Keywords : Anemia of chronic disease
Evaluation of Anemia in Dependent Age Groups of Society (Pediatric and Geriatric population) - A Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 627-636
Anemia is a major public health concern globally and in India despite numerous health programme organized across the country for decades the national prevalence rates of anemia are reaching new heights as is evident from the national family health survey (NFHS 5).
World Health Organization (WHO), defines anemia as having hemoglobin (Hb) levels lower than 12.0 and 13.0 g/dL in females and males, respectively. The “Dependent Population” defined as People, below 15 years of age group and 65 years and above. Thus, in age group below 15 years and above 65 years, it is indeed necessary to identify anemia, stratify the type and its severity and search for etiology accordingly.
Aim: To evaluate etiology, morphological types and grading patters of anemia in pediatrics and geriatric patients.
Material and methods: The present study was two-months hospital based prospective study of all diagnosed cases of anemia to access the etiology, morphological type and associated grading pattern of anemias in pediatric and geriatric age group from September 2022 to October 2022, which included 56 cases.
Result: During a period of 02 months, out of the 56 patients, 20 belonged to the pediatric age group (upto 15 years) and 36 belonged to the geriatric age group (65 years and above) were evaluated for anemia. Male to female ratio, out of 20 pediatric patients, was of 3:1. Majority of our patients (55 %) belonged to age group of 06-10 years. Similarly, out of 36 geriatric patients, 17 patients were female (47.3%) and 19 patients were male (52.7%) with male to female ratio of 1.1:1. Majority of our patients (77.78 %) belonged to age group of 65-75 years. Clinically, majority of pediatric patients presented with nutritional deficiency (30%) and majority of geriatric patients presented with generalized weakness and fatigue (20%). Majority of pediatric age group showed moderate degree of anemia (50%) and in geriatric age group for 36 blood samples were evaluated out of which majority of them showed moderate degree of anemia (47.2%) and severe (47.2%) equally. Morphologically out of 20 blood samples of pediatric age group displayed Microcytic anemia (50 %) with most common etiology being, iron deficiency anemia was observed in 06 cases (30%) with serum ferritin levels below 15 ng/ml and out of 36 geriatric patients’ anemia of chronic disease was observed in 13 cases (36.11%) with most common, etiology being, renal disorder.
Conclusion: Anemia remains a major health concern in both dependent age groups. Early detection of anemia and definite characterization for the underlying etiology should be taken in consideration for the overall improvement in the quality of life in both dependent age groups.