Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Smoking


Prevalence and risk factors associate with cholangiocarcinoma: A clinical study in tertiary care teaching hospital

Dr. Vipin Kumar, Dr R.P. Singh, Dr. Dillip Kumar Mohanty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 592-599

Background: Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra-and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,
is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of
cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown.There are
considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of
cholangiocarcinoma. Although it comprises only 10-15% of hepatobiliary neoplasms, its
incidence is increasing. There are several established risk factors for CC and few are
modifiable which will help in reducing the incidence.
Aims and Objectives: To study the Prevalence and risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma at
GMC Budaun.
Material and Methods: All types of cholangiocarcinoma cases above age of 40 years
admitted to Department of Surgery, GMC Budaun U.P., were studied for risk factors over a
period of two years.
Results: An incidence of cholangiocarcinoma was 0.032% in present study. Peak incidence
of cholangiocarcinoma was 4th to 6th decade of life with mean age of 61.92 years. out of
26 patients 13 patients (50%) were smoker and in those 13 patients 12 (92%) were smoking
for more than 10 years and 13 patients (100%) were smoking more than 10 cigarettes or
bidi per day. 18 patients were using chulha (69%) for cooking meals with coal as a primary
fuel.
Conclusion: In conclusion, we found associations with PSC, smoking and alcohol
consumption; however, further studies are needed to establish the risk factors in our
country Long term exposure to pesticides in patients, who are chronic smoker and exposed
to smoke from chulha are at higher risk of developing CCA than others in this socioeconomic
scenario.

TOBACCO CESSATION- “IT’S TIME TO QUIT”

Dr Rakesh Kumar Pandey; Dr Jeevan Josh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3410-3419

Tobacco consumption is one of the major health problems in public health sector. Among
tobacco consumption smoking is a leading preventable cause of death in developed as well as
developing countries. Cigarette smoking contributes to oral as well as general health issues
including Asthma, COPD and Cancer. A dynamic comprehensive approach is required for
breaking the habit of tobacco consumption in any form. Various studies conducted in the past
proposed that intensive tobacco cessation interventions involving behavioral support plays an
important role in the treatment of addiction. Public health professionals can play an important
role in creating awareness among people regarding the ill effects of tobacco consumption.
Public health professionals can create awareness through printed materials, newspapers,
magazines, media etc. Advertisement and promotion of tobacco products are needed to be
banned throughout the country. Government should take initiatives at central and state level
to establish tobacco cessation clinics (TCCs).In this review we discussed the efficacy of various
behavioral and pharmacological medications in tobacco cessation

IMPLANT FAILURE – A DENTIST’S NIGHTMARE

M. Rakesh mohan; Shivani D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1951-1955

Dental implants are commonly used in situations for replacement of natural teeth. Despite many advances, techniques, and implant-design, implant failure is a significantconcern for the patient and dentist. The dental implants are designed that best suits the various types of bone. Different etiology for the implant failure and their contributing factors has been discussed in this review article. The purpose of this concise review is to discuss the etiology of implant failure by highlighting the various classification put forth by different authors

Oral Cancer: A Retrospective Study of a Decade

Dr. Ruchi Bhuyan; Dr. Sanat Kumar Bhuyan; Sidhant Bhuyan; Akankshya Sahu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1200-1207

Introduