Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Periodontitis


PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF DENTAL DISEASES IN PREGNANT WOMEN LIVING IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF UZBEKISTAN

Suvonov K.J .; Adilov U.X .; Kuryazov A.K.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2863-2870

The aim was to study the prevalence and risk factors of dental disease development in
pregnant women living in different Uzbekistan regions. The prevalence and intensity of dental
caries among pregnant women are 1.3 times higher in the Urgenchdistrict of the Khorezm
region compared to the Kibray district of the Tashkent region. These figures increase with
each subsequent pregnancy. The same pattern is observed for periodontal and oral mucosa
diseases. The most significant medical and biological factors contributing to the development
of dental diseases in pregnant women were age, several pregnancies, intergenerational period,
course and terms of pregnancy, the presence of extragenital diseases. Among medical and
social risk factors, the most significant were education, living conditions, oral hygiene,
sanitary culture, and medical activity of pregnant women.

Evaluation of the relationship between obesity and severity of periodontal diseases in rural population: A Study Protocol

Ms. Gauri , Bendre; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal; Dr. Diksha Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2034-2037

Abstract: Background- Excessive accumulation of fat results into obesity. Obesity further
have an adverse effect on health as it has been seen to be associated with diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, heart disease like coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease such as
hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, metabolic syndrome like insulin resistance, some
cancers such as cancer of esophagus, thyroid, kidney, uterus, colon and breast, and
psychosocial problems. Also, obesity is considered to be a risk factor for periodontitis
which is an inflammation of supporting periodontal structures around the tooth which
results from the complex interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune
response. However, the impact of obesity on different severity of periodontal disease is not
evaluated in rural population. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and the
severity of periodontal disease in Rural population. Methodology: A total 400 obese
subjects will be included in the study. Biometric parameters like age, weight, height, waist
and neck circumference, subcutaneous skin fold will be evaluated. Also periodontal
parameters like Plaque index (PI), Papillary bleeding index (PBI), Probing pocket depth
(PPD), Clinical attachment level (CAL) and Gingival recession (REC) will be evaluated
and co-relation between these parameters will be carried out. Results: A statistically
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis. A positive co-relation will be observed
between biometric parameters and periodontal status of obese individual. Conclusion: A
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis in rural population.

CORRELATION BETWEEN SMOKING AND SEVERITY OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Cinthura. C; Arvina Rajasekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1113-1120

Smoking is a highly prevalent addiction present worldwide, especially in India. It not only affects the pulmonary system but also has a major impact on oral health. Periodontal disease comprises a range of polymicrobial infectious diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis that affect the tooth-supporting structures. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for periodontal disease progression and can also alter treatment response. This study aims at associating the type of tobacco use and periodontal disease progression. This retrospective study was conducted among 500 patients using their records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019-April 2020 and patients who had smoking habits were identified. Data regarding their age, gender, type of tobacco use and periodontal status were collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (SPSS version 20.0,IL,Chicago,USA) for analysis. The results of the study showed that among the patients with smoking habits, individuals within the age group of 25-35 years (31.4%) showed the highest prevalence of tobacco use whereas people among 65-75 years (1.2%) had the least. Majority of the smokers were diagnosed with periodontitis (84.4%), followed by gingivitis (12.4%) but diagnosis of healthy gingiva was very rare (3.2%). Smokeless form of tobacco was commonly used (61.2%). There was a male predominance (94.2%). Smoking, especially the type of tobacco used and severity of periodontal disease was found to have a strong association (p=0.000). The study draws attention to the fact that tobacco usage has a negative impact on oral health and can lead to periodontitis.

EFFECT OF SMOKING ON GINGIVAL HEALTH - A REVIEW

Reishy V; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayatri Devi R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1346-1352

Smoking is recognised as a risk factor for human health. It is related to many problems like respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, cancer, etc. Smoking is associated with incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It increases the number and depth of periodontal patients. Loss of tissue strength caused due to harmful compounds like tobacco, increase gingival recession and changes to the oral cavity. Prevalence of moderate and severe diseases are higher in smokers than non-smokers. Smoking affects both gingival epithelium and connective tissue. Density of blood vessels is decreased in smokers. Effect of smoking on vascular status is caused by nicotine compounds. This review was done based on the articles obtained from various platforms like PubMed, PubMed central and Google Scholar. They were collected with a restriction in time basis from 2000-2020. The inclusion criteria were original research papers. In vitro, studied among various conditions and articles that contain pros and cons. Exclusion criteria came into account for review articles, retracted articles and articles of other languages. All the articles are selected based on the effect of smoking on gingival health. Thus, smoking results in various oral health problems like incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It affects gingival recession and changes to the oral mucosa. This review article gives knowledge about the correlation between smoking and health of gingival treatment with various dental problems.

ASSOCIATION OF PERIODONTAL HEALTH AND ANGLE’S MALOCCLUSION- AN INSTITUTIONAL BASED STUDY

Thanish Ahamed. S; Nivethigaa B; Mebin George Mathew

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1820-1826

Of the several pathologies that affect the oral cavity, malocclusion is the third most important problem in the world population. It not only affects the appearance but also affects the periodontal health. The aim of the study was to assess the association between periodontal health and different angle’s malocclusion. This retrospective study was conducted among outpatients reported to Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019 to March 2020. The study consisted of 300 patients (50 patients in each group). Patients were segregated into six groups based on Angle’s classification (Group 1: Class I; Group 2: Class II division 1; Group 3: Class II division 2; Group 4: Class II subdivision; Group 5: Class III; Group 6: Class III subdivision). The type of molar relationship was then correlated with the periodontal status. Out of 300 patients, the prevalence of gingivitis (92%) was higher among Class II subdivision patients and the prevalence of periodontitis (22%) was higher among Class II division patients. Also, the correlation between different types of malocclusion and periodontal health was assessed and found to be statistically not significant (p=0.306).

