Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : SARS-CoV-2


Otorhinolaryngology Manifestations of Covid-19 Patients Short Title: ENT Manifestations of Covid-19

Shuaib Kayode AREMU

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 143-154

Objective: Our main aim is to review the published literature under the ENT manifestations in COVID19 positive patients having underlying causes. Materials and Methods: We have read about 45 peer-reviewed Elsevier, springer, wild pub, Jama network, British health magazine, Pub Med, Wiley's online booksellers, Karger journals, Europe PMC, new England newspaper, American Roentgen ology journal, and Nature's Public Health Emergency Series. We read about 45 peer-reviewed articles. The authors then summarized, collected, and analyzed the findings of research that met these criteria for inclusion and exclusion.

VITAMIN C IN TERMS OF COVID-19, CURRENT TRENDS

Ilxamdjan Karimdjanov Asamovich; Nozima Sаdiqova Baxadirovna; Botir Tadjiev Mirkhashimovich; NurlanDinmukhammadiev Aktamovich; Bobir MirkhashimovBotirovich; Yaxyayeva Komola Zokirovna; Anvar Tursunbayev Karimberdiyevich; Fatima Xoltayeva Fayziyevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1341-1351

The role of vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of pneumonia andsepsis has been investigated for past decades. This reviewaimsto translatethese findings into patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). It has indicatedthat patients with pneumonia and sepsis have low vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress.Additional oral or intravenous (IV) vitamin C administered patients with pneumonia can mitigate the severity and course ofthe disease. Severely ill patients with sepsis need for intravenous administration of amounts counted in grams ofthe vitamin to achieve adequate plasma levels, an intervention that some studies suggest reduces mortality.The vitamin has physiological functions like pleiotropic, many of which are closely connected to COVID-19.These are its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antithrombotic and immunomodulatory functions.Previous observational studies found out low vitamin C status in critically ill patients with COVID-19.A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conductedworldwideevaluate intravenous vitamin C as monotherapy in patients with COVID-19. Optimization of the intervention protocolsin future trials, e.g., earlier and continuously administration, is justified to potentially improve itsefficacy. In order to the excellent safety profile, low cost, and potential for rapid enlargement of production,administration of vitamin C to patients, especially with hypovitaminosis C and severe respiratory infections,e.g., COVID-19, appears warranted. In addition, there are few new ways of concurrent using vitamin C and other manipulations or medications.

Neurological disorders in patients underwent COVID-19

Nargiza Nasriddinovna Ergasheva; Dilbar Nabievna Khidoyatova; Yakutkxon Nabievna Madjidova; Yuldasheva Manzura Muchammad Tofik kizi; Zulfiya Amalgeldievna Xodjaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 256-262

Introduction: COVID-19 is the current global coronavirus pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The first reports of the disease outbreaks appeared in China on December 31, 2019 and the first clinical manifestations occurred earlier on December 8, 2019. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak as a public health emergency of international concern. On March 11 it was declared a pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and anosmia (loss of smell).Complications can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia. The incubation period is usually around five days, but can range from two to fourteen days.
Aim of the research isto study of clinical and diagnostic criteria for neurological disorders and changes of laboratory parameters in patients with COVID-19.
Material and methods: We examined 31 patients who had undergone COVID-19 and were hospitalized at the private clinic "Neuromed-Service" named after academician N.M. Madjidov. There were 19 males and 14 females. The age of the patients varied from 18 to 75 years (the mean age made up 41 years).
Results: Patients with inflammatory diseases of the peripheral nervous system (neuropathy, facial nerve, trigeminal neuralgia), considering an increase of C-reactive protein were performed anti-inflammatory therapy with NSAIDs and steroids (Dexamethasone intramuscularly). In patients with convulsive syndrome EEG was monitored using the "Neuron - range 2" (Russia). Diffusechangesinthebioelectricalactivityofthecerebralcortexwererevealedinthestudiedpatients.Epiactivityinthefronto-parietalregionofthebrain (against the background of taking anticonvulsants)was also recorded. The dose of anticonvulsants was increased for these patients and decongestants were prescribed. An increase in fibrinogen was also noted in the blood of these patients. Conclusion: Thereby, in patients after suffering COVID-19, the blood tests showed an increase of fibrinogen by more than 2 times and an increase of C-reactive protein. All this testifies the fact that in these patients after treatment, at the alleged improvement of their condition, the blood continued the process of thrombosis strengthening and inflammation persisted in tissues and organs. In patients who prematurely stopped taking antiplatelet agents and anti-inflammatory drugs after illness, neurological and other complications were developed

