Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Specificity


STUDIES ON PAROTID GLAND NEOPLASMAS USING FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY

Dr G Prathima, Dr N. Sailarekha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2825-2838

The most common target organs where fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is performed are salivary glands because of their superficial location and easy accessibility introduced into a mass, cellular material is aspirated, and a cytological diagnosis is rendered as It separates reactive and inflammatory processes that do not require surgical intervention from neoplasia and benign from malignant tumors.
OBJECTIVES:
To study the cytomorphological features in lesions of salivary glands. To correlate the cytological features with histopathological features wherever possible. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration cytology of lesions in the salivary glands.
METHODOLOGY:
A total of 120 patients with salivary gland diseases were included in the study. This is a retrospective cohort study, undertaken in the Department of Pathology, Fathima Institute of Medical sciences, Kadapa during the period of Jan 2016 to Feb 2020. The sensitivity, specificity and overall diagnostic accuracy was calculated using Galen and Gambino method.
RESULTS:
Our study included 120 patients with salivary gland diseases. Age group of patients with salivary gland diseases ranged from 10 years to 88 years with the mean age of 44.62 years. Majority of the patients belonged to the age group of 31-40 years (35%). Male to Female ratio was 1.25: 1. Among the 120 patients, most common non neoplastic 67.52%, benign 71.79% and malignant 28.20% lesions.
CONCLUSION:
FNAC of salivary gland is a reliable and sensitive diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for management but also can prevent unnecessary surgeries.

STUDIES ON PAROTIDGL AND NEOPLASMAS USING FINE NEED LEASPIRATIONCYTOLOGY

Dr G Prathima, Dr N.Sailarekha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 952-964

BACKGROUND:
The most common target organs where fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is performed are salivaryglands because of their superficial location and easy accessibility introduced into a mass, cellular materialisaspirated,andacytologicaldiagnosisisrenderedasItseparatesreactiveandinflammatoryprocessesthatdonotrequiresurgicalinterventionfromneoplasiaandbenignfrommalignanttumors.
 
OBJECTIVES:
To study the cytomorphological features in lesions of salivary glands. To correlate the cytologicalfeatures with histopathological features wherever possible. To evaluate the diagnostic utility offine needleaspirationcytologyoflesionsinthesalivaryglands.
METHODOLOGY:
Atotalof120patientswithsalivaryglanddiseaseswereincludedinthestudy.Thisisaretrospective cohortstudy,undertakenintheDepartmentofPathology,FathimaInstitute of Medical sciences, Kadapa during the period of Jan 2016 to Feb 2020.Thesensitivity, specificityandoveralldiagnosticaccuracywascalculatedusingGalenandGambinomethod.
RESULTS:
Our study included 120 patients with salivary gland diseases. Age group of patients with salivary glanddiseases ranged from 10 years to 88 years with the mean age of 44.62 years. Majority of the patientsbelongedtotheagegroupof31-40years(35%).MaletoFemaleratiowas1.25:1.Amongthe120patients,mostcommonnonneoplastic67.52%,benign71.79%andmalignant28.20%lesions.
CONCLUSION:
FNACofsalivaryglandisareliableandsensitivediagnosticmethodfordiagnosisofsalivaryglandlesions.Itnotonlyprovidespreoperativediagnosisformanagementbutalsocanpreventunnecessarysurgeries

Evaluation of Ohmann Score in the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis in Patients Admitted in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Nandula Sai Bharath, M. Anurag, Lavudya Srinivas, Ganesh Banothu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4729-4737

Background:To Diagnose Acute Appendicitis based on Ohmann score and correlating it
with postoperative histopathological report.
Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken in 80 patients with a provisional
diagnosis of acute appendicitis getting operated over a period of 18. months.Ohmann
score was applied in the preliminary diagnosis, which was confirmed by intra operative
and histopathological findings.
Results: Fifty-eight patients were males and 22 were females. There was no statistical
significance in the male to female ratio. The highest incidence was found in the age
group of 21-30 and the lowest was seen in the age group of >40. Ohmann score of 13.5
was found in 11 patients and score of 14 was also seen in 11 patients .1.5 was least
ohmann score seen who had a normal appendix on histopathology. As ohmann score
was categorised into 3 categories,3 patients had Ohmann score of less than 6 out of
which 2 had a normal appendix on histopathology and the other patient had
appendicitis on histopathology. Depending on the cut-off value taken, sensitivity ranges
from 100% to 4.54%, specificity ranges from 14.28% to 100%, positive predictive value
ranges from 84.61% to 100% and negative predictive value ranges from 100% to
18.18%.
Conclusion: Ohmann scoring system significantly reduces the number of negative
laparotomies without increasing overall rate of appendicular perforation. It can work
effectively in routine practice as an adjunct to surgical decision making in questionable
acute appendicitis. It is simple to use and easy to apply since it relies only on history,
clinical examination and basic lab investigations.

