Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : BCVA

Visual outcome of congenital and developmental cataract surgery in North India

Vijay Krishnan B,Jaya Devendra, Deendayal Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3294-3300

The opacification of the lens, known as a cataract, is one of the major causes of blindness in children. For the improvement of management strategies, epidemiological data are required. Therefore, this study was carried out to account for the visual prognosis of congenital and developmental cataract surgery.
Materials and methods: This study was conducted in the department of ophthalmology at a tertiary care hospital. Ethical approval was taken from the institutional ethical committee. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient or parent, and detailed history was also taken and recorded. Pre-operative examinations like ophthalmic examination, including keratometry, retinoscopy, visual acuity, fundus examination, and relevant investigation were carefully done. The parents were well-pre-informed and discussed the risk, post-operative care, and benefits of surgery. Retinoscopy was used to evaluate refractive status postoperatively and continued for every follow-up.
Similarly, patching was used to treat amblyopia. Patients were given optical adjustments for any remaining refractive problems. If needed, a near glass was prescribed after 6 weeks of surgery.
Results: A total of 117 eyes from 68 patients who had undergone unilateral or bilateral congenital and developmental cataract surgery aged up to 18 years were studied. Among 68 patients, 39 (57.35%) and 29 (42.65%) were males and females. 35 (51.47%) patients were 1-5 years age group followed by 5-10 years 19 (27.94%), 15-18 years 8 (11.77%), and 10-15 years 06 (8.82%). Among 68 patients, 49 (72.06%) suffered from bilateral cataracts, whereas 19 (27.94%) suffered from unilateral cataracts. Significant prognosis between pre and post-BCVA with p<0.01 were observed.
Conclusion: Surgical intervention and parental commitment to provide regular optical correction to guarantee strong compliance with prescribed optical rehabilitation can result in the best visual results. Children's cataract awareness, early diagnosis, surgical treatment, and post-operative care of residual uncorrected refractive error and amblyopia are key factors in preventing childhood cataract blindness. To avoid blindness and visual impairment, child eye health care services are required to diagnose pediatric cataracts as soon as possible