Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : genetics


Narzulaeva Umida Rakhmatulloevna; Maxmatkulova Guzalya Mashrapovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2360-2362

The interest shown by scientists around the world to human heredity is not accidental. Currently, about 2000 hereditary diseases and genetically determined syndromes are known. Their number is constantly growing, dozens of new forms of hereditary pathology are described every year. At the present stage of development of medicine, recognition of various hereditary diseases and genetically determined syndromes is of exceptional importance.The lack of a generally accepted classification of hereditary diseases, their large polymorphism and the large number of phenocopies create difficulties in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of heredial forms of pathology.

Biological resources - COVID-19. Legal support of biological resources for scientific purposes and biological safety

O. Narzullaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 714-724

This article provides suggestions and comments on the development of new legislation based on new definitions, improvement of normative legal acts and their analysis related to the use of biological resources for scientific purposes and ensuring biological safety. It also analyzes the most important issues that contribute to the further development of the theory of environmental law in the field of protection and use of biological resources. On issues related to the use and protection of biological resources, analytical information on the establishment and effective functioning of scientific institutions, their legal status, biological threats and biological safety will be provided. It is argued that biological security is an important branch of national security. Natural ecosystems and their use, ie livestock, irrigated agriculture, forestry, fisheries, recreation, tourism and other sectors of the economy is directly related to biodiversity. Given the role of the environment, international regulation of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their by-products is important. Biosafety alone is a pressing issue in the world. Documentation in this regard allows minimizing potential risks to the environment and human health. Finally, the legal use of biological resources for scientific purposes and the legal provision of biological safety provide a number of environmental legal recommendations related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

DNA based CGB methylation in breast cancer a case control study

Dr. Anjana Vasudevan; Dr. Vasugi. G. A.; Dr. R. Ponniah Iyyappan; Dr. Harpreet Kaur; Dr. Balaji Singh; Dr. Guru Prasad; Dr. C. S. Subramanium; Dr. C. Kaliyappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 55-61

Breast carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Breast cancer also produces and is influenced by ectopic hormones. Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is one such hormone and is encoded by chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes. The aim of this study was to determine the CGB gene methylation in breast cancer tissues and compare them with normal tissues.
Materials and methods: After approval from Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), consent from patients were obtained. Normal and tumour tissues from breast cancer patients were taken. DNA was isolated from normal and tumour tissues. Post bisulfate conversion samples were processed for qPCR using methylation specific primers for the set of selected CGB genes and SYBR green.
Results: 1-2M was found to be significantly higher among the normal tissues (50.22). 3-9M was found to be 65.93 in tumour tissues and 5.05 in normal tissues and this was significant.
Conclusion: 3-9 M is significantly higher in tumour tissues compared to normal tissues and 1-2 M is significantly higher in normal tissues. This suggests that there are 2 different types of beta hCG secreted by two different types of genes and this can be used for further analysis as a part of future projects. This may help in formulating a new treatment process and may also be used as a tumour marker in high risk patients


Seerab Husain; Ashwin Mathew George; Sri Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 397-411

The aim of this study was to evaluate and review articles and researches done on the polymorphism of PAX9 and MSX1 genes in congenitally missing lateral incisors.
Materials and methods:
A thorough search of the electronic database through Cochrane library, PubMed central, LILACS and BMC and manual hand searching of orthodontic journals was done till March 2020. The keywords included in the search were: “Genetics”, “lateral incisors”, “agenesis”, “PAX9”, “MSX1”. The studies were selected as per the PRISMA guidelines. Articles were shortlisted based on the exclusion and inclusion criterias. Of all the obtained results, 12 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria and they were analysed for the role of polymorphism of PAX9 and MSX1 genes in the congenitally missing lateral incisors.
Results of this systematic study show an association of PAX9, EDA and WNT10A gene pleomorphism with congenitally missing lateral incisors. MSX1 gene however is not shown to have an association with lateral incisor agenesis.
This systematic review has provided a clear view on the role of the pleomorphism of different genes on the agenesis of lateral incisors, which will help the reader understand the problem better and handle it with better precision. Future studies are required to further conduct more randomised controlled trials, which will provide more concrete evidence to the claims.
Clinical significance:
Maxillary lateral incisors are the third most common congenitally missing teeth in the human dentition, preceded only by the third molars and mandibular second premolars The cause of lateral incisor agenesis is thought to be rooted to a genetic etiology.