Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : dental caries


Indugayathrie VT; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 729-743

The aim of this study is to assess whether chocolates i.e hard and soft candies consumption leads to increased risk of dental caries.
Hard and soft candies have high sugar content .Consumption of these chocolates has a high risk of  dental caries due to the presence of bacteria . These baterias use the sugar present in these chocolates as a medium of growth and releases acid during the breakdown of these sugars leading to dental caries.
 A cross sectional study was done using the online platform ,a questionnaire was formed and circulated . In this questionnaire the subjects' addiction level on chocolates were assessed. About hundreds participants' responses were recorded who were below the age of 23.
 When the final results were analysed, we found that most of the participants were mildly addicted to chocolates, and due to this prevalence of dental carries also increased.
So there is an association with the prevalence of dental caries and consumption of chocolates.

Metabolomic analysis of Biofilm formation in Streptococcus spp. associated with dental caries

Samer Salim Abed, P. Kiranmayi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8934-8953

Introduction. Dental Biofilm or plaque is an assembly of microbial cells attached to a surface encased in the extracellular polymeric substance, which plays a crucial role in infection persistence. Oral infections are caused by opportunistic pathogens that exist in normal balanced microflora of the oral cavity, but become pathogenic upon any alteration in the typical biological environment of the oral cavity giving them favorable conditions. The early colonizers such as Streptococci enhance the infectivity by remodeling the oral microbiome and the metabolome. This remodeling may allow other pathogenic Streptococcus strains such as  S.mitis, S.oralis, S.sanguia S. gordonii, S.mutans to colonize, which can potentially cause problems due to their inherent resistance to antibiotics and ability to form biofilms.
Methods. In this study, we performed mass spectrometry (MS) based metabolomic analysis of biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans strains linked to dental caries and those present in the oral microbiome of healthy persons to screen Streptococcus strains that can cause caries. Five clinical specimens from individuals who had caries disease (Caries active, CA) were compared with two isolates from the healthy oral dental microbiota (Caries free, CF).
Results and Discussion. Metabolomic studies were performed to identify the mechanism of biofilm formation and adaptations of bacterial strains to the human buccal cavity environment, which can lead to better diagnostic strategies and antibiotic development for streptococcus. The finding revealed metabolic variations in bacterial cells obtained from non-caries and caries subjects. These signatures though very general or broad can still be used to characterize the caries causing propensities of the oral cavity resident bacteria

Assessment of oral health problems among patients attending tertiary health care centre in Mumbai

Aftab Ahmed Siddiqui, Dnyaneshwar B Game, Anuradha Kunal Shah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2748-2753

Background: Oral health conditions are major public health concern affecting individual’s quality of life. This study was conducted to assess type of oral and dental morbidities in patients visiting a general outpatient department (GOPD) of a tertiary care hospital and study factors associated with these morbidities.
Methods: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted among 400 adult patients with oral morbidities or dental morbidities, aged 18-49 years, attending a GOPD in a metropolitan city from September 2017 to September 2019.Simple random sampling was done.
Results: Majority of the participants belonged to 36-49 years of age and were males. Lesions of oral cavity were seen in 10.3% and dental morbidities were present in 92% study participants. Male sex, residence in urban area and addiction history were significantly associated with presence of oral morbidities. Perceived state of teeth and gums, frequency of cleaning teeth, cigarette smoking in the last six months were significantly associated with oral morbidities (p<0.05).
Conclusion: There is need for continued awareness regarding prevention of caries and periodontal disease with emphasis on diet and dental floss.


Dr. Milind Wasnik; Dr. Arun Sajjanar; Dr. Suryakant Kumar; Dr. Shweta Bhayade; Dr. Niharika Gahlod; Dr.Sumit Rajewar; Dr.Durga Bhattad; Dr.Harshita Shukla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1417-1431

Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease involving various factors such as diet, microorganisms, tooth morphology, saliva, as well as genetic predisposition. The present study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in first permanent molar among 6-10 year old school going children in Nagpur Region Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the caries prevalence of first permanent molar in 6-10 year old school going children in Nagpur region Objectives: 1) 1) To determine the caries prevalence of first permanent molar in 6-10 year old boys and girls. 2) To determine the frequency of simultaneous presence of first permanent mandibular molar caries and its antimere in 6-10 year old school going children Methodology: A cross sectional study was done in government and private schools of Nagpur district of Maharashtra. Around 800- 1000 school going children between 6 to 10 years of age in the government and private schools of Nagpur were examined for first permanent molar caries. Results: The prevalence of dental caries in first permanent molars among 6-10 year old school going children was 47.48% Prevalence of caries in first permanent molars and DMFT increased with age.

