Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Oral submucous fibrosis

Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in patients visiting dental college: A cross-sectional study

Dr Snover Amin, Dr Rimsha Ahmed, Dr Moin Banday

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5436-5444

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is the oral premalignant lesion with the
highest malignant potential. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is increasingly
recognised as an Indian illness worldwide. It has one of the highest rates of malignant
transformation among potentially malignant oral lesions and diseases, making it a
source of concern for dental specialists. Understanding the precise involvement of
alkaloids and other etiological factors in pathogenesis would aid in the management and
treatment of the disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of
OSMF in betel nut chewers of various ages who visit the Dental College and Hospital.
Materials and Methods: The study included 798 OSF patients who visited the
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology dental outpatient clinic over the course of
18 months. In the presence of visible light, a thorough case history and clinical
examination were conducted. OSMF was diagnosed based on difficulties in opening the
mouth and the presence of blanched oral mucosa with palpable fibrous bands. Burning
sensations, salivation, tongue protrusion, tobacco intake habits, and related malignant
alterations were among the other diagnostic symptoms. The research looked at age
groups, habit length, habit frequency, and habit type. A basic correlation analysis was
carried out.


Dr.Soumya Ojha ,Dr.Ananya Bhargava , Dr.Apoorva Bhargava ,Dr.Astha Bhargava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 435-447

and objectives:
Dermatoglyphics is a newer science of forensic based study involving the fingertip and palmar
prints. In the field of dentistry dermatoglyphics has been used to unveil various oral diseases like
precancerous lesion, malocclusion, dental caries, cleft lip and palate etc. Hence with the help of
dermatoglyphics we can explore the association between various dermatoglyphic patterns and
occurrence of Oral submucous fibrosis.
A total of 60 participants (30 Oral submucous fibrosis patients and 30 healthy controls) were
included in the study. Tobacco habits was recorded for all the participants. All the participants in
the study were examined for intra oral findings.Dermatoglyphic patterns were also recorded.
There was significant increase in the whorl pattern among Oral submucous fibrosis group
(55.8%), whereas in control group loop pattern (66.6%) was found to be significantly increased
(p<0.05) .dat angle was also significantly increased in Oral submucous fibrosis group.
Whorl type of fingerprint pattern and dat angle found in our study would probably be served as a
candidate screening marker for susceptibility to oral submucous fibrosis in general population.

A quantitative analysis to evaluate the role of serum total and lipid bound sialic acid level as diagnostic markers in oral potentially malignant condition and oral squamous cell carcinoma

Dr. Saurabh Jain, Dr. Pranav Gupta, Dr. Naiem Ahmed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 551-558

Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer throughout the world and is a crucial issue in
regions where tobacco habits, in the form of chewing and/or smoking, with or without alcohol
intake, are common. Squamous cell carcinoma is the cause for 95% of oral cancers and is
associated with avoidable aetiological risk factors. The most successful means to enhance the
survival and reduce morbidity, damage, duration of treatment and hospital cost is the
detection of oral cancer at an early stage. It is essential to study marker levels in patients with
oral precancer who are at a high risk of developing oral cancer.
The present study was carried out to evaluate usefulness of serum Total Sialic Acid (TSA)
and serum Lipid-Bound Sialic Acid (LSA) as markers of oral submucous fibrosis and oral
cancer. Study consisted of 60 patients and 30 controls. There were 3 study groups, Group I
control, Group II OSMF, and Group III oral cancer consisting of 30 patients each. Serum of
all the patients in the control group and study groups were collected and stored at -20 oC until
analyzed. Levels of serum TSA and LSA were estimated spectrophotometrically. The results
also demonstrated that the assessment of TSA and LSA by simple, in-expensive and
reproducible methods can provide significant clinical information about the extent of
malignant disease and can differentiate between patients with oral precancer and oral cancer.

Expression of proinflammatory cytokine INTERLEUKIN 6 in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma: Immunohistochemical study

Dr. Shruthi Rangaswamy; Dr. Rajkumar G C; Dr. Sharada P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 5823-5832

Introduction: Interleukin 6 is a proinflammatory cytokine indicated in many types of cancer.
Increased cytokine levels are found in oral submucous fibrosis which is a premalignant
condition. Immunohistochemical evaluation of interleukin 6 will help in better understanding
of progression of OSF and OSCC
Materials and methods: Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded oral submucous fibrosis tissue
blocks were obtained from departmental archives. 40 samples each of early, moderately
advanced and severe OSF were randomly selected. 20 samples of normal mucosa and 20
samples of OSCC were selected. Immunohistochemistry was performed, quantitatively and
qualitatively assessed for expression of IL 6.
Results: The test results demonstrated a significant difference in the percentage of expression
in the IL-6 expression between 3 groups ( P<0.001).. Higher intensity and percentage of
expression was found in OSCC and the expression was cytoplasmic. Despite having an
increasing trend in the expression of IL-6 based on tumour grade, there was no statistically
significant difference noted. OSF group showed higher mean Q scores as compared to control
group but the difference was not statistically significant. Despite having an increasing trend in
the expression of IL-6 based on tumour grade, there was no statistically significant difference
Conclusion: Interleukin 6 is consistently expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma but not in
OSF tissues. Immunohistochemical marking of interleukin-6 in surgically excised oral
squamous cell carcinoma specimen may help in understanding prognosis.

