Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Antibiotic resistance

Knowledge and practices of dental students of Kashmir regarding antibiotic prescription and development of resistance : A cross sectional study

Dr. Iram Kahkashan; Dr. Sana Farooq; Dr. Nazia Lone

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2811-2818

As odontogenic infections have multimicrobial etiology like Gram-positive, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobes, and obligate anaerobic bacteria so major proportion of analgesics and antibiotics are prescribed by dentist. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge , practices and awareness of dentist of Kashmir regarding antibiotic prescription and development of resistance .75% of dentist agreed self medication as a prime reason of antibiotic resistance and abuse. As per the survey there was overprescription of antibiotic by the dentist and over the counter use of these medication by patients.

Molecular Characterization of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Bacteria Isolated from a River Surface Water

Fazlul MKK; Mohamad Farouk Abdullah; Nomani Kabir; Saeid Reza Doustjalali; Negar Shafiei Sabet; Srikumar C; Rashid MA; Jassim M. SaadounMohammed A. KadhimSalah M. S. Al-Atab; Nazmul MHM

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1570-1580

The existence and prevalence of multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum βlactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in the river water is a major cause of numerous diseases worldwide. In this study, the molecular characterization of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria producing ESBL encoding genes was investigated for a better understanding of the risk factors and public health issues. The potential ESBL-producing bacterial species were detected using 16S ribose ribonucleic acid (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This served as a screening step to detect potential ESBLs encoding genes which were confirmed by phenotypes (DDST and E-test) and genotypes (PCR) assays with the presence of the bla genes; TEM, CTX-M, OXA-1 and SHV. Furthermore, all the confirmed bacterial isolates producing ESBL encoding genes were analysed for antibiotic susceptibility patterns against 10 different classes of antibiotics as a choice of therapy using antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by the disc diffusion method. The highest bacterial isolates were confirmed as Enterobacteriaceae (89.5%), predominantly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Among the 20 bacterial isolates, 12 (60 %) bacteria possessed one or more ESBLs encoding genes. Relatively high occurrence rates of β-lactamase genes; bla TEM 35%, bla SHV 20%, bla OXA-15% and bla CTX-M 10% were recorded. All the ESBLs encoding isolates showed high resistance to penicillin’s, third-generation cephalosporins, monobactams, cephamycins and carbapenems. High occurrences of ESBLs producing bacteria in the environment pose a threat to exposed communities. Therefore, early detection of MDR beta-lactamase mediated resistance genes are essential to avoid numerous diseases due to the dissemination of ESBLs producing strains.

Study Of Most Common Bacterial Isolates Causing Pyogenic Infections.

Gurinder Singh; Shubhi Taneja

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4029-4041

Pyogenic infections are the challenges in the hospital patients invite to other nosocomial infections.It is also life threatening and required appropriate antibioticstotreatthesepyogenicbacterialinfections. Multi drug resistance is accountable to make chemotherapy more difficult to manage the bacterial pyogenic infections. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from pyogenic infection. Methods:A study was conducted on samples collected differentwardsofthehospital.Pussamplewascollectedthroughaspirationandsterileswabs.The clinical specimens were processed immediately after collection to isolate and identification of the pyogenic bacteria Further AST was conducted by automated technique as well as Kirby-Bauer method by following the recommendedprocedures. Result: Overall 103 specimens were collectedand 44 samples were isolated out of them, showinganisolationrateof42.7%. Outof44positivesamples19weregrampositive(43.2)and25were gramnegative(56.2%).ThemajorbacteriaisolatedfrompuswasStaphylococcusaureus14(32%) , followedbyKlebsiellapneumonia6(13%)andEnterobacterspp6(13%),Escherichiacoli5(11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4 (9%), Acinetobacter baumannii 2 (6%), Coagulase negative staphylococci 3 (8%), Enterococcus spp. 2 (4%). The remaining isolates were nonbacterial microbial infections. Conclusion: Emerging of MRbacterial strainsis the main focusfor thetreatment of pyogenic infections.Major challenges of pyogenic infections are due to Gramnegative bacteria which are followed by Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. The change in antimicrobial pattern of antibioticsis tested by antibiotic sensitivity testing to treat the challenge in treating these conditions.


V.A Muralidharan; Sindhu Ramesh; Dr.Gheena. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 169-185

Endodontic infection is the infection of the root canal system and the microorganisms play a tremendous role in pulpal and periapical disease. The primary aim of endodontic treatment is to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal system. This can be achieved by a combination of local and systemic use of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in dentistry especially in endodontics has become a practice towards inappropriate prescription and overdose leads to adverse side effects and bacterial resistance. An undergraduate student will have only limited knowledge in this regard. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and perception on usage of antibiotics among undergraduate students for endodontic therapy.This present study is a cross-sectional, descriptive questionnaire study conducted among dental undergraduate students in Chennai, India. The study was conducted from March to April 2020. A descriptive questionnaire study was conducted among 320 dental students in the city. A structured questionnaire was prepared focussing on antibiotics indication in dentistry particularly in endodontic treatment. Assessment of subjects awareness and attitude towards use of antibiotics for patients after endodontics procedures included in the questions relating to the knowledge of the basic antibiotics regime and its course. The subjects were requested to respond to each item in the specific format given. All the participants were allowed to choose one of the given three to four choices for each item in the questionnaire.A large population of students of 320 were familiar with this antibiotic resistance. Compared with the juniors, the senior students have a wider knowledge for prescribing antibiotics for various endodontic procedures.Most of the students prescribed Amoxicillin (30.82%)for any endodontic treatment for a duration of three days (26.42%) compared to other antibiotics.This study concludes that undergraduate dental students may prescribe antibiotics inappropriately and hence a proper and extensive guideline must be given to them to be followed . A thorough knowledge and awareness must be there on the antibiotic regime and its usage to all students before entering their clinics.

The Synergistic effect of non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs on antibacterial activity of ceftriaxone against streptococcus pyogenes Isolated from patients with pharyngitis

Suaad Traiji Zamil; Raad Abdulameer Alasady; Rana Talib AlNafakh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4483-4488

Background: Streptococcus pyogenes cause major infectious problems including pharyngitis, scarlet fever, and rheumatic fever Emergence of resistant strains make such infections and relevant complications (e.g., rheumatic valvular disease and glomerulonephritis) a serious clinical challenge especially in children. Aims and objectives: In a maneuver of overcoming the resistance developed by S. pyogenes and improving the ability of antibiotics to fight such bacteria, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAID is repurposed as antimicrobial against S. pyogenes, in objective to be united with the usual antibiotic mentioned by WHO principle of care. The combination was evaluated for its MIC and combination index versus S. pyogenes. Materials and Methods: From patients, suffering pharyngitis a multidrug-resistant strain of S. pyogenes was insulated. The maximum dangerous isolate was cultivated for MIC determination ceftriaxonemefenamic acid combination in comparison with each alone to establish the combination index. Results and conclusions: There were a pointed synergism concerning ceftriaxonemefenamic acid (index ˂ 1) at P= 0.012 and Z score= 2.3 additional validation of MIC folds of dilutions are to be evaluated to achieve rational evidence. Recommendations: We suggested to additional validate the antistreptococcal effect of the combined ceftriaxonemefenamic acid on more dilutions of MIC assay and to identify the benefit of this combination in patients developed pharyngitis induced by S. pyogenes.