The Association of Body Mass Index with Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Eriska Riyanti; Risti Saptarini Primarti; Andi Virga Zulhiah Pratiwi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1631-1640

Background: In the last few decades, industrialization, urbanization, economic development and market globalization have had a significant impact on changes in lifestyle and diet. Thus, food choices and nutritional intake greatly affect oral health and body weight. This has a significant impact on health and nutrition, particularly through higher carbohydrate intake and lower physical activity, particularly among younger members of the population. High sugar intake, such as sugar-containing snacks and soft drinks, was reported it is more common in children/adolescents who are overweight and obesity than those of normal weight. Frequent sugar intake is also a risk factor for dental caries. Given this, there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between dental caries and dietary intake has been associated with the development of obesity at a young age. Thus, it is possible to conclude that there is a biological relationship between dental caries and body weight. Objective: To see the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Methods: Scientific evidence and clinical cases were drawn from the literature to support this review and information on the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Result/Discussion: There is some scientific evidence showing a specific relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Conclusion:Body mass index has a significantrelationshipwiththeincidenceof dental caries in children. However, thisconditiondoes not account for which category the incidence of dental cariesis greatest. This is associated with multifactorial interactions that mutually influence the occurrence of dental caries in children.


Rakhmatova Dilnora Saidjanovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1477-1482

Caries can have a significant impact not only on the condition of the dentition, but also on general somatic health in general. As a result of the progression of caries, the occurrence of pain can lead to a decrease in the child's ability and unwillingness to drink, chew, there is a restriction in the choice of foods (sour fruits and vegetables, solid food), loss
of appetite. Malnutrition can lead to weight loss, iron deficiency, and stunted growth and physical development

Hall Technique: A Clinical Review

Dr. Shimoli Shah; Dr. Tripti Lath; Dr. D.Y.Patil Vidyapeeth; Dr. Radhika Thakkar; Dr. Jeel Chanchad; Dr. Mili Meghpara; Dr. Sudhir Laxmanrao Dumne

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8333-8337

Dental caries in primary teeth is considered as the most common oral disease of childhood and has been studied in different countries worldwide. Traditional methods of managing carious primary molars in children include restoration with amalgam, composite resin, compomer, glass ionomer, and stainless steel crowns (SSCs) using conventional tooth preparation or extraction. The Hall technique, a novel method for management carious primary molars where decay is sealed using Preformed Metal Crowns (PMCs), without any caries removal, tooth preparation or local anesthesia. Present review of literature provides insight view about Hall technique.

Influence of mouth breathing on oral health in children: A population-based crosssectional study in Nagpur city

Dr. Arunkumar Sajjanar; Dr. Nilesh Rojekar; Dr. Pankaj Chavan; Dr. Milind Wasnik; Dr. Niharika Gahlod; Dr. Harshita Shukla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7652-7659

Previous studies have suggested that mouth breathing has harmful effects on oral health in
children, but the evidence has been insufficient. To investigate the association of mouth
breathing with oral health in school children aged 8–11 years from Nagpur city , India
Materials and methods
Cross-sectional data were obtained from March to April 2019. A questionnaire was used to
investigate children's mouth breathing habits and personal/family histories related to allergic
disease. Oral health status was determined through a clinical oral examination. Data were
analyzed with multivariable logistic regression.
In total, 1007 children were included. We observed no association between mouth breathing
and dental caries in children. However mouth breathing was associated with child's tonsillitis
and was identified as a possible risk factor for class II dental malocclusion.


R. Hariharan; Dr. N.Aravindha Babu; Dr. K.M.K. Masthan; Dr. E. Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1792-1797

Oil pulling is a traditional therapy rehearsed in old India. It is accepted to treat more than thirty systemic diseases when rehearsed routinely and as coordinated. Because of event of results to present day medications and oral hygiene products, individuals are progressively pulled in towards reciprocal and conventional practices. Oil pulling notwithstanding offering a few oral and medical advantages has likewise gainful consequences for by and large wellbeing. The current article endeavors to review and describe this antiquated practice.