TO COMPARE THE SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF THE TRADITIONAL TRIPLE ASSESSMENT OF SYMPTOMATIC BREAST LESIONS WITH CONTRAST-ENHANCED DYNAMIC MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Dr. Manoj Srivastava, Dr. Nishee Srivastava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2613-2616

Background & Method: The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the traditional triple assessment of symptomatic breast lesions with contrast-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. patients with palpable breast lesions were recruited from the symptomatic breast clinics. All underwent clinical examination by consultant breast surgeons, FNAC was performed according to our standard protocol for symptomatic patients, which does not include image guidance.
 
Result: MRI proved to most sensitive and specific modality. Triple assessment MRI and FNAC all have specificity of 100%. MRI proved to be most sensitive modality with 96 % sensitivity, (physical examination 91%, USG 91%, FNAC 84% and Triple assessment 84 %.)
 
Conclusion: With the aim of improving the accuracy of triple assessment, MRI can provide valuable information and with improvements in technology can further enhance specificity. Contrast-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of the breast is as sensitive and more specific than the combined traditional triple assessment for the diagnosis of malignant breast lesions.

DMIST Scale for Predicting Healing Time within 12 Weeks in Patients with Diabetic Ulcer

Suriadi, RN, Ph.D, AWCS; Wida Kuswida Bhakti, RN, Ph.D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2285-2293

Background: An assessment scale, namely, the DMIST (deep, moisture, infection/inflammation, size, tissue type of wound bed, type of wound edge and tunnelling/undermining), was designed to identify the healing time of chronic ulcers. An evaluation was then conducted to test the predictive validity of DMIST. This study aimed to evaluate whether the total scores from the DMIST scale could predict healing time of diabetic ulcer.
Method: A prospective study cohort was obtained from the Kitamura Wound Clinic in Pontianak, Indonesia. A total of 33 patients with diabetic ulcer were recruited to participate in the study. Collected data included DMIST score, demographic information, Wagner wound classification, neuropathic status, ankle brachial index, HbA1c level and wound images. Using the DMIST scale, trained data collectors scored patients every 7 days until ulcers were healed or patients were discharged.
Results: A cutoff score of 9 was valid as a predictor of non-healing after 12 weeks. The DMIST scale was found to have high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (96%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.856 to 1.000).
Conclusion: The DMIST scale was found to be a valid assessment scale to identify wound healing time in a period of 12 weeks in patients with diabetic ulcer.

INFLUENCE OF VAHDAT UL-WOOJUDE PHILOSOPHY (UNITY OF BEING) ON NAKSHBANDIYA DOCTRINES Transformation processes and special features

Jafar Kholmuminov; Juraev Narzulla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 297-307

The philosophy of Sufism reached the highest level due to the theosophical doctrine of the great philosopher, theologian, poet, one of the great representatives of the philosophy of Sufism, known as “Sheikh ul-Akbar” - “The Greatest Sheikh” Mukhyiddin ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240) inspired by the views of Haq im at-Termizi. The theories of Ibn al-Arabi about “Vahdat Ul-Woojude” (Unity of Being) and Inson al-Kamil - the Perfect man embraced the entire Muslim East and positively influenced the views of Western philosophers. Also, in the history of Sufism, the doctrines of the Tariqata Khojagon, which was founded by Khoja Yusuf Hamadani and Khoja Abduholik Gijduvani (1103-1218), then perfected by Khoja Bakhouddin Naqshband (1318-1389) and named Nakshbandiya and spiritually unified the regions of Mavanranakhr , was not left without the influence of the philosophy of “Wahdat ul-wujud” (Unity of Being) Ibn al-Arabi. Representatives of the Naqshbandi doctrines such as: Khoja Muhammad Porso Bukhoriy, Khoja Ubaidullo Ahror Vali, Mavlyana Abdurahman Jami, Alisher Navai, Khoja Mahdum Azam and Ahmad Sirhindi also made a significant contribution to the development of the ideas of “Vahdat Ul-Woojude” (Unity of Being) .

