Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Peroxidase


EVALUATION OF A BREEDING MATERIAL FOR RESISTANCE TO VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE USING MARKER PHYTIMMUNITY ENZYMES

DSc. Kurbonov A.Y .; prof.Avtonomov V.A .; prof. Axunov A.A .; DSc.HashimovaN .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1044-1051

In the world's cotton-growing countries, cotton is cultivated on the territory of 89 countries, on a total area of more than 30 million hectares, from which more than 22.4 million tons of cotton fiber are obtained. Today, there are problems in the production of high-quality cotton fiber yield. One of these problems is pathogens that cause significant damage to cotton production, with losses in the world amounting to 12-15%. In the world, considerable attention is paid to the study and control of the pathogen Verticillium dahliae Klebahn, which affects cotton.
The problem of breeding wilt-resistant varieties of cotton is complicated by the search for new methods and donors of resistance to the pathogen. It is necessary to improve the method of selection of parent pairs during hybridization and qualitative assessment of interspecific hybrids at the early stages of the breeding process in order to increase the efficiency of breeding, speed up the process of introducing new varieties of cotton into production.The selection must be carried out on the basis of physiology and biochemistry of signs of resistance of the initial breeding material. The initial stage of selection should be based on test signs of resistance, which are associated with the catalytic activity of some enzymes involved in the formation of phytoimmunity against fungal infections (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase, polyphenol oxidase).The greatest interest of researchers is attracted by protective mechanisms, including the processes of lignification of cell walls and the biosynthesis of phenolic phytoalexins. These mechanisms simultaneously create a mechanical and chemical barrier to the penetration of fungal structures into the cell, preventing the spread of the pathogen.

Evaluation the efficiency of algae and nano-algae extracts and some biological factors in resistance to Fusarium culmorum infection

Sura muhammed Alturaihy; Halima zghair Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6766-6784

The results of using the algae alone and nano-algae extracts and Streptomyces sp. that all treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage and severity of infection in comparison to Fusarium culmorum treatment only, which were (87 and 46%) respectively.
The treatment (ST+F.c) with commercial Streptomyces sp. achieved the highest percentage decrease in the percentage and severity of infection (2, 1%) respectively, which was not significantly different from the treatment (N+SB+ST+F.c); this treatment included nano-algae, local and commercial bacteria compared to the fungi treatment alone, where the percentage and severity of infection for the fungus treatment only was (87%) and (46%) respectively. The study revealed that nano-algae (N) treatments also reduced the percentage and severity of infection with F.c.
Furthermore, the results indicated a significant differences in the biochemical indicators to stimulate induce systemic resistance (ISR) in the wheat, and also the plant's nutrient content. The efficiency of the studied treatments proved their effect on the peroxidase enzyme activity, as the treatment (N+A+ SB +ST +F.c) was with high efficacy to elevate the enzyme activity; the enzyme activity was reached (0.74), followed by (A+SB+ST+ F.c) treatment with (0.69). However, each treatment alone achieved an elevation in the activity of peroxidase enzyme.
All the studied treatments caused a significant increase in the content of phenols and proteins in the wheat plant compared to Fusarium culmorum treatment; however the treatments were differed in the content of phenols and proteins after 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment.
All treatments significantly increased the chlorophyll content in the wheat after 30 days of fungus treatment in comparison to the treatment of pathogenic fungus alone; where the combination treatment (N+A+SB +ST) achieved the highest percentage of chlorophyll content at (18.1), followed by (N+A+SB+ST+Fc) at (16.4) and algae alone (A) at (14.3) which did not differ significantly from nano-algea treatment (N) (13.2).