Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Resistance

Drug Resistant Tuberculosis – Clinical profile and Resistance pattern in tertiary care teaching hospital.

Dr Chandrashekar, Dr Arun M, Dr Basavaraj Machnur, Dr Rohit Dixit

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 548-554

Background: This drug resistant TB is a growing concern around the world. It accounts for huge financial and public health burden. Though drug resistant TB is not new to India but proper surveillance and treatment remains the mainstay in tackling this global problem. The primary objective was to study the clinical profile and drug resistance pattern of TB patients. The Secondary objective was to effectively diagnose and treat the DR TB.
Methodology: It was a cross sectional observational study conducted at department of General medicine at Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Raichur. All the patients of Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) who attended RIMS were included in the study. All the patients with drug resistance pattern were included in the study after taking their consent. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Ver 21.
Results: A total of 552 TB cases were screened for drug resistance. Out of them 39 were found to drug resistant TB. The mean age of presentation in males was 39.92 years and in females it was 36.08 years. Patients who completed higher education and who were employed were more in number compared to others. All the classical symptoms of TB like cough with expectoration, fever, shortness of breath was seen in these patients. Among the 39 DR TB patients, 30 patients had previously suffered from TB. Out of these 30 patients, 18 (60%) were defaulters, 7 (23%) were irregular and 4 (14%) were treatment failure. Thirty two (82.05%) patient showed resistance to either Rifampicin or INH and remaining 7 (17.95%) patients showed resistance to both rifampicin and INH.
Conclusion: Drug resistance was predominantly mono resistance to either rifampicin or INH but MDR TB were also seen. Patients were educated regarding treatment compliance


Abhishek Pathak, Ajay Pillai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 218-225

Aim: To evaluate the antibiotic knowledge, practise, and attitudes among Indian dentistry practitioners.
Material and methods: Dental professionals were the subjects of a descriptive cross-sectional research. The dentists were included in the sample because it was convenient for them to do so. Google forms were used to distribute the surveys to the participants, while those who couldn't be reached online were given paper copies of the survey. All forms were included in the research exclusively from dental professionals in India who gave their informed permission. Participants were guaranteed complete anonymity and data confidentiality.
Results:  A total of 100 dental practitioners participated in the research and completed the questionnaire, including 74 (74%) females and 26 (26%) men. Their average age was 27.58±3.69 years. More over half of the 52 participants (52%) said antibiotics helped them recover from colds and coughs. About 55 (55%) of participants believed that newer and more expensive antibiotics had no influence on effectiveness. Antibiotic resistance was known to around 91 percent of the population. Approximately 72 (72%) of participants disagreed that antibiotics were a safe treatment, while 75 (75%) disagreed that antibiotics were the first drug of choice in cough and sore throat. Antibiotic resistance was identified as an issue in India by the vast majority of participants (86%). Approximately 68 (68%) were opposed to maintaining antibiotic stockpiles at home. 55 (55%) of the 100 dentists polled prescribed antibiotics based on symptoms. Most dental practitioners administered antibiotics for intra and extraoral sinus drainage, severe facial edoema, dental trauma, pericoronitis, open extraction, and periapical abscess. Amoxicillin was the most popular medicine (69%) followed by Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (25%) Almost every dentist has likely replied favourably to the request for a medical history.
Conclusion: Although dentists in the current research were found to have understanding of antibiotic prescription, it was found that there is an undeniable gap in training and perspective of dentists with respect to antibiotic recommendations. Therefore, dentists will need to improve their use of antibiotics by updating their procedures over time.

Antibiotic Resistance Among Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli

Dr. Aarti Akhand, Dr. Ramanath Karicheri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4914-4919

Background & Method: The study is conducted with an aim to study Antibiotic resistance among Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, targeted both male and female outpatients and inpatients presenting with symptoms and signs of UTI which include dysuria, polyuria, fever, nausea, and flank pain were sampled for this study. This study is done with an aim to study Antibiotic resistance among Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli. Baseline demographic data including age, sex, level of education and risk factors such as catheterization, history of UTI, also out and in patients were also collected.
Result: Among the total 120 isolates, resistant to ≥2 drugs were recorded in 108 (90 %) of all uropathogens. Seventy seven (93.9 %) isolates of Gram-negative bacteria and 31(81.6 %) of Gram positive bacteria showed resistance to two or more drugs (Table 4). Resistance pattern of bacterial isolates to more than two antibiotics of patients (N = 120)
Conclusion: There is a need for continuous surveillance of antibiotic to the currently used antibiotics in management of urinary tract infections covering the entire Index Hospital . Index Hospital to enforce policies formulated by pharmacy and poison board to prevent misuse or underuse of antibiotics by giving prescription to only patients with results of culture and sensitivity and therefore treatment UTIs should be based on and sensitivity in order to limit multidrug resistance. Continuous follow up to provide an update of laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infections in order to reduce multidrug resistance bacteria in UTI patients. Health care workers should enforce health education to patients in order to adhere to the treatment and thereby reducing drug resistance. v) Screening for resistance and identify modes of transmission.

Polymorphisms in Rv3806c (ubiA) and the upstream region of embA in connection to ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium TB clinical isolates from East India

Binod Kumar Choudhary, Surendra Prasad Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5618-5624

Mutations in embB306 are the most common polymorphisms linked with ethambutol
(EMB) resistance, accounting for 40-60% of EMB resistant tuberculosis clinical cases
(TB). The current investigation looked for further mutations linked with EMB
resistance in the embB, embC, embA, and Rv3806c (ubiA) genes in 29 EMB resistant
and 29 EMB susceptible clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from 360 TB patients.DNA
sequencing was used to screen for polymorphisms in the entire ubiA gene, mutational
hotspot regions of embB, embC, and the upstream region of embA, and the results were
correlated with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of EMB. The most common
polymorphism in ubiA was at codon 149 (GAA to GAC), which was found in 5/29
(17.2%) resistant isolates and 7/29 (24%) susceptible isolates. Mutations in embB were
most common at codon 306 (ATG to ATC/GTG), and were found only in EMB resistant
isolates (20/29; 69%).Mutations in the upstream region of embA at -8, -11, -12, and -60
codons were also found in EMB resistant organisms (8/29; 27.5 percent), with 6/8 (75
percent) occurring in isolates with an EMB MIC of 16 g/ml. Although no
polymorphisms in ubiA were found to be related with EMB resistance, polymorphisms
upstream of embA may contribute to high levels of EMB resistance.

A Study of diabetic foot ulcer with multidrug-resistant organism infection

Dr. Kavitha H

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 2445-2448

Due to the increased resistance rate of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa among
gram-negative bacteria, the risk factors of drug-resistant negative bacilli in patients should be
evaluated in the development of initial anti-infective treatment regimen in clinical practice. In
this study, multidrug-resistant bacteria accounted from the strains obtained by wound
cultures, which may be related to the patients with serious illness admitted to our hospital as a
tertiary care hospital and the more complex history of antibacterial drug use. This study puts
in a sincere effort to find the risk of diabetic foot ulcer with multidrug-resistant organism


DSc. Kurbonov A.Y .; prof.Avtonomov V.A .; prof. Axunov A.A .; DSc.HashimovaN .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1044-1051

In the world's cotton-growing countries, cotton is cultivated on the territory of 89 countries, on a total area of more than 30 million hectares, from which more than 22.4 million tons of cotton fiber are obtained. Today, there are problems in the production of high-quality cotton fiber yield. One of these problems is pathogens that cause significant damage to cotton production, with losses in the world amounting to 12-15%. In the world, considerable attention is paid to the study and control of the pathogen Verticillium dahliae Klebahn, which affects cotton.
The problem of breeding wilt-resistant varieties of cotton is complicated by the search for new methods and donors of resistance to the pathogen. It is necessary to improve the method of selection of parent pairs during hybridization and qualitative assessment of interspecific hybrids at the early stages of the breeding process in order to increase the efficiency of breeding, speed up the process of introducing new varieties of cotton into production.The selection must be carried out on the basis of physiology and biochemistry of signs of resistance of the initial breeding material. The initial stage of selection should be based on test signs of resistance, which are associated with the catalytic activity of some enzymes involved in the formation of phytoimmunity against fungal infections (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase, polyphenol oxidase).The greatest interest of researchers is attracted by protective mechanisms, including the processes of lignification of cell walls and the biosynthesis of phenolic phytoalexins. These mechanisms simultaneously create a mechanical and chemical barrier to the penetration of fungal structures into the cell, preventing the spread of the pathogen.