Non-invasive techniques for detection of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) - Detect early to treat early

S Swathi; Swetha P; Ravikanth Manyam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1206-1214

Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), the group of conditions with the risk of malignancy being present in a lesion or condition either at the time of early diagnosis or future date. Oral carcinoma is a major global, health care issue with high morbidity and mortality rates to date. Leukoplakia, Erythroplakia, Palatal lesion associated with reverse smoking, Oral Lichen Planus, Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis, Actinic Keratosis, Discoid Lupus Erythematosus are other OPMDs. The aetiology varies from exogenous factors such as tobacco and various autoimmune disorders or inherited genetic aberrations. Early detection of the lesion is essential to prevent malignant transformation, and also to improve the chances of the patient’s survival. Though tissue biopsy and histological assessment is the gold standard diagnosis for OPMDs, in recent years, demand for non – invasive adjunctive diagnostic techniques are increasing for early detection. With this in view, the early diagnostic methods were divided into 3 main categories such as vital Staining, light-based detection systems, and optical diagnostic technologies. Among the recent developments in optical imaging systems, the tissue autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography have been proved to be considerably efficient. These techniques have proven valuable for screening and monitoring OPMDs. Awareness should be created in public in employing screening methods that are non-invasive, robust and economic thereby it would enhance early detection of oral cancer which gives a positive impact on patient’s survival. This review explains the sensitivity, specificity and limitations as well as their advantages, disadvantages and clinical applications of these techniques and to identify which one is better advisable and adaptable for all population groups

SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY [FNAC] IN A THYROID SWELLING

H.V. Nerlekar; A. M. Shah; C.Z. Perdeshi; Amol D. Langale; Umesh B. Choughele

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4156-4161

The current study was observational study undertaken to study sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in a thyroid swelling. It was observed that majority of patients with goiter were in age group 31-40 years. The majority of patients with goiter were females 50 (89.29%) as compared to males 14 (73.68%). The carcinomas were also more prevalent in females as compared to males. The results of thyroid cytology must be assessed in conjunction with the clinical findings and other investigations like TFT and USG findings, in view of the possibility of false negative or false positive cytological diagnosis. The viability and applicability of cell pattern analysis in applying pattern analysis to the understanding of thyroid cytology is also seen in this study.

Velscope- A Recent Examination Tool In Dentistry.

Neha .; Dr. Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2475-2483

Oral cancer is a global health disease that has a major impact on an individual''s health, psychology and lifestyle. It is the 6th most common cancer in the world and has a high prevalence worldwide, and is found more in men than women. It is attributed to a myriad of causes which especially include tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing betel quid. Survival rates of oral cancer are very poor despite advances in therapeutic interventions. Detecting oral cancer at an early stage is believed to be the most effective means of reducing death rates. Thus arises the need for an important diagnostic tool which is able to detect pre-malignant and malignant lesions at an early stage. Treatment helps only for about 5 years after which recurrences are seen. The only way to reduce recurrences is early diagnosis. VELscope, also known as Visually-Enhanced Lesion scope, serves this purpose. It is an important diagnostic tool that uses an auto- fluorescence based imaging system to detect lesions and allows enhanced visibility of the premalignant and malignant lesions. It emits a harmless, non-invasive blue coloured LED fibre optic light that shines in the patient’s mouth. The fluorescent light is absorbed by normal tissues whereas neoplastic lesions lose fluorescence and become dark. This helps in quick and non-invasive diagnosis.

VELSCOPE- A RECENT EXAMINATION TOOL IN DENTISTRY

Neha .; Dr. Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 359-366

Oral cancer is a global health disease that has a major impact on an individual's health, psychology and
lifestyle. It is the 6th most common cancer in the world and has a high prevalence worldwide, and is found
more in men than women. It is attributed to a myriad of causes which especially include tobacco smoking,
alcohol consumption and chewing betel quid. Survival rates of oral cancer are very poor despite advances
in therapeutic interventions. Detecting oral cancer at an early stage is believed to be the most effective
means of reducing death rates. Thus arises the need for an important diagnostic tool which is able to detect
pre-malignant and malignant lesions at an early stage. Treatment helps only for about 5 years after which
recurrences are seen. The only way to reduce recurrences is early diagnosis. VELscope, also known as
Visually-Enhanced Lesion scope, serves this purpose. It is an important diagnostic tool that uses an autofluorescence
based imaging system to detect lesions and allows enhanced visibility of the premalignant
and malignant lesions. It emits a harmless, non-invasive blue coloured LED fibre optic light that shines in
the patient’s mouth. The fluorescent light is absorbed by normal tissues whereas neoplastic lesions lose
fluorescence and become dark. This helps in quick and non-invasive diagnosis