Optimization Of Diagnosis And Prevention Of Development Of Caries For Orthodonic Treatment

Fozilov Uktam Abdurazakovich; Rizayeva Sevara Mirgulamovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3714-3719

A wide range of scientific research is being carried out in the world to predict and detect early manifestations of caries in children during orthodontic treatment, as well as to optimize the effectiveness of diagnostic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures, existing diagnostic methods are already insufficient, there is an urgent need for additional research methods. From these positions, it seems promising to study diagnostic and therapeutic measures aimed at improving the quality indicators of orthodontic care for children. The development of the closest possible approach to the diagnosis and treatment of caries during orthodontic treatment in the early stages will help to obtain a stable aesthetic outcome in the treatment of orthodontic patients, and to avoid relapses. In modem orthodontic dentistry acute problem of prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, especially in children and adolescents who have not yet completed the process of mineralization of hard tissues: soon after teething create a situation of increased risk of tooth decay. The purpose of this paper is to analyze complex information about methods of prevention of dental caries in patients with removable and non-removable orthodontic appliances

Current Issues In The Proper Organization Of Modern Prevention Of Dental Caries In Children

Daminova Shakhnoza Badriddinovna; Makhsumova Sayyora Sanjarovna; Makhsumov Sharofiddin Minxojiyevich; Maxsumova Iroda Shavkatovna; Muxamedova Malika Sagdullayevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1524-1533

Dental caries is the most common chronic disease among the child population. Caries of milk teeth takes a special place in the structure of this pathology. Despite the improvement in the quality and expansion of the volume of preventive and therapeutic measures, the level of intensity and severity of early childhood caries in our country and the Perm region in particular remains at a very high level. There are more than a hundred reasons contributing to the development of carious process in milk teeth. Of these, the most important are socio-demographic, biological, dietary, hygienic and factors related to the type of feeding. In this case, the consolidation or weakening of the action of such in a number of circumstances will determine the emergence and further development of early childhood caries [69, 103]. In the classical sense, dental caries is a chronic infectious disease induced by a violation of diet.

Dark Chocolates: Friend or Foe – A Review

Dr. Gargi Nimbulkar; Ritika Parida; Dr. Kumar Gaurav Chhabra; Dr. Shravani Deolia; Dr. Shraddha Patel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1772-1778

Dental caries is a complex and dynamic process that involves both physicochemical & biological activities. One of the factors responsible for dental caries is cariogenic food. Chocolate being one of the junk food items, a very common misapprehension states it as main cause of dental caries, which is not true. Chocolates are one of the most beneficial and nutritious foods that nature can provide precisely dark chocolates. It is derived from the cocoa (also called as cacao). Dark chocolates (around 50%-60%) are semisweet in taste and extra dark chocolates (75%-90%) are bittersweet in taste. Plain chocolate, black chocolate or sour chocolate are some another names of dark chocolates. There are various types of chocolates which include dark chocolate. Although not every kind of chocolate is tooth friendly but the cocoa bean is the main good component, that make the chocolate healthier. Cocoa beans contain many minerals, antioxidants that not only good for the mouth and teeth but also the whole body system. Another phenolic compound found in cocoa husk beans is theobromine. These contents according to various studies conducted has shown anticariogenic properties. The most commonly associated microorganisms identified from carious lesions are Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. These substances have been shown to interfere with bacterial adhesion on the tooth surface and thus resulting in decreased microbial count. Polyphenol decreases the microorganisms that are present in the oral cavity, and prevent halitosis. It contains flavonoids that helps to supress the periodontal problems and also has a role to slow down the caries progression. This review is highlights the different types of chocolates, the contents of dark chocolates, the health benefits of dark chocolates with emphasis on anticariogenic properties.


Santhanam. P; Dr. Subash Sharma; Dr. Raghu Sandhya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 997-1005

Aim of the study was to assess the association of age and gender distribution in patients having class III/ class IV caries resulting in root canal treatment in upper and lower Anteriors. This is a retrospective clinical study carried between the month of June 2019 to March 2020. Data of patients with diagnosis of class III/ class IV caries and prognosis to RCT were collected. Thus a sample size of 56 was obtained and tabulated in excel. Excel tabulated data is transferred to SPSS software for analysis. Based on software analysis and chi square test results were tabulated. We got a result that male patients aged between the age group of 61-70 years are most affected by class III/ class IV caries resulting in root canal treatment. Maxillary right permanent central incisor [11] is the most common tooth to be affected anteriors in upper arch and mandibular left permanent canine is most commonly affected anteriors in lower arch. Within the limitations of this study, we observed that male patients showed higher incidence of class III, class IV caries resulting in root canal treatment compared to female patients. Class III and class IV caries are observed to be more prevalent in the age group 61-70 years. Thus early diagnosis and conservative treatment of class III and class IV caries can prevent teeth from progressing to RCT.