Dr. Vijay B S Gaur; Dr. Bindu Singh Gaur; Dr. Nazeem I. Siddiqui

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 1162-1169

Body Mass Index (BMI) has been viewed as a highest quality level for characterizing overweight and weight. BMI is a pointer of as a rule adiposity while Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) are markers for stomach adiposity. The members were age-, sex and weight-facilitated preceding being discretionarily consigned into 3 social occasions, with 18 members for each get-together. The lively strolling pack was expected to energetic walk multiple times every week at a force of 60-70% of their specific age-foreseen most outrageous heartbeat for around two months. 50 subjects mean (FSD) age 45.7 F 9.4 years were randomly apportioned to it is conceivable that one lively walk. Results showed that there was more essential improvement in cardio-respiratory preparation for lively strolling and opposition planning get-togethers (p<0.01) at present mediation took a gander at on pre-intercession regard. There were also critical enhancements in level of muscle versus fat, weight record (BMI), abdomen hip proportion (WHR), and free fat mass in the energetic strolling gathering. Moreover, members in the obstruction getting ready pack had critical improvement in BMI, WHR. Hence, it is assumed that both energetic strolling and opposition getting ready for around two months were proper exercise modalities to decrease a part of the cardiovascular danger factors among overweight and stout people.


Khaldarbekova G. Z.; Muhamedov I. M.; Tarinova M. V.; Shigakova L. A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3183-3191

Scientists have been researching for a long time, where they have found evidence of a connection between “Lactobacillus - Caries”. According to the results of some countries, the qualitative and quantitative composition of lactoflora of the oral cavity is already known in the norm and case of diseases caused by disbiotic conditions of the mouth. This article presents the results of the quantitative and qualitative composition of oral lactoflora of women of fertile age, the state of biological properties of each particular representative and their impact on cavities formation, which can explain the microbiological etiology of cavities. Each of the following indicators was statistically processed and compared with the results of foreign countries.

Exploring The Salinity Tolerant Variety Of Rice

Mansoor A. Malik; Mehrajud Din Talie; Tajmul Islam; Juniad A. Magray; Purnima Shrivastava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2371-2382

Soil salinity affects several physiological and biochemical processes in plants. Plant culture of mixed composition and different concentrations of salt treatments were applied for 10 days to detect the response of the salinity tolerant variety of Rice regarding growth, survival, plant height, leaf area, leaf injury, relative growth rate. In vitro superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves are also screened. Most influenced genotype was IR-64 in terms of growth and dry matter and PB-1 for root length. Maximum SOD activity was recorded in PB-1 followed by IR-64. However, HKR-127 the minimum SOD activity was recorded. APX activity showed large variation in rice genotypes following Sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment. APX activity increased significantly in PB-1 over control in dose dependent manner in all the treated samples. The maximum (25.0%) APX activity was observed in PB-1 at T4 treatment over control. Salt treatment remarkably increased the APX activity in IR-64 up to T3 level of NaCl treatment. In HKR-127 genotype at all levels of treatments there was non-significant increase in its activity. Moreover, Catalase activity in PB-1 increased significantly with all the treatments. The difference among treatments was significant at all levels the highest activity (26.3%) was at T4 level of treatment in PB-1 genotype. IR-64 genotype showed increased catalase activity up to T3 level while in HKR-127 increased non-significantly in CAT at all treatments. The data are discussed in regard to implications of salt stress.

Influence Of Different Concentrations Of Dimethylsulfoxide Solution On Antibiotic Sensitivity Of Pathogenic Microorganisms In Experiment (In Vitro)

SafoyevBakhodir Barnoyevich; YarikulovShukhrat Shokirovich; BoltayevTimur Shavkatovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 5194-5198

The fight against surgical infections remains an urgent problem in surgery. The problem of microflora resistance makes it difficult to obtain positive results of purulent-surgical diseases of soft tissues. In the literature, there are few studies devoted to the suppression of the existing microflora resistance to antibiotics.
The aim of the study: There was a laboratory study of the microbiological activity of dimethylsulfoxide, the identification of the optimal concentration of the solution with the maximum bactericidal and suppressive properties of the resistance of pathogenic microflora in vitro.
The results of the experimental in vitro studies have shown that 25% dimethylsulfoxide is the optimal concentration in terms of suppressing microflora resistance.