcentration of LDL-C in IDDM patients compared with normals. The LDL-C and HDL-C ratio is more in case of IDDM patents compared with normals.
Discussion: The history of the patients is studied. None of them are smokers (or) Alcholics (or) with abnormal food habits leading to obesity. So the basis of the study of lipoproteins is purely is in relation to type I Diabetes mellitus. None of the patients showed any signs and symptoms of cardiac insufficiency (or) cardiomyopathy symptoms. The lipoprotein pattern studied in these patients have shown significant rise of LDL-C in almost all the patients. Mild rise of Triglycerides is seen in all the patients with the mean of 242.628 mg %. The patients studied are on treatment with insulin for more than one year and are with adequate control. Inspite of their treatment of diabetes with insulin therapy, the observation is that, there is increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels. This indicates that Acetyl COA and FFA are shunted towards fat synthesis. HDL fraction is seen in all the patients studied by lipoprotein pattern. The mean value of HDL obtained is 37.5 mg% for normal controls LDL, HDL and VLDL are lower range than Type I diabetes patients.
Conclusion: This study shows that if the patients with diabetes are on regular treatment with insulin and maintaining the normal blood sugar levels, the complications are postponed and less likely to appear. Those whose GTT is increased showing increased or abnormal blood sugar levels have altered or increased lipoprotein levels. This increased lipoproteins may lead to cardiovascular complications in future which life are threatening