Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Antibiotics


Relevance Of Antibiotic Overuse: Covid 19: Super Gonorrhea: A Review

Dr. Srikanth Reddy Karra; Dr. Thummala Lakshmi Vengamamba; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Fawaz Abdul Hamid Baig; Dr Ambika K Nandini; Dr. Asfar Zeya; Dr. Mahendra Azad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1277-1281

Uncontrolled use of antibiotics to treat Covid-19 has unfortunately led to a revolt in
cases of super gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted infection (STI) which may even
become incurable. "Gonorrhea "superbug" had been reported by several countries,
including France, Japan and Spain, and this year also in the UK and Australia. The WHO
states that cases of gonorrhoea may become even more resistant to the most common
recommended treatment like azithromycin. These are extensively drug-resistant
gonorrhoea with high-level resistance to the current recommended treatment for
gonorrhoea like (ceftriaxone and azithromycin) including resistance to penicillin,
sulphonamides, tetracycline, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. New cures for gonorrhea
are urgently needed as people who are infected with it will infect others and accelerate
microbial resistance.

Etiopatogenesis And Treatment Of Maxillofacial Inflammatory Processes Using Penicillin Group Antibiotics

Makhmudov Jahongirmirzo; Pulotova Shaxzoda Karimovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3860-3866

Currently, inflammatory processes activate various systems in the body. This article reveals the etiology and pathogenesis of odontogenic inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region. Special attention is paid to the aggressive course of the inflammatory process with the defeat of deep cellular spaces, accompanied by pronounced endogenous intoxication. The author analyzes the importance of the use of antibiotics from the group of penicillins in the treatment of inflammatory processes of the maxillofacial region.

Treatment Strategies Of Cholera: A Review

Clara Basumatary; Rajinder Kaur; Sukhminderjit Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4889-4899

Cholera is a contagious diarrheal disease which spreads through contaminated food and water. It is caused by Gram negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroup. Cholera can potentially spread as epidemic or endemic. If undiagnosed and untreated at the earlier stages, it can result in dehydration and death. Different endeavors are made for the treatment of cholera. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), use of antimicrobials and antibiotics, probiotics and vaccinations are amongst the various alternative modes of treatment that can be used to treat cholera depending upon the severity of the disease. Also, antibiotics like tetracycline, azithromycin and doxycycline can be used synergistically for the treatment of acute infection and intense dehydration. Researchers have also advocated the use of different vaccines including oral cholera vaccine. In this review, we have provided a brief overview of the cholera disease and its pathogenesis along with different treatment strategies that can be used to treat it or reduce its symptoms.

Phytochemicals as new class of antibiotics to control Multi Drug Resistance

Satish Kumar Sharma; Tejinder Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1433-1442

Phytochemicals represent traditional knowledge of compounds effective in symptomatic relief and potential healing properties. The idea has emerged from the fact that natural resources such as neem, turmeric, cloves etc. have been used to cure health problems since a really long time. Even in the current modern world, people have more preference towards natural therapeutics than modern drug formulations. Antibiotics are the drugs which are most easily prescribed unnecessarily to attain extremely rapid symptomatic relief. The practice has led to natural selection of resistant bacterial strains which are spreading at an alarming rate. The world without antibiotics is horrible to contemplate and can cause uncontrollable mortality rate in future due to resistant bacterial infections. The review elaborates importance of phytochemicals as compounds of natural origin, easy production, industrialization scope, broad spectrum antibacterial capabilities to tackle the crisis of antibiotics in the ever growing era of multi drug resistance

An Analysis Of Adverse Drug Reactions Reported In A Tertiary Care Hospital

Preetha Selva; Roshini. P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3601-3610

The main objective of the study is to analyze the adverse drug reactions (ADRs)reported in our hospital and assess them using standard assessment scales. A total of 100 adverse drug reactions were analysed after screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study had 59% of males and 41% of females mostly belonging to age group of 40-60 years. Maximum adverse drug reactions were reported in General Medicine Department (22). Among the various drug groups, antibiotics caused the most adverse drug reactions (45) followed by anti-tubercular drug regimen (15) and Gastro intestinal drugs (14). The most commonly reported antibiotics were ciprofloxacin (19) followed by cefixime (6) and cefotaxime (4), piperacillin +tazobactam (3) , clindamycin(2) , vancomycin (6), amoxicillin + potassium clavulanate(3) and metronidazole (2). Ranitidine (14), Drotaverin (3) , levetiracetam (5), ringer lactate (3) injection ferric carboxymaltose (3) are the most commonly reported gastrointestinal, analgesic, anticonvulsant, I.v fluid and vitamin supplements to cause adverse effects respectively. The maximum adverse effects were reported by the drugs that are administered through parenteral route (83). The most commonly reported adverse effects were dermatological signs and symptoms likes rashes, itching redness etc.in about 88%patients. The causality, type of ADRs and severity were assessed using standard assessment scales. According to the respective assessment scales, the majority of the ADRs reported were probable (71%) type B reactions (68%) and mild in nature. (58%). Hence, this study serves as a database of adverse drug reactions reported in our hospital which could provide an important resource for clinicians to update their knowledge regarding the importance of ADRs monitoring and reporting and strict vigilant use of drugs which will ultimately lead to improved patient care.

CURRENT TRENDS IN ANTIBIOTIC PRESCRIPTION FOR VARIOUS PERIODONTAL FLAP SURGICAL PROCEDURE - A HOSPITAL BASED ANALYSIS

Niveda Rajeshwaran; GurumoorthyKaarthikeyan .; Priyalochana Gajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1427-1439

The aim of the present study is to assess the current trends in antibiotic prescription for various periodontal flap surgical procedures among periodontists in Chennai. Retrospective data collection was conducted from June 2019 to March 2020 on patients who visited the outpatient department of Periodontics for multitude of flap surgical procedures. The type of flap surgery done and the antibiotic regimen prescribed were recorded. The data was tabulated using excel and SPSS software version 23.0 (Statistical Package For The Social Sciences) was used for descriptive statistics.The distribution of antibiotics after flap surgical procedure among the above mentioned groups were expressed in terms of percentage. Chi square test was done to assess the association between the study variables.Based on this hospital based assessment, it was found that the most commonly prescribed antibiotic was amoxicillin 500mg, followed by a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole for flap surgical procedures like Open flap debridement, Resective osseous surgery and regenerative osseous surgery. The least preferred antibiotics were azithromycin and doxycycline.There was statistically significant association between gender and type of antibiotic given, with a higher percentage of males receiving a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole than females. There was no significant difference between the antibiotics prescribed for patients who underwent Resective or regenerative flap surgery. Thus Amoxicillin is the most preferred, cost-effective and less toxic drug which acts against both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. However care must be taken in administering antibiotics in order to avoid misuse and overuse of antibiotics.