CLINICAL AND PATHOGENETIC STRUCTURE OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SYNDROMES IN COVID-19 DEPENDING ON GENDER DIFFERENCES

Khodjiyeva Dilbar Tadjiyevna; Safarov Komiljon Kamolovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1458-1462

Currently, the world community is faced with a new infectious disease that has not only medical, but also enormous socio-economic significance - the COVID-19 pandemic. (coronavirus disease 2019). The article discusses brief etiopathogenetic aspects of the new coronavirus infection. The role of some of the factors contributing to the development of nephro- and cerebrovascular disorders in COVID-19 is discussed. Results of work on coronavirus infection summarized foreign researchers

CLINICAL REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL STROKE CAUSED BY A STROKE WITH COVID-19

Kazakov Bekzod Shodiyorovich; Khodjiyeva Dilbar Tadjiyevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1446-1451

Various possible and non-mutually exclusive mechanisms may play a role in the development of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. Long duration of mechanical ventilation (ALV) makes patients with COVID-19 who require invasive respiratory supportb more vulnerable to complications associated with the development of critical illness, including the risk of hypotension and inadequate cerebral perfusion; risk of relative hypertension leading to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; the possibility of septic embolism in the event of a bacterial infection; the possibility of cardiomyopathy and a concomitant decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction.

Herbal Potential In Indonesia For Adjuvant Therapy To Corona Virus-19 Disease

Dewi Wulantresna; Ade Zuhrotun; Anis Yohana Chaerunisa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1696-1707

From December 2019 until December 11, 2020, SARS-Cov-2 has cause 1,576,516 deaths to start in Wuhan, China, to 220 countries worldwide. In most people who have good immunity, the disease’s symptoms disease is mild. However, in people with comorbidities and older people, it can develop into pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and many organ disorders. This review aims to reveal the herbal plants that potentials are dealing with and complementary therapy because no specific drug exists for the Covid -19. Based on kinds of literature showed that some herbs that have antiviral activity are the potential to be anti-SARS-Cov-2 diseases (Covid-19), especially curcumin that exists in 6,34% of traditional medicine formulas in Indonesia. Herbal products Stimuno® (Phyllantus niruri herb extract), New Divens®(Phyllantus niruri herb extract, Nigella sativa cement extract), Vipalbumin Plus® (Ophiocephalus striatus extract), and Lianhua Qingwen®(a combination of 13 herbs) that clinically proven to Helps improve the immune system. The National Agency of Drug and Food Control (NA-DFC) recently assisting 13 herbal drug research studies for covid-19 agents as an acceleration process to obtain distribution permits. This is way herbal medicine can be a complementary preventive and adjuvant therapy for COVID-19. However, this hypothesis requires experimental validation on the infection model of SARS-Cov-2 and COVID-19 patients. Many research further still need to find a specific cure for the disease by herbs, vaccines, or antivirals. Even though the number of Covid patients continues to increase in Indonesia and worldwide, but we always have any hope.

Convalescent Plasma Therapy Against Covid-19: A Comprehensive Review

Dr Suchitra Shenoy M, MD; Dr Pooja Rao, MD; Dr Deepa Adiga S A; Dr Nikhil Victor Dsouza, MD; Dr Basavaprabhu Achappa MD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3374-3384

The pandemic COVID-19, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to create havoc all over the world having caused more than 40 million cases and more than 11,32.528 deaths worldwide as of October 21, 2020. The treatment of COVID-19 is proving to be a challenge to the medical fraternity worldwide with no specific drug therapy or vaccine available in sight. The use of Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy, a form of passive immunization, in the treatment of COVID-19 has been gaining ground all over the world including India as convalescent plasma therapy has been used previously in virus infections like MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, H1N1 and other viral infection with some success, when the situation was similar as in any infectious outbreak situations. This review looks at CP therapy as a possible treatment option for COVID-19 in terms of: type of antibodies in the convalescent plasma, mechanism of action, possible adverse effects, current approval status and its limitations in the management of COVID-19.

COVID-19 care options: Facts and Challenges

Dr.Nandhana Prashanth V; Dr.Ravikanth P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5694-5700

In December 2019, an outbreak due to extreme acute Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cow-2) respiratory syndrome was first identified in Wuhan, China. The 2019 global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020 culminated in an extraordinarily strong risk for spreading. No medications in large-scale trials have been validated with substantial effectiveness of clinical care for COVID-19 patients considering the declining pattern of COVID-19. Remdesivir is deemed the most promising antiviral agent; it acts by inhibiting RNA-dependent polymerase RNA function (RdRp). No medications in large-scale trials have been validated with substantial effectiveness of clinical care for COVID-19 patients considering the declining pattern of COVID-19. Remdesivir is deemed the most promising antiviral agent; it acts by inhibiting RNA-dependent polymerase RNA function (RdRp). No medications in large-scale trials have been validated with substantial effectiveness of clinical care for COVID-19 patients considering the declining pattern of COVID-19. Remdesivir is deemed the most promising antiviral agent; it acts by inhibiting RNA-dependent polymerase RNA function (RdRp).

Effectiveness of Dexamethasone for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) due to Coronavirus: A Systematic Review

Tri Setyawat; Ari Setiyawan Nugraha; Sarifuddin .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 206-211

Estimates have suggested that up to 12% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have required invasive mechanical ventilation, with the majority developing acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS). Corticosteroids are the most potent anti-inflammatory drugs. The therapeutic mechanism of corticosteroids might base on attenuating the action of many cytokines that participated in the inflammatory reaction associating severe CAP However, the clinical and efficacy of dexamethasone in COVID-19 patients are currently unclear, so research is needed to know the effectiveness of dexamethasone therapy in patients with COVID-19. This research uses a structured analysis focused on preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyzes (PRISMA) in order to classify all existing literature with appropriate keywords. The database using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews & Meta Analyses) for instruments and used flowcharts based on the 2009 PRISMA checklist and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, we found that dexamethasone resulted in a significant increase in the number of ventilator-free days (days alive and free of mechanical ventilation) over 28 days in patients with COVID-19 and moderate or severe ARDS.

Desirable And Undesirable Effects Of Air Purifier In Clinical Settings During Covid-19 Pandemic

Dr. Shilpi Gupta; Dr. Himangi Dubey; Dr. Amit Rai; Dr. Pallavi Singh; Dr. Nitin Jhunjhunwala; Dr. Shreya Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 233-236

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus which causes the COVID-19 disease, is mainly transmitted through contact with infected persons according to WHO. Breathing, as well as coughing and sneezing releases tiny infectious droplets into the air which potentially contaminate surrounding surfaces and of course the air in the immediate surrounding. These droplets, so called aerosols, can be of varying sizes, from 1 to over 10 μm (micron or micrometre, 1 micron equates to 0.001 mm). It is assumed by experts that viruses do not fly occasionally in the air but are always enclosed in droplets or attached to other particulate matter. This raises the question in which way ventilation and air-conditioning systems play a role in the transmission or containment of epidemic diseases like COVID-19. Maintaining a healthy indoor air quality thus becomes a general, basic – yet extremely important – necessity. While this is true at all times, it’s imperative in times of a wider health crisis to avoid not only the direct spread of a virus, but to support peoples immune systems to withstand more serious impacts by an aggressive disease and thus reducing pressure on a healthcare system fighting against overload.

A Review of Novel Corona Virus Disease (SARS-CoV-2)

Anu Kumar; Navdeep Arora; Sushant Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4695-4709

The coronavirus (CoV-19) is exceedingly virulent and disease-causing infection produced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome which is developed in China (Wuhan) and then expended globally. In the evolutionary examination declared that SARS CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are phylogenetically similar to each other while both were belonging to same family, same entry receptor ACE2 and both have common reservoir for viral infection and rapidly spread by the physical contact of suspected person to healthy person. The no. of cases of infected persons increased globally yet not controlled but still there clinically affirmed antiviral medicines have been check out against coronavirus disease. The structural examination of spike proteins and ACE2 receptors further subgroups properly explains the protocol of viral transmission a) alpha, b) beta, c) gamma, d) delta. International committee on taxonomy of viruses (ICTV) named novel virulent infection as SARS-CoV2 as virus and covid-19 as disease. SARS-CoV2 infected patients are of two types asymptomatic and symptomatic, both were capable to transfer the virus from infected individual to healthy individual and disease risk is not same for the all-age groups. We survey the comparison of SARS-CoV and SARS-COV2, Characteristics of coronavirus, molecular characteristics of SARA-CoV2, mechanism of entry, transmission and precautions. We also discussed therapeutic combination and effective drugs used to slow down or overcome with the covid-19 pandemic. At last, 80% infected patients were properly recovered from this viral infection covid-19 without any clinical consideration they recover with their own strong immunity and fight against infection.

COMPOSITION AND USES OF N95 MASKS -A REVIEW

J. Dhivyadharshini; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; M. P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1529-1540

The key aim of this article is to provide a description of the structure and uses of N95 mask that is necessary to advance Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE) during this COVID19 pandemic. Examples of personal safety gear designed to shield the user from infectious debris and from fluids contaminating the skin include the N95 respirators and medical masks (skin covers). A commercially available N95 respirator needs a suit factor of one hundred within the work-place to be deemed adequate. While we did not subjectively locate the respiration function needed with the prototype masks to vary from that necessary with a standard N95 filtering face device, this mask should not be used by people with respiratory risk of any sort. Although testers wear the masks easily for an hour, at any point in strenuous work or adverse environmental environments we can not think about their usefulness. This review offers detailed knowledge and appreciation of the structure, applications of N95 masks and, in turn, the advantages of N95 masks over other forms of surgical masks. Limitation and prospective range of the research were also addressed, as this subject is necessary to advance PPE in this COVID19 pandemic. This research contributes greatly to learning about the composition and uses of N 95 masks, and also helps to educate and make the general public informed of the critical role of N 95 masks during this pandemic assault.

OBESITY AS A MAJOR RISK FACTOR IN N- COV DISEASE

J. Dhivyadharshini; A.S.Smiline Girija; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 367-375

The review gives an overview on the relation between obesity and n-CoV disease. A review has been done to understand the correlation of obesity with the n-CoV disease by retrieving a maximum of related articles from various search engines like PubMed, Google Scholar, MeSH, Core, Cochrane, bioRxiv, Semantic scholar and so on published from 2000 to 2020 (till date). Obesity is associated with SARS- CoV-2 which enhances inflammatory response in obese people compared to actual standard BMIs. Obesity is often specifically related to producing inflammation by triggering a cytokine storm in the lungs, which raises the likelihood of ARDS, thereby requiring respiratory assistance for the main issue. Obesity can hinder breathing by hampering the excursion of the diaphragm, inhibit immune responses to critical infection, it is pro-inflammatory and triggers diabetes and even oxidizing tension to worsen cardiovascular activity. This study indicates that obese people through respiratory viruses COVID19 are more likely to be hospitalized comparatively. The implementation of novel ideas on obesity control of ailments will certainly bring about a massive change. Constraining less dependence on recent literature in this area and also upgrading numerous research to increase consciousness among the general public so that they may take measures not to be vulnerable to COVID 19. The current research has shown a strong incidence of obesity in patients participating in medical treatment with SARS-CoV-2. Obesity can be hazard factored to SARS-CoV-2 severity which needs increased attention in susceptible individuals to take preventive measures.

Obesity As A Major Risk Factor In N- Cov Disease.

J. Dhivyadharshini; A.S.Smiline Girija; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2562-2571

The review gives an overview on the relation between obesity and n-CoV disease. A review has been done to understand the correlation of obesity with the n-CoV disease by retrieving a maximum of related articles from various search engines like PubMed, Google Scholar, MeSH, Core, Cochrane, bioRxiv, Semantic scholar and so on published from 2000 to 2020 (till date). Obesity is associated with SARS- CoV-2 which enhances inflammatory response in obese people compared to actual standard BMIs. Obesity is often specifically related to producing inflammation by triggering a cytokine storm in the lungs, which raises the likelihood of ARDS, thereby requiring respiratory assistance for the main issue. Obesity can hinder breathing by hampering the excursion of the diaphragm, inhibit immune responses to critical infection, it is pro-inflammatory and triggers diabetes and even oxidizing tension to worsen cardiovascular activity. This study indicates that obese people through respiratory viruses COVID19 are more likely to be hospitalized comparatively. The implementation of novel ideas on obesity control of ailments will certainly bring about a massive change. Constraining less dependence on recent literature in this area and also upgrading numerous research to increase consciousness among the general public so that they may take measures not to be vulnerable to COVID 19. The current research has shown a strong incidence of obesity in patients participating in medical treatment with SARS-CoV-2. Obesity can be hazard factored to SARS-CoV-2 severity which needs increased attention in susceptible individuals to take preventive measures