CURRENT TRENDS IN ANTIBIOTIC PRESCRIPTION FOR VARIOUS PERIODONTAL FLAP SURGICAL PROCEDURE - A HOSPITAL BASED ANALYSIS

Niveda Rajeshwaran; GurumoorthyKaarthikeyan .; Priyalochana Gajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1427-1439

The aim of the present study is to assess the current trends in antibiotic prescription for various periodontal flap surgical procedures among periodontists in Chennai. Retrospective data collection was conducted from June 2019 to March 2020 on patients who visited the outpatient department of Periodontics for multitude of flap surgical procedures. The type of flap surgery done and the antibiotic regimen prescribed were recorded. The data was tabulated using excel and SPSS software version 23.0 (Statistical Package For The Social Sciences) was used for descriptive statistics.The distribution of antibiotics after flap surgical procedure among the above mentioned groups were expressed in terms of percentage. Chi square test was done to assess the association between the study variables.Based on this hospital based assessment, it was found that the most commonly prescribed antibiotic was amoxicillin 500mg, followed by a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole for flap surgical procedures like Open flap debridement, Resective osseous surgery and regenerative osseous surgery. The least preferred antibiotics were azithromycin and doxycycline.There was statistically significant association between gender and type of antibiotic given, with a higher percentage of males receiving a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole than females. There was no significant difference between the antibiotics prescribed for patients who underwent Resective or regenerative flap surgery. Thus Amoxicillin is the most preferred, cost-effective and less toxic drug which acts against both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. However care must be taken in administering antibiotics in order to avoid misuse and overuse of antibiotics.

IMPACT OF SMOKING ON PERIODONTAL HEALTH

Kiruthika Patturaja; Arvina Rajasekar; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1099-1104

Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults. It is an inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. It is associated with various risk factors. Tobacco is one of the potent risk factors for periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to find the impact of smoking on periodontal health. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 200 male patients (Group 1: 100 smokers; Group 2: 100 non-smokers) were recruited. Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. The present study showed that smokers had a high prevalence of periodontitis (37.5%) when compared to non-smokers (8.5%). Whereas, non-smokers had a high prevalence of gingivitis (41.5%) when compared to smokers (12.5%). Also, there was a statistically significant association between smoking and periodontal health (p=0.000). The findings of the present study showed that smokers had increased risk of periodontitis than non-smokers.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HAEMOGLOBIN LEVEL AND SEVERITY OF PERIODONTITIS - AN INSTITUTION BASED STUDY

Subasree .Soundarajan; Sankari Malaippan; Priyalochana Gajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1933-1942

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between haemoglobin level & severity of chronic periodontitis. This retrospective study was carried out by analysing the patient records from June 2019 to March 2020 at Saveetha Institute of Medical & Technical sciences (SIMATS).Two forty four patients were included in the study. Parameters assessed were a)Demographic details – Patient name, Patient identity number, Age & Sex; b)Periodontal parameters – Probing pocket depth (PDD), Loss of attachment (LOA), Bleeding on probing (BOP), Severity of Periodontitis (mild, moderate & severe);c) Blood parameters - Haemoglobin levels (g/dl). Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Bivariate Pearson correlation of Haemoglobin with mean PPD, mean LOA & mean BOP score were calculated. Mean Hb was compared with severity of periodontitis using ANOVA. A total of 244 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the study sample was 40.42 (±11.38). Females constituted about 58.06%, whereas males constituted 41.4% of the study sample. Majority of the population had severe periodontitis (64.76%), followed by mild periodontitis (18.03%) & moderate periodontitis (17.21%). The mean haemoglobin level in severe periodontitis (13.35g/dl) is higher when compared to moderate and mild periodontitis (13.30g/dl & 13.18g/dl respectively). Mean PPD was 5.24 mm, mean LOA was 4.6 mm & mean BOP score was 0.98. Association between mean CAL and mean haemoglobin levels was positive and statistically significant with a p value of 0.012. Mean Hb level was not significantly different with varying severity of periodontitis

ASSOCIATION OF TRAUMA FROM OCCLUSION AND GINGIVAL RECESSION IN MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR TEETH

Bharathi R; Arvina Rajasekar; Senthil Murugan P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 292-298

Background: Trauma from occlusion has been defined as injury to the periodontium resulting from occlusal forces that exceeds the reparative capacity of the attachment apparatus. It refers to tissue injury due to distorted occlusion. Gingival recession is the exposure of root surfaces due to apical migration of the gingival tissue margins.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of trauma from occlusion with gingival recession in mandibular anterior teeth.
Materials And Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2019 to April 2020 using the patient records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. 200 patients with trauma from occlusion were recruited. Presence or absence of gingival recession in mandibular anteriors were studied. Data was tabulated in excel and statistically analysed.
Results: Among 200 patients with trauma from occlusion, 89 patients had gingival recession in relation to mandibular anteriors. There was no significant association between trauma from occlusion and gingival recession in mandibular anterior teeth (chi-square test; p= 0.120, not significant).
Conclusion: The present study showed no significant association between trauma from occlusion and gingival recession in mandibular anterior teeth.