Evaluation Of Serum Antioxidant Enzymes In Oral Submucous Fibrosis And Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma- A Clinical And Biochemical Study

Dr. Rakesh G Oswal; Dr. Nandan Rao K.; Dr. Prashant Mall; Dr. Ishita Grover

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3205-3209

Background: The present study evaluated serum antioxidant enzymes in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials & Methods: 30 cases of OSMF and 25 cases of OSCC of both genders. 30 healthy subjects were also enrolled. 6 ml of blood samples were collected with a tourniquet applied 1½-2 inch above the antecubital fossa. The collected blood was centrifuged and the plasma separated was analyzed for vitamin E, beta carotene, MDA. Results: The mean vitamin E level was 7.19 in group I, 6.52 in group II and 9.12 in group III. Beta carotene level was 70.3 in group I, 62.3 in group II and 114.5 in group III. MDA level was 9.16 in group I, 13.4 in group II and 2.91 in group III. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: There was increased level of MDA and decreased level of vitamin E and beta OSMF and OSCC patients.

Comparative evaluation of Immunohistochemical expression of MT-1 MMP, TIMP-1, TGF-β1, α-SMA in oral submucous fibrosis and oral submucous fibrosis with coexisting Oral Squamous cell carcinoma

Sharma Nidhi; Gawande Madhuri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1994-2002

Abstract: Background : „Oral submucous fibrosis” (OSF) is chronic, progressive, and
irreversible disease but also as oral potentially malignant disorder with high probability of
malignant transformation. From a clinical as well as the histological point of view it
appears to be of major importance to establish and understand the molecular nature of the
mechanism of malignant transformation in OSF .So that these molecules could be targeted
to formulate a standard treatment for high risk cases of OSF patients in need for better
prognosis. Material and Methods: 25 Cases of “oral submucous fibrosis .” and 25 Cases of
oral Submucous Fibrosis with coexisting oral squamous cell carcinoma will be analyzed.4
μm thick sections of formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks were immunohistochemical
stained with Polyclonal rabbit MT-1 MMP antibody , Monoclonal mouse TIMP-1 antibody
,Monoclonal mouse TGF-β1antibody , Monoclonal mouse α-SMA antibody in each case
Statistical Analysis: Sample size formula based on difference between two proportions:
This study uses the following formula for the sample size n: n = (Zα/2+Zβ)2 * (p1(1-
p1)+p2(1-p2)) / (p1-p2)2,
Discussion: The Incidence of malignant potential in OSF has been estimated to be 7-13%².
After years of persistent efforts and research, satisfactory and definitive treatment modality
still eludes us. These markers could be used on regular basis to assess malignant potential
of OSMF. This will help to formulate and decide the standard treatment plan with a better
regime of target drug therapy

Treatment options for Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder (OPMDs)

Dr B. Ishwariya; Dr. N.Aravindha Babu; Dr. K.M.K. Masthan; Dr. N. Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1832-1843

Oral Cancer is a deadly infection, causing serious mortality and morbidity globally. Almost all oral cancerous lesions are derived from Oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD). Among overall 60 to 70% of the Indian patients were introduced for therapy just in the advanced stage of oral malignant growth prompting a high death rate. The absence of public awareness about the screening and treatment during the premalignant stage along with the lack of knowledge for early detection by medical and health care providers are the main reason for this diagnostic delay and treatment initiation. This article aims to give different treatment options for Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder (OPMD) to prevent the progression of OPMD into malignancy.


Bhavika M Khated; Rahul M Jain; Shravani G Deolia; R Zothan Puii; Wendy M Ralte; Gargi Nimbulkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1958-1969

Background: OSMF is a chronic debilitating but preventable and curable oral disease with potential of malignant transformation. It affects oral, oropharyngeal, and sometimes the oesophageal mucosa. The treatment of OSMF varies according to the stages and early detection is the key for appropriate management and prevention of progression of disease.
Aim: Comparative evaluation of cheek flexibility using cheek retractor method and mouth blowing method and its correlation with Pindborg’s grading system for oral submucous fibrosis patient.
Material and method:The study included 118 patients who had been diagnosed with OSMF attending to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Patient who had diagnose with grade 4 OSMF are left out from the study. A detailed history and examination of the patients was performed with special emphasis on measuring cheek flexibility and mouth blowing method. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: Values obtained by cheek retraction and blowing method are not in association with Pindborg et al grading system.
Conclusion: It is essential to diagnose and treat OSMF as per the stage of the disease. None of the methods fulfills all the criteria necessitating the need to further do the research in this direction.
Clinical significance: This method can be used under resource constraint setting to grade OSMF.


Nivethitha R; Dr.Deepika Rajendran; Dr. Saravana Dinesh S.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1221-1236

Oral submucous fibrosis(OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder of oral mucosa affecting mainly the population in south and southeast Asia. OSMF is precancerous condition caused by areca nut chewing characterised by restricted mouth opening, burning sensation and stiffness and blanching of oral mucosa.Complete regression of the condition had not been achieved in all cases with any of the present treatment regimen.The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge among dental students about the significance of Oral Submucous Fibrosis and it’s management. The questionnaire based study was conducted among 100 participants. A self administered questionnaire was used. The questionnaire based study was conducted through an online forum , google form software. The questions were formed to observe knowledge,attitude,and practical approach of dental students towards treating OSMF patients attending private dental hospitals .The data collected were stored and results were analysed by SPSS software. Out of 100 participants, 55% participants reported that females have an increased prevalence of OSMF compared to male. Majority of participants were aware that betel quid were the most common habits and blanching mucosa were the common features associated with OSMF. 60 % of participants were aware that stopping gutka / pan chewing habits alone will not resolve the problem in patients having trismus. Within the limits of the present study, students showed good knowledge on the various clinical and diagnosis aspects of Oral submucous fibrosis, however the knowledge on the management aspect of oral submucous fibrosis was moderate. A better knowledge of OSMF will endure safer health care services for the population.