Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Oral cancer


A NEW CHEMO PREVENTIVE TARGET GETTING REVEALED

PHILIPS ABRAHAM; SACHU PHILIP; Dr. MADHAVAN NIRMAL; Dr.SETHUPATHY. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2842-2851

Indigofera Aspalathoides has been an important ingredient to prepare oils used for the skin diseases and studies with the stem extract demonstrates that it has antitumor, antiviral and antibacterial effect. In our study chemopreventive effect of ethanolic and chloroform extract of Indigofera aspalathoides(EIA) and (CIA)was tested on DMBA induced buccal pouch carcinoma in hamster . The biochemical analysis of Phase I xenobiotic enzymes and histopathological examination of oral tissues were done using gold standard methods.The activity of Phase 1 enzymes were significantly elevated in 
the buccal pouch of DMBA painted animals when compared to control animals. The expression of CYP1B1was significantly elevated in the buccal pouch of DMBA painted animals when compared to control animals. Also the expression of AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 in buccal pouch showed a significant elevation in the level of these protein in the DMBA alone treated group when compared to control animals. This study shows that there is a lack induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent responses after exposure to AHR agonists, suggesting an overall down-regulation of the AHR signaling pathway.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ORAL LEUKOPLAKIA SMOKING AND ALCOHOL HABITS IN PATIENTS

Priyadharshini Suresh Babu; Deepika Rajendran; Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1211-1220

Oral leukoplakia is seen as a predominant white patch in the oral mucosa and is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. Habits such as tobacco, betel nut chewing and alcohol increases the incidence of oral leukoplakia. This study was aimed to evaluate the association of oral leukoplakia in patients having smoking and alcohol habits. In this study, patients having oral leukoplakia were sorted out by reviewing and analysing 86,000 patients records who visited the private dental college during the time period of June 2019 to March 2020. The personal history with habits such as smoking and alcohol were also recorded. A Chi-square test was used to determine association between variables to obtain the results. In our study, we found that the males showed higher prevalence of Oral Leukoplakia than females. A statistically significant result was found in patients between 41-50 years of age (29.2%) with smoking habits (84.8%) and alcohol intake habits (51%). It also showed that there was stronger association between oral leukoplakia and patients with both smoking and alcohol habits, than in patients having alcohol habit alone.

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS REGARDING RISK FACTORS FOR ORAL CANCER AMONG GAS AGENCY EMPLOYEES IN TIRUPUR

Roshan A; Dr.Keerthi Sasanka; Sridevi. G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1646-1657

Cancer is defined as the uncontrollable growth of cells that invade and cause damage to surrounding tissues. Oral cancer appears to be a growth or a pain in the mouth that doesn't go away. Oral cancer, including lip, tongue, cheek, mouth floor, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx (throat), can be life- threatening if not diagnosed and treated early. Cancer that occurs inside the mouth is sometimes referred to as oral cancer or oral cancer of the cavity. Mortal cancer is one of several types of cancer in a category called head and neck cancers. Mouth cancer and other cancers of the head and neck are often treated in the same way. This study was designed to create and assess awareness on oral cancer among employees of gas agencies in Tiruppur district. A self administered questionnaire prepared and circulated via google form link. The data was manipulated, analysed and tabulated. The obtained data was represented as cumulative percentage in pie charts. Association analysis between age groups of the participants and awareness on oral cancer was done by Pearson Chi square test (SPSS version 22) and the data was depicted in a Bar graph. The results of the study revealed that the participants were aware that smoking, chewing tobacco, and pan leads to increased chance of oral cancer. The present study concludes that the people of Tirupur were aware of the incidence of oral cancer and risk factors associated with it.

MetabonimicsOf Oral Cancer Diagnosis - A Review

Navya Khanna; Dr.M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2900-2913

Metabolomic analyzes move the medical diagnostics sector forward at unparalleled levels because of its ability to accurately classify concentrated metabolites at the metabolic stage. Biomarker research has benefited from these advances to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium for disease detection. Oral cancer (OC) is defined as a malignant tumor of the oral cavity and is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an attractive strategy to increase the survival rate of patients. If detected early, oral cancer survival is better than 90% at 5 years, whereas the late-stage survival of disease is only 30%. Therefore, novel metabolic markers have an obvious clinical utility that helps to diagnose oral cancer at an early stage and monitor the response to treatment. In combination, five salivary biomarkers (propionyl choline, N-acetyl - L-phenylalanine, sphinganine, phytosphingosine, and S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine) yielded adequate precision (AUC = 0.997), sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.7%) in separating OSCC from control in the early stages. In this study, a comprehensive saliva metabonomics analysis review for identifying potential biomarkers to early diagnose OSCC is successfully demonstrated, which has the advantages of non-invasive, simple, reliable and low-cost. Such novel metabolic biomarkers have an clear clinical usefulness that will aid in the early diagnosis of OSCC. Their diagnostic utility for clinical applications has been discussed by the discovery of salivary biomarkers that could be used to track health and disease surveillance. Comprehensive salivary metabolome will be an important resource for researchers studying metabolite chemistry, especially in the fields of salivary diagnostics, and will be helpful in analyzing and thus identifying appropriate salivary biomarkers related to the disease.

Velscope- A Recent Examination Tool In Dentistry.

Neha .; Dr. Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2475-2483

Oral cancer is a global health disease that has a major impact on an individual''s health, psychology and lifestyle. It is the 6th most common cancer in the world and has a high prevalence worldwide, and is found more in men than women. It is attributed to a myriad of causes which especially include tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing betel quid. Survival rates of oral cancer are very poor despite advances in therapeutic interventions. Detecting oral cancer at an early stage is believed to be the most effective means of reducing death rates. Thus arises the need for an important diagnostic tool which is able to detect pre-malignant and malignant lesions at an early stage. Treatment helps only for about 5 years after which recurrences are seen. The only way to reduce recurrences is early diagnosis. VELscope, also known as Visually-Enhanced Lesion scope, serves this purpose. It is an important diagnostic tool that uses an auto- fluorescence based imaging system to detect lesions and allows enhanced visibility of the premalignant and malignant lesions. It emits a harmless, non-invasive blue coloured LED fibre optic light that shines in the patient’s mouth. The fluorescent light is absorbed by normal tissues whereas neoplastic lesions lose fluorescence and become dark. This helps in quick and non-invasive diagnosis.

VELSCOPE- A RECENT EXAMINATION TOOL IN DENTISTRY

Neha .; Dr. Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 359-366

Oral cancer is a global health disease that has a major impact on an individual's health, psychology and
lifestyle. It is the 6th most common cancer in the world and has a high prevalence worldwide, and is found
more in men than women. It is attributed to a myriad of causes which especially include tobacco smoking,
alcohol consumption and chewing betel quid. Survival rates of oral cancer are very poor despite advances
in therapeutic interventions. Detecting oral cancer at an early stage is believed to be the most effective
means of reducing death rates. Thus arises the need for an important diagnostic tool which is able to detect
pre-malignant and malignant lesions at an early stage. Treatment helps only for about 5 years after which
recurrences are seen. The only way to reduce recurrences is early diagnosis. VELscope, also known as
Visually-Enhanced Lesion scope, serves this purpose. It is an important diagnostic tool that uses an autofluorescence
based imaging system to detect lesions and allows enhanced visibility of the premalignant
and malignant lesions. It emits a harmless, non-invasive blue coloured LED fibre optic light that shines in
the patient’s mouth. The fluorescent light is absorbed by normal tissues whereas neoplastic lesions lose
fluorescence and become dark. This helps in quick and non-invasive diagnosis

FLAVONOID APPLICATION IN TREATMENT OF ORAL CANCER-A REVIEW

Sudarsan R; Lakshmi T; Anjaneyulu K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1701-1713

A wide range of organic compounds that are naturally occurring called flavonoids are primarily found in a large variety of plants. Some of the sources include tea, wine, fruits, grains, nuts and vegetables. There are a number of studies that have proven that a strong association exists between intake of dietary flavonoid and its effects on mortality in the long run. Flavonoids at non-toxic concentrations are known to demonstrate a wide range of therapeutic biological activities in organisms. The contribution of flavonoids in prevention of cancer is an area of great interest in current research. A variety of studies, including in vitro experiments and human trials and even epidemiological investigations, provide compelling evidence which imply that flavonoids’ effects on cancer in terms of chemoprevention and chemotherapy is significant. As the current treatment methods possess a number of drawbacks, the anticancer potential demonstrated by flavonoids makes them a reliable alternative. Various studies have focussed on flavonoids’ anti-cancer potential and its possible application in the treatment of cancer as a chemopreventive agent. This article summarizes the effects of flavonoids in relation to its anticancer potential and its clinical application in treatment of oral cancer.

TO ASSESS THE AWARENESS OF PRE- MALIGNANT CONDITIONS IN DIAGNOSED CANCER PATIENTS IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL

Dr Aditya Reddy P; Dr Abdul Wahab P U; Dr Jagadish V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 585-590

Globally oral cancer is one of the ten most common cancers with prevalence being high in Central and South East Asian countries. This retrospective study conducted to estimate the prevalence of oral pre- malignant lesions(OPML).A institutional retrospective study was carried out among individuals aged ≥18 years. The first clinical sign and their first dental visit was noted. Oral cavity of all the participants was examined in detail by the study investigator as per WHO guidelines and biopsy reports were thoroughly
.The mean duration of the patient dental visit after initial clinical symptom seen is 64.3 days.A significant association was seen between the number of males affected more compared to females.The study reinforces that use of substances such as tobacco, alcohol and areca nuts are the modifiable risk factors for OPML.

RADIOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OSSEOUS CHANGES IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

Abarna jawahar; G.Maragathavalli .; Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1751-1761

Oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) primarily affects the soft tissues,but involvement of jaw bones is seen in about 12–56% of patients.In these cases,radiographic analysis is essential inorder to observe the pattern of bone involvement.A retrospective study was conducted on patients who visited the department of oral medicine from march 2019 to march 2020.The clinical findings,histopathological diagnosis of OSCC patients who showed bone involvement in the digital panoramic radiographs were reviewed from electronic database.Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the radiographic findings.We observed that the majority of patients presenting with oral squamous cell carcinoma involving the jaw bone belonged to the age group 40-50 years with male predilection(76.9%).Mandible was most commonly involved with the right posterior alveolar region being the most commonly affected site.The radiographic changes observed predominantly in the lesions were smooth borders(53.85%) with an altered trabecular pattern (46.15%).The effect of the lesion
on the surrounding structures were spiked root appearance in 84.62% and floating tooth appearance in 69.23% of cases.Presence of saucerization was seen in 76.92%.Hence digital panoramic radiographs are valuable aids in diagnosing the involvement of jaw bones in oral malignancy and thereby help in devising the treatment plan.