Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Hyperglycemia


CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-DIABETIC HYPERGLYCEMIA PATIENTS TREATED IN INTENSIVE CARE

Amaliah .; Satriawan Abadi; Andi Makbul Aman; Syakib Bakri; Hasyim Kasim; Khalid Saleh; Himawan Sanusi; Fabiola.M.S. Adam; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2644-2657

Background of study: Hyperglycemia often occurs in critically ill patients even without a history of diabetes. Hyperglycemia, in hospital, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) is defined as a condition in which blood glucose levels are ≥140 mg/dl and HbA1c ≤6.5, without any prior diabetes history. Hyperglycemia results from an endocrine and metabolic response to stress. Studies and literature regarding hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients in Indonesia are deemed limited, especially case studies of non-diabetic hyperglycemia in intensive care and the prevalence of hyperglycemia related to age, sex, metabolic risk (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia), history of parenteral nutrition, history of corticosteroids use, and disease diagnosis.
Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study using medical record data of patients at the HCU, ICU, Brain Center, and CVCU PJT Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital in August 2020 - October 2020. This study involved 90 non-diabetic subjects in intensive care. The inclusion criteria were based on the ADA criteria for non-diabetic hyperglycemia in the hospital.
Results: This study involved 44 non-diabetic hyperglycemic patients and 46 non-diabetic patients without hyperglycemia with a mean age of 53.5 years in non-diabetic hyperglycemic subjects and 57.7 years old in subjects without hyperglycemia. Non-diabetic hyperglycemia subjects with obesity (34.1%), hypertension (61.5%), and dyslipidemia (46.9%). Subjects with hyperglycemia with a history of corticosteroid use (95%). Based on the diagnosis of the disease when the subject was in intensive care, the subject with a diagnosis of CHD had hyperglycemia (36.8%), stroke with hyperglycemia (58.8%), and other diagnoses (infection, tumor, postoperative, and trauma) accompanied by hyperglycemia (57, 1%).

PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING DIFFERENT OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENTS(OPDs) OF A PRIVATE DENTAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, CHENNAI, INDIA - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Vaishnavi Devi. B, Pratibha Ramani, Delphine Priscilla Antony. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3300-3316

Diabetes mellitus is a group of physiological dysfunctions characterised by increased blood
glucose level resulting directly from insulin resistance or impaired insulin secretion leading to
micro and macrovascular complications. The oral complications of diabetes mellitus includes
increased incidence of dental caries, dry mouth, burning mouth syndrome and periodontitis.
Assessment of blood glucose levels is essential prior to any specialised procedure to avert any
further oral and systemic complications. Screening of diabetes mellitus condition has become
a necessity in developing countries and study of this nature will have enormous public health
impact. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients visiting
different outpatient departments of private dental college hospital, Chennai. All the cases
referred from the month of June 2019 to March 2020 for random blood sugar tests were
chosen for the study. Data was collected from the dental hospital record system. Result data
was tabulated in excel and imported to SPSS for correlation and association. P<0.05 was
considered to be the level of statistical significance in this study. Within the limits of the
present study, diabetes mellitus prevalence in random blood sugar tested patients is 33.3 %
with a higher male incidence and more prevalent among the age group of 41 to 60 years.
Knowledge about the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the patients visiting dental hospital will
be helpful to the clinician to prevent any further complications before any specialised
procedure.

PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AND HYPERTENSION AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING DENTAL IMPLANT TREATMENT - A HOSPITAL BASED ASSESSMENT

Vaishnavi Devi. B Priya lochana Gajendran Delphine Priscilla Antony. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3308-3324

The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyse the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among patients undergoing  dental implant treatment in a dental hospital. All the patients reported in the month of June 2019 to March 2020 for implant placement was chosen for the study. Implant placement data of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension was collected from the dental hospital record system. Result data was tabulated in excel and statistical analysis was done using Statistical Software for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The non parametric Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients undergoing implant placement is 4.2%, hypertension is 2.2% and coexisting diabetes mellitus and hypertension is 1.7% with a higher incidence in the male population and more common in the age group of 40 to 60 years. Knowledge about the prevalence of these conditions will be helpful to the clinician for proper management setup and precise diagnosis before implant therapy can prevent surgical and postoperative complications resulting in long term success of dental implants

Advanced Glycation End-Products In Diabetes Complications

Anush N; Bineesh C. P.; Jeena Gupta; Pranav Kumar Prabhakar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2190-2198

Diabetic complications, such as, retinopathy, nephropathy lead to blindness and end stage renal failure respectively, various neuropathies, and ultimately increased mortality. While the exact mechanisms that lie behind the pathological changes associated with diabetes remain obscure, however, it is widely believed that chronic or intermittent hyperglycemia may alter various metabolic pathways at the tissue level, for instance, increased flux through the polyol and the hexosamine pathways as well as a persistent activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose may react non-enzymatically through their carbonyl groups with free amino groups of proteins (commonly the Ɛ amino group of lysine) to form a Schiff base intermediate which then rearranges to a more stable structure known as Amadori product. The Amadori products generated by the aforementioned Maillard reaction may then undergo further reactions, including dehydration, oxidation and rearrangement resulting in the irreversible formation of heterogeneous advanced glycation end products (AGEs)

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF DENTAL STUDENTS IN MANAGING HYPERGLYCEMIC PATIENTS INDICATED FOR EXTRACTION

Prabhav Kumar Iyer; Dr. Deepika Rajendaran; Dr. Sarvana Dinesh S.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 660-676

Hyperglycemia is a condition in which there is an increase in the blood glucose level of the person. It is one of the most common systemic conditions in middle aged Indians. It is important for a dentist and dental students to be aware of the condition especially while performing invasive procedures as delayed wound healing, coma and hypoglycemic shock are some of the most common complications encountered in some patients. Hence, it is important to know about this condition to prevent any kind of medical emergency on a dental chair. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of dental students while managing hyperglycemic patients indicated for extraction. This study was carried out in a self administered questionnaire format among the students of a dental university. The questionnaire was created on an online platform called “Survey Planet” and was filled by 100 students. The questionnaire consisted of the major aspects of knowledge on hyperglycemia and how students will manage the patient before performing the extraction procedure on them. Based on the tabulated results, it was seen that dental students have greater knowledge towards dealing with hyperglycemic patients indicated for extraction. 64% said that they can perform extraction on a hyperglycemic patient. 93% said that they would test an elderly patient to check their blood glucose level before the procedure. 72% were aware of the management of hyperglycemia. 45% of the participants said that they would do the treatment only after the patient consulted a physician. 11% said that they would deny the treatment. 82% of the participants said that they would keep the appointment for the extraction in the morning. Thus we can conclude that dental students have good knowledge and attitude toward managing hyperglycemic patients indicated for extraction