Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Oral submucous fibrosis

Expression of proinflammatory cytokine INTERLEUKIN 6 in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma: Immunohistochemical study

Dr. Shruthi Rangaswamy; Dr. Rajkumar G C; Dr. Sharada P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 5823-5832

Introduction: Interleukin 6 is a proinflammatory cytokine indicated in many types of cancer.
Increased cytokine levels are found in oral submucous fibrosis which is a premalignant
condition. Immunohistochemical evaluation of interleukin 6 will help in better understanding
of progression of OSF and OSCC
Materials and methods: Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded oral submucous fibrosis tissue
blocks were obtained from departmental archives. 40 samples each of early, moderately
advanced and severe OSF were randomly selected. 20 samples of normal mucosa and 20
samples of OSCC were selected. Immunohistochemistry was performed, quantitatively and
qualitatively assessed for expression of IL 6.
Results: The test results demonstrated a significant difference in the percentage of expression
in the IL-6 expression between 3 groups ( P<0.001).. Higher intensity and percentage of
expression was found in OSCC and the expression was cytoplasmic. Despite having an
increasing trend in the expression of IL-6 based on tumour grade, there was no statistically
significant difference noted. OSF group showed higher mean Q scores as compared to control
group but the difference was not statistically significant. Despite having an increasing trend in
the expression of IL-6 based on tumour grade, there was no statistically significant difference
Conclusion: Interleukin 6 is consistently expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma but not in
OSF tissues. Immunohistochemical marking of interleukin-6 in surgically excised oral
squamous cell carcinoma specimen may help in understanding prognosis.

Comparative evaluation of Immunohistochemical expression of MT-1 MMP, TIMP-1, TGF-β1, α-SMA in oral submucous fibrosis and oral submucous fibrosis with coexisting Oral Squamous cell carcinoma

Sharma Nidhi; Gawande Madhuri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1994-2002

Abstract: Background : „Oral submucous fibrosis” (OSF) is chronic, progressive, and
irreversible disease but also as oral potentially malignant disorder with high probability of
malignant transformation. From a clinical as well as the histological point of view it
appears to be of major importance to establish and understand the molecular nature of the
mechanism of malignant transformation in OSF .So that these molecules could be targeted
to formulate a standard treatment for high risk cases of OSF patients in need for better
prognosis. Material and Methods: 25 Cases of “oral submucous fibrosis .” and 25 Cases of
oral Submucous Fibrosis with coexisting oral squamous cell carcinoma will be analyzed.4
μm thick sections of formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks were immunohistochemical
stained with Polyclonal rabbit MT-1 MMP antibody , Monoclonal mouse TIMP-1 antibody
,Monoclonal mouse TGF-β1antibody , Monoclonal mouse α-SMA antibody in each case
Statistical Analysis: Sample size formula based on difference between two proportions:
This study uses the following formula for the sample size n: n = (Zα/2+Zβ)2 * (p1(1-
p1)+p2(1-p2)) / (p1-p2)2,
Discussion: The Incidence of malignant potential in OSF has been estimated to be 7-13%².
After years of persistent efforts and research, satisfactory and definitive treatment modality
still eludes us. These markers could be used on regular basis to assess malignant potential
of OSMF. This will help to formulate and decide the standard treatment plan with a better
regime of target drug therapy


Bhavika M Khated; Rahul M Jain; Shravani G Deolia; R Zothan Puii; Wendy M Ralte; Gargi Nimbulkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1958-1969

Background: OSMF is a chronic debilitating but preventable and curable oral disease with potential of malignant transformation. It affects oral, oropharyngeal, and sometimes the oesophageal mucosa. The treatment of OSMF varies according to the stages and early detection is the key for appropriate management and prevention of progression of disease.
Aim: Comparative evaluation of cheek flexibility using cheek retractor method and mouth blowing method and its correlation with Pindborg’s grading system for oral submucous fibrosis patient.
Material and method:The study included 118 patients who had been diagnosed with OSMF attending to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Patient who had diagnose with grade 4 OSMF are left out from the study. A detailed history and examination of the patients was performed with special emphasis on measuring cheek flexibility and mouth blowing method. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: Values obtained by cheek retraction and blowing method are not in association with Pindborg et al grading system.
Conclusion: It is essential to diagnose and treat OSMF as per the stage of the disease. None of the methods fulfills all the criteria necessitating the need to further do the research in this direction.
Clinical significance: This method can be used under resource constraint setting to grade OSMF.

Evaluation Of Serum Antioxidant Enzymes In Oral Submucous Fibrosis And Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma- A Clinical And Biochemical Study

Dr. Rakesh G Oswal; Dr. Nandan Rao K.; Dr. Prashant Mall; Dr. Ishita Grover

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3205-3209

Background: The present study evaluated serum antioxidant enzymes in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials & Methods: 30 cases of OSMF and 25 cases of OSCC of both genders. 30 healthy subjects were also enrolled. 6 ml of blood samples were collected with a tourniquet applied 1½-2 inch above the antecubital fossa. The collected blood was centrifuged and the plasma separated was analyzed for vitamin E, beta carotene, MDA. Results: The mean vitamin E level was 7.19 in group I, 6.52 in group II and 9.12 in group III. Beta carotene level was 70.3 in group I, 62.3 in group II and 114.5 in group III. MDA level was 9.16 in group I, 13.4 in group II and 2.91 in group III. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: There was increased level of MDA and decreased level of vitamin E and beta OSMF and OSCC patients.

Treatment options for Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder (OPMDs)

Dr B. Ishwariya; Dr. N.Aravindha Babu; Dr. K.M.K. Masthan; Dr. N. Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1832-1843

Oral Cancer is a deadly infection, causing serious mortality and morbidity globally. Almost all oral cancerous lesions are derived from Oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD). Among overall 60 to 70% of the Indian patients were introduced for therapy just in the advanced stage of oral malignant growth prompting a high death rate. The absence of public awareness about the screening and treatment during the premalignant stage along with the lack of knowledge for early detection by medical and health care providers are the main reason for this diagnostic delay and treatment initiation. This article aims to give different treatment options for Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder (OPMD) to prevent the progression of OPMD into malignancy.


Nivethitha R; Dr.Deepika Rajendran; Dr. Saravana Dinesh S.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1221-1236

Oral submucous fibrosis(OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder of oral mucosa affecting mainly the population in south and southeast Asia. OSMF is precancerous condition caused by areca nut chewing characterised by restricted mouth opening, burning sensation and stiffness and blanching of oral mucosa.Complete regression of the condition had not been achieved in all cases with any of the present treatment regimen.The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge among dental students about the significance of Oral Submucous Fibrosis and it’s management. The questionnaire based study was conducted among 100 participants. A self administered questionnaire was used. The questionnaire based study was conducted through an online forum , google form software. The questions were formed to observe knowledge,attitude,and practical approach of dental students towards treating OSMF patients attending private dental hospitals .The data collected were stored and results were analysed by SPSS software. Out of 100 participants, 55% participants reported that females have an increased prevalence of OSMF compared to male. Majority of participants were aware that betel quid were the most common habits and blanching mucosa were the common features associated with OSMF. 60 % of participants were aware that stopping gutka / pan chewing habits alone will not resolve the problem in patients having trismus. Within the limits of the present study, students showed good knowledge on the various clinical and diagnosis aspects of Oral submucous fibrosis, however the knowledge on the management aspect of oral submucous fibrosis was moderate. A better knowledge of OSMF will endure safer health care services for the population.