Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : middle class


The role of social mobility in shaping "Middle class" in Uzbekistan

Nodir Ahmedov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1148-1159

This article is devoted to the issues of development of main tendencies of social mobility in Uzbekistan, main directions of replenishment of entrepreneurs as well as key aspects of such discipline as sociology of entrepreneurship. The author considers entrepreneurship to be the activity of individuals aimed at the production of material and spiritual goods and services for the systematic generation of profit. At the same time, the importance of diluting the concepts of "business" and "entrepreneurship" has been proven.
The term "middle class", which has actively entered the public consciousness and scientific turnover in the last two decades, still does not have a clear definition and unified methodology of research. The fact is that the middle classes cannot be described by one integral criterion. This is a social totality characterized by a chain of attributes, which include material and non-material resource attributes (level of income, education, business legitimacy, investment preferences, etc.) Nevertheless, today there is already a common understanding of some characteristic features of this social layer.
The "middle class", like any other unit in the social structure of society, is recruited from a variety of backgrounds. Social mobility has played a major role in its replenishment, as the history of the middle class is closely linked to the expansion and acceleration of social mobility flows in modern society. The creation of a mobile and simultaneously stable society was possible only when the middle class became an important element of the social structure.

THE INFLUENCE OF THE INSTITUTION OF RELIGION ON STRATIFICATION PROCESSES (ISLAMIC EXAMPLE)

Bahramjan Farfiyev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 730-738

It is well known from the history of mankind that in the life of every society the issues of social stratification processes acquire fundamental importance. Since ancient times people have been thinking about the reasons of stratification. In ancient Greece encyclopedic scientists in their works tried to scientifically substantiate the phenomenon of inequality as a natural process. With this approach, they justified the pattern of human exploitation. Along with other factors, religion, too, as a social institution, significantly influenced the stratification processes. This tendency is inherent to all world and national religions. And in modern conditions both material and spiritual factors actively influence the processes of social stratification. In this article the influence of the institute of religion on the processes of social stratification is investigated. It is noted that in some doctrines religion is the backbone of closed stratification systems. An example of such stratification is the caste system of India. In Islam all people are considered equal and the privileged position coming from the ancestral dynasty is strictly condemned. In comparison with material wealth, the status of an educated person is considered the most prestigious. In the history of our country, as a result of adaptation of the precepts of Islam to the interests of the ruling classes, there were classes of Ishans, Khojis, Sayyids, etc., which had nothing to do with Islam. Nowadays, these classes have only a symbolic meaning. Therefore, Islam does not affect the stratification processes of contemporary Uzbek society. However, observance by people of the norms of Islamic morality is important in the activities of officials. These findings have been confirmed by empirical research conducted in various regions of the country, among various classes of the population.