Ivan Obadiah; Deepa Gurunathan; Vignesh Ravindran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1189-1196

Stainless steel crowns have been proved to be successful and efficient full coverage restoration in pediatric dentistry especially after pulp therapy and for restoring multi-surface carious lesions. These crowns are usually pre-formed and are selected according to the size of the tooth that requires the crown. The purpose of this study is to determine the common reasons for requirements of back to back stainless steel crowns in the maxillary arch of children aged 2 to 6 years. This cross sectional observational study was carried out retrospectively by analysis of the case sheets for the treatment done with back to back stainless steel crowns in the right and left quadrants of maxillary arch and thereby determining the requirements for the same. Out of 69 pairs of back to back crowns, 90.4% of the teeth required pulpal treatments; 8% of the teeth required Class II restorations; 11% of the teeth were given back to back crowns as an abutment for space maintainers in the upper arch. Back to back crowns in the maxillary arch were placed mostly for teeth treated by pulpectomy, followed by abutments for space maintainers.


Subashri. A; Jayashri Prabakar; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1565-1579

Dental caries are reversible dynamic biochemical events, and remain a public health problem due to its characteristics, cost of treatment and effectiveness of quality of life.Dental caries has a highest and longest association with dental profession. Dental caries do not undergo any termination or diminution if untreated and required expertise and professional treatment. But the risk factors should be studied and modified so that dental caries can be prevented. Despite the fact that various successful treatment goals have been developed the disease is still prevalent. In olden days dental caries detection was considered as a boon.To assess the caries risk of 18 to 20 year old patients using cariogram visiting private dental College in Chennai city. A total of 170 patient records taken who visited college from the period of June 2019 to March 2020. Cariogram images taken and analysed individually. Data were tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics were expressed by means of frequency and percentage. Chi-square test was used to find the association of cariogram variables with age and gender. Out of 170 samples 32.4% of them were females, 67.6% males. Based on age group 23.5% of them were 18 years, 19 years - 38.8% of age and 37.6% of the population were 20 years of age. The significant association was observed between gender and fluoride, with more usage of fluoride measures by the males when compared to the females.


Anupama Deepak; EMG Subramaniam; Ganesh Jeevanandan; M. Jeevitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1302-1312

Dental caries in the form of early childhood caries is more prevalent in children. Severe form of caries extending throughout the coronal structure in the root can result in tooth pain. These kinds of teeth with caries extending to the pulp may require pulpectomy or extraction. Pulpectomy is a restorative treatment done in primary teeth which is used to extirpate the coronal and radicular pulp and seal the entire root canal using an obturating material. The obturating material is of different types. The commonly used material is the Metapex, which helps in the natural resorption of the roots, exfoliation and does not irritate the periapical region. Extraction in children can be due to trauma or grossly decayed teeth in children due to caries extending subgingivally or presence root stumps. Children presenting with class 2 caries have been exposed to caries involving the pulp. Early childhood caries is one of the most infectious diseases of childhood having a chronic progression rate resulting in the destruction of tooth structure. They are of different types and patterns being rampant caries, nursing bottle caries. This is generally associated with unusual dietary patterns and improper feeding patterns in children with prolonged use of baby bottles for milk feeding. Caries in children are mainly caused by the bacteria Streptococcus mutans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the primary teeth with caries requiring pulpectomy and extraction in children between 5-7 years old. A retrospective study was carried out using digital records of 903 subjects. These data were collected from DIAS and coded in MS Excel sheets. The collected data was analysed by computer software SPSS version 21 using Chi square test and graphical illustration was done. From the above study, it was found that extraction and pulpectomy was common in males, with prevalence of extraction in the maxillary arch among children of 7 years and pulpectomy in children of 5 years , and seen in the mandibular posterior region.


Anjana. G; Dr. Gheena. S; Dr.R. Balakrishna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1341-1345

Dental caries(DC) is one of the most prevalent oral diseases of health concern often affecting adolescents.Dental caries is a biofilm mediated,diet modulated, multifactorial, non communicable,dynamic disease resulting in net mineral loss of hard fissure of the oral cavity. It is determined by biological, physiological, behavioural and environmental factors of an individual. As a consequence a carious lesion is produced. People of all ages are affected by dental caries.Adolescents are individuals between 10-19 years old and proven to have a high caries experience. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of Dental caries among 10-19 years old patients visiting Saveetha Dental college between june 2019-april 2020. A total of 5445 patients data was analysed from their case records and analysed for incidence among gender,correlation with age.It was found that out of 5445 patients,3021 patients(73%) were male and 2412 patients(25%) were female and 2 patients(2%) were transgenders.Patients of the age group of 13-19 years had more incidence and the age group of 14-15 year old had least incidence. Within the limitations of this study it can be concluded that male patients have more DC than female patients among the 10-19 years age group in an outpatient population of a Dental College.