Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Correlation

Study of Cardiac Abnormalities in HIV Patients and their Correlation with Cd4 Count

Atul Pundlik Ramteke; Vadiga Ramana Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 1946-1959

Background: HIV impacts all body systems. Cardiovascular illness is a prominent non-HIVrelated cause of death in HIV patients. Traditional risk factors, HIV-related inflammation, and antiretroviral medication metabolic effects contribute to cardiovascular disease in HIV patients. HIV infection is a cardiovascular risk factor. Recent investigations show a link between HIV and cardiac events. Methods: 100 HIV-positive patients >12 years old at Government Medical College - Hospital, Suryapet, Telangana, India. All study participants had CD4 counts, ECGs, and echocardiograms. HIV patients were divided into four stages based on their CD4 cell count: >500, 200-500, 50-200, and 50. Results: In advanced HIV illness, cardiovascular problems tend to increase in frequency. To conduct the study, 100 HIV patients (both newly diagnosed and those already on ART) at the ART clinic at Government Medical College -Hospital, Suryapet, Telangana, India were randomly assigned to one of four groups according on their CD4 level and WHO stage. In the study, over half (49%) of participants were between the ages of 21 and 40, and nearly as many (43%) were between the ages of 41 and 50. About 85% of the study population was on ART, and 15% were recent diagnoses. The gender ratio of the participants in the study was quite close to 50-50. The people in the study were subjected to electrocardiograms and echocardiograms. Conclusion: Cardiovascular problems are more frequent and predictable effects of advanced HIV infection. A study was conducted to highlight the various circulatory issues brought on by HIV infection. Higher rates of morbidity and mortality are associated with a number of these anomalies.

Study of correlation between stress and risk factors of hypertension: An original research

Dr. Monica Krishnappa, Dr. Kaila Sidhardha Ambedkar, Dr. Faziljot Singh, Dr. Sachin Yadav, Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari, Dr. Heena Dixit Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2468-2471

Aim: The purpose of the present research was to assess the co-relation between stress and hypertension.
Methodology: In this correlation study 30 individuals were selected. Basic demographic data was collected and were asked to fill up the Perceived stress scale. Blood pressure was measured at the brachial artery three times and average of the three was taken. To study the relation between stress score and BP, correlation was done. As data were not normally distributed, Spearman correlation test was done (P < 0.001).
Results: According to the analysis done, PSS shows moderate correlation with SBP while DBP shows weak correlation with r values 0.47 and 0.202 respectively and p values 0.806 and 0.283 respectively.
Conclusion: Stress is significantly related to hypertension and is an independent risk factor for hypertension.

Correlation of fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathological examination in palpable breast lumps

Dr. Dastayya, Dr. Shekappa CM, Dr. Somashekar Samangandi, Dr. Shabbeer Pasha, Dr. Y Gurubasavana Gouda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2120-2127

A palpable breast lump is defined as a dominant mass if it is 3-dimensional, distinct from surrounding tissues and asymmetrical relative to the other Breast. A method of definitive diagnosis of patients who present with palpable breast lump at the outpatient department is needed. It must be accurate, easy to perform affordable and acceptable to the patient. This study was conducted to correlation of the diagnostic accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in differentiating the benign and malignant lesions of palpable breast lump with histopathological correlation.
A Prospective descriptive study done in 50 patients presenting with palpable lump in the Breast to Surgery department, history taken, clinically examined and sent to Central Diagnostic Lab, cytopathology section for FNAC. Patient underwent Surgical procedure after correlating with clinical examination and radiological investigations. Post-operative specimen sent for Histopathological examination. Cytological diagnosis was compared with Histopathology. Specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and predictive values were calculated using standard formulas. Diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 94% and overall sensitivity of FNAC in diagnosing the palpable breast lump was 94%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive of 100% and negative predictive value of 93%. Study concludes that the diagnostic efficacy, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were comparable to Histopathological examination. Hence FNAC becomes a very important diagnostic tool in palpable breast lumps as it shows a high degree of correlation with the final histopathology report.

Cytomorphological and histopathological correlation with imaging findings in breast lumps: A retrospective study from a tertiary cancer centre

Sasmita Panda, Mamita Nayak, Sagarika Samantaray

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2097-2103

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the Indian women accounting for 27.7% of all the female cancers in india. Breast lumps are common which require appropriate workup consisting of clinical examination, imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology. Imaging and cytopathology are crucial in categorising these lesions into benign and malignant. There is a requisite to determine the concordance of these these findings and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy. The objectives is to find  the correlation  of cytopathological diagnosis with imaging findings for provisional diagnosis of breast lumps and to evaluate the utilisation  of fine needle aspiration as a cheap, safe method for preoperative assessment of breast lumps.
Materials and methods: All Fine needle aspiration (FNAC) of breast lumps were included in the study from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020.Their imaging findings were retrieved from the records. Only those with imaging findings were included in this study.
Results: 275 patients came for FNAC for breast lesions, out of these breast Ultrasound/ Mammography findings were available in 255 cases which were included in our study. Cytohistological correlation was obtained in 243 cases. In this sudy the sensitivity-90.3%, specificity=87.41%,positive predictive value (PPV) was 83.18%,negative predictive value (NPV) was 92.9%, with diagnostic accuracy of 88.6% for imaging findings in diagnosis of breast lesions(in comparison with histopathology considered to be gold standard for diagnosis). The Sensitivity was 99.02%, specificity was 99.29%, PPV was 99.02%, NPV was 99.29%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.29%for FNAC in diagnosis of breast diseases (considering histopathology as gold standard).
Conclusion: Cytological evaluation is a standardised ideal cheap ancillary method in evaluating the breast lumps which many a times masquerades breast cancers.

Correlation of surgical plethysmographic index and entropy with hemodynamic changes in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Dr. Allenki Prashanthi, Dr. Nirmala Jonnavithula, Dr. Karri Pavani, Dr. Narmada Padhy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 935-943

Background: The stress response to surgery is an unconscious response to tissue injury and
refers to autonomic, hormonal and metabolic changes that follow injury or trauma. Excessive
intraoperative stress evoked by surgical nociceptive stimulation may influence patient’s
outcome, length of hospital stay and overall costs of hospital care. Traditionally, clinical signs
like somatic or autonomic responses are used to evaluate whether analgesia is adequate. It has
been proved to be unreliable demonstrating low specificity. In the present study
hemodynamic changes are correlated with changes in surgical plethysmographic index (SPI)
and entropy at the time of stress.
Methods: A prospective non-randomised observational study was conducted in the patients
posted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hundred ASA physical status I and II
patients aged between 18 to 60 years belonging to both the gender scheduled for elective
laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study.
Results: According to the correlation coefficient values SPI values are correlating with
changes in heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure at the time points of
5 min after intubation, 10 mins after intubation and before inflation. Entropy values does not
correlate with SPI as entropy indicates hypnosis level where as SPI is based on sympathetic
and parasympathetic stimulation. State entropy correlates with changes in systolic and
diastolic blood pressure at the time points of before inflation, 30 min after inflation and
deflation. However state and response entropy correlates with each
Other. Response entropy correlates with changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure at
the time points of 5 mins after intubation and before inflation.

Correlation Analysis of Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Level in Vitamin D Deficient Patients and Vit D Sufficient Patients

Ajinkya Murudkar, Sumeet Chadha, Jagjeet Singh Bahia, Arvinder Kaur, Sahil Chhabra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1377-1382

Introduction: In the body, nutrients normally work together in a coordinated fashion.
The availability of certain nutrients influences the uptake of another nutrient in the
intestine. Magnesium and vitamin D are two critical nutrients that are required for
diverse organ physiologic activities.
Objectives: The present study was conducted to analyze the relationship between serum
magnesium and vitamin D and to compare the levels of serum magnesium in vitamin D
deficient patients and vit D sufficient patients.
Methods: Present study was a prospective, observational, cohort, single centric,
hospital-based study conducted over the duration of one year. Total 100 patients were
recruited in the study and relationship between Serum magnesium and vitamin D was
assessed. According to the levels of vitamin D the patients were sub-grouped into three
categories: Normal: Vitamin D >= 30ng/ml (10 patients), Insufficient: Vitamin D >= 20
and <=30 ng/ml (12 patients), and Deficient: Vitamin D <= 20ng/ml (78 patients).
Results: Vitamin D in normal group was 54.68 ± 8.965, in insufficient group was 25.79 ±
2.842 and in deficient group was 7.704 ± 3.909. The difference between three group was
significant. Magnesium in normal group was 1.572 ± 0.1098, in insufficient group was
1.603 ± 0.1014 and in deficient group was 1.625 ± 0.1092. The difference between three
group was not significant. Correlation analysis of Vitamin D and magnesium revealed a
negative correlation in normal group (r= -0.3561), and a positive correlation in
insufficient group (r=0.1277) and deficient group (r=0.01423).
Conclusion: Based on serum magnesium levels, the research can assess the need for
mediational cost and unfavourable side effects associated with multitherapy with
vitamin D and magnesium, as per current clinical practise.

Ultrasonographic correlation of placental thickness in third trimester with fetal parameters, birth weight and fetal outcome

Dr. Nikhil Arora, Dr. Sahil Arora, Dr. Yashaswi Sharma, Dr. Navkiran Dhanota, Dr. Priyanka Arora, Dr. Sanjeev Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 72-77

Introduction: Despite careful antenatal surveillance involving scrupulous examination, an issue of
considerable disappointment is that a majority of low-birth-weight infants are not diagnosed until
delivery. Low birth weight infants are susceptible to hypoxia and fetal distress, long-term handicap, and
fetal death.
Objectives: The present study will be undertaken in our institution to study the correlation of placental
thickness, measured at the level of the umbilical cord insertion, with the ultrasonographic gestational age
in normal women and fetal weight and outcome.
Methods: Present study was a single centric, observational, cohort, follow up, hospital-based study in
which 100 pregnant women who will come for ultrasound in third trimester during the study period was
recruited in the study. The relationship between placental thickness with fetal parameters, birth weight
and fetal outcome at delivery was investigated in this study. Correlation between placental thickness with
the fetal parameters, average gestational age, gestation at delivery, neonatal birth weight & APGAR
score, and placental weight was investigated during this study.
Results: Significant positive correction of placenta thickness was found with the gestation age, estimated
and actual fetal birth weight, and placenta weight. APGAR score showed negative correlation with the
placenta thickness. Positive correlation of placenta thickness was also found with the Biparietal diameter
(BPD), Head Circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and Femur length (FL).
Conclusion: Ultrasonography serves a significant role in estimating foetal weight, which is a crucial
component of prenatal care. Because of its linear association, placental thickness evaluated at the level
of umbilical cord insertion can be utilised as a reliable sonographic indication in the evaluation of. As a
result, it can be utilised as a secondary sonographic method for determining foetal weight.

Anthropometric Assessment of Stature from Digital Length

Nikhil K1, Kishore Kumar G, R. Jenifer Jacquiline, Hima Bindu I

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1160-1163

Stature is a minor criterion for establishing identity. As per Quetelet’s law there is one
in four chances of two persons having exactly same height. This study of
anthropometric assessment of stature from the five digits of both hands in male and
female was carried out among 100 second year medical students (55 Females and 45
males) in Government Medical College, Suryapet, Telangana to determine the stature.
Prior consent from the participating students had been taken. The digit length of both
hands was measured from proximal crease of digit to the tip using a vernier caliper. The
individual height was measured by height measuring scale. The estimated height by
multiplying the total digital length with five (05) in both right and left hands were found
to be similar with the measured height. Pearson correlation analysis had suggested
highly positive statistically significant correlation between estimated height and
measured height in all participants, males and females. So, this can be concluded that
the equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature in situations where mutilated
remains are to be examined and all digits are available. This equation could be useful in
forensic anthropology or any anthropological research.

To Find Out Any Correlation Between The Measured Biochemical Parameters in Patients With CRF

Dr. Ramesh Chandra Thanna, Dr. Shivnarayan Lahariya, Dr. Laxmi Chourasia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2752-2759

Background&Method: This study is done with an aim to find out any correlation between
the measured biochemical parameters in patients with CRF. In this study, 200 people over the
age of 20 including both sexes who had chronic renal failure were selected. These patients
(subjects) were attending OPD and admitted to the ward of general medicine. In addition, 200
normal healthy individuals (control) over the age of 20, staff members, patient attendants, and
volunteers were included as controls. The patients were diagnosed as chronic renal failure by
the department of general medicine at index medical college hospital and research
centreindore (MP) and Amaltas institute of medical sciences, Dewas (MP).

Co-Relation OfCytomorphology With Absolute Ldh Gradient And Fluid Ada Levels In Determining The Type Of Pleural Effusion

Dr. Dennis VinnetShinde, Dr. Anjali Singh, Dr. SanjeevNarang, Dr. V.K. Jain, Dr. Romi Srivastava, Dr. ParulMaheshwari, Dr. Rahul Karode

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2542-2557

Present Study is done with an aim to co-relate the cytomorphology with Absolute LDH
gradient and Fluid ADAlevels in determining the type of pleural effusion.
On calculating the mean Absolute LDH gradient (serum-fluid LDH after dropping the
negative sign)along with standard deviation after performing the biochemical analysis of
pleural fluid, the exudative effusion fluid had an absolute LDH gradient value of
3356.20+4985.20 U/L (highest), tubercular effusion fluid had an absolute LDH gradient
value of 1361.36+ 1609.50 U/L, malignant/ suspicious of malignancy effusion fluid had an
absolute LDH gradient value of 1376+1181.79 U/L while transudative fluid had an
absoluteLDH gradient value of 107.91+61.60U/L (lowest).
On calculating the mean ADA levels along with standard deviation after performing the
biochemical analysis, the exudative effusion fluid (including tubercular) had an ADA
value of 54.37+56.71U/L (highest), malignant/ suspicious of malignancy effusion fluid had
an ADA value of 31.09+02.81U/L while transudative effusion fluid had an ADA value of
23.46+15.22U/L (lowest).
The mean and standard deviation values of ADA according to cytology reports showed that
it was highest in chronic inflammatory smear (exudates- tubercular) and least in case of
inflammatory smears (transudate).
The mean and standard deviation values of Absolute LDH gradient according to cytology
reports showed that it was highest in acute inflammatory smears (exudates) and found to
be least in case of inflammatory smears (transudate).
Using the Biserial correlation method, when the cytologic types of pleural fluid were
correlated with absolute LDH gradient values the p- value (0.011) was found to be
statistically significant in acute inflammatory smears (exudates). Alternatively, when the
cytologic types of pleural fluid were correlated with pleural fluid ADA values the p- value
(0.001) was found to be statistically significant in chronic inflammatory smears
Cytomorphological analysis of body fluids is an important investigation which is very
convenient, cost effective, accurate and also safe . It gives a clue to diagnose any
underlying neoplastic or non- neoplastic diseases that may change prognosis, further
management or outcome of patient. In cases of malignant effusion it is crucial in staging
and deciding further protocol of treatment.

Quantitation of HIV1 RNA viral load and its correlation with CD4 cell count in Hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients attending RIMS hospital Imphal

Dr. Sougrakpam ratna; Dr. Ngangom lilavati; Dr. H. Rebachandra singh; Dr. Khumanthem Shailendra Singh; Dr. Arunoday Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 426-436

Background: HCV-HIV co- infection leads to more rapid progression to cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma but some literature opined that overall survival of HIV positive persons is not affected by the presence of HCV.This study was conducted with he objective to quantify HIV1 RNA viral load in HIV-AIDS coinfected individuals & its correlation with CD4 cell count.

Correlation of peak amplitude ECG between leads Based on the condition of the heart

Sabar Setiawidayat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 862-872

Non-invasive cardiac examination in standard clinic is still using 12-lead electrocardiograph. The results of the examination are presented on ECG paper or on the monitor screen. A normal electrocardiogram on one lead is not necessarily normal for the other lead, because each lead represents a certain part of the heart so that one by one is necessary. This examination takes time so that it can increase the stage of the disease if the patient turns out to be in an abnormal condition. This paper aims to correlate the peak amplitude of each lead to normal and abnormal heart conditions. If it is known that the peak amplitude is correlated between the leads, the other leads do not need to be checked, so that the diagnosis time will be obtained faster. Cardiac biosignal data that has been sampled with a frequency of 250 Hz is a discrete signal that can be stored digitally in a database. 10 samples of normal conditions and 10 samples of abnormal conditions were analyzed using Saphiro-Wilk so that the data were normally distributed. Spearman correlation analysis is used to get peak amplitude correlation between leads. The results showed that for abnormal conditions with a significance of 0.01 there was a correlation between the peak P lead I with leads III and V5, while for normal conditions there was a correlation between peak P lead I and leads V3 and V4. In abnormal conditions there is a correlation between peak R lead II and V6, while in normal conditions there is a correlation between peak R lead I and aVF.


Saidakbar Raxmonkulov; Jalolov Khurshidbek; Chariyeva Hilal Dustmurotovna; Danabaev Abdumurot Berdievich; Ochildiev Najmiddin Norboevich; Abdishukurov Buri Radjapovish; Dadakhujayev Hassanboy Tulanboyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1948-1951

The article presents the results on the correlation of some economically valuable traits in interline hybrids of F2 cotton with various colors of seed puffs. Revealed positive average correlations between the productivity of plants and the weight of raw cotton one boll; strong negative to strong positive - between 1000 seeds and fiber yield; weak, medium and strong - between 1000 seeds and fiber length.


Dr. Meda Srinivasa Rao; Dr. Venkateswararao. Podile; Dr.Durgaprasad Navvula

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1010-1018

Banking is a backbone for economic progress of any country, India is not an exception. After Nationalisation till liberalisation the progress of banking industry mainly focused on public sector banks. After liberalisation private sector banks has played an important role for the progress of Indian economy. Government of India initiated diverse structural reforms in line with global banking industry such as implementation of Basel norms, listing in stock exchanges, automation of operational activities, consolidation of selected public sector banks , as a part of financial inclusion Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY), National Investment and Infrastructure (NIIF), allowing to operate small and payments banks and others. The current study highlights risk and return of banking stocks which are part of Nifty index between 2 periods which includes period1, the UPA government (2010 to 2014) and period2, the NDA government (2015 to 2019). It also examines the pattern of return and risk of banking stocks between two periods and relates different policy decisions. The study used different statistical techniques like Return, Average return, Standard deviation, Variance and Beta. Coefficient of variation analysis is to understanding the relationship between two periods risk and return of banking stocks.


Dr. P.K. Anjani; Dr. Suja Sundram; Ms. V. Abinaya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3660-3674

The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified and expanded in terms of its global reach, with huge impacts on
public health and unprecedented shocks to economies and labor markets. Many countries have initiated social distancing
policies, Lock downs to slow the virus‟s spread, with the aim of avoiding catastrophic outcomes for national health
systems and minimizing lives lost. ILO estimates show that workplace closures have increased rapidly in recent weeks
that 81 per cent of the global workforce lives in countries with mandatory or recommended closures. With increasing
numbers of partial or total lockdowns in place that restrict operations of business and movement of the vast majority of
workers, for many it has become impossible to work. Quantitative research methods were used for the study, and a
sample population was chosen amongst participants who were single and in a relationship, female and male, with and
without children, by using a convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used contained existing scales where the
Cronbach‟s alpha coefficients were above the recommended 0.8. Out of 250 distributed questionnaires, 200 were
completed and returned, giving an overall returning rate of 80%. The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20.
This study identified the factors influencing work force during COVID 19, the association between the
demographic profile of employees and the factors influencing employees during COVID 19 and also their impact
among the influencing factors. This study identified the existence of positive correlation between the work satisfaction
and the psychological health, which indicates that when there is higher satisfaction in work which eventually leads to
good psychological health. This study also identified that existence of positive correlation between the Family-work
conflict and the psychological stress, which indicates that increase in conflict between the work and family eventually
lead to unhappiness and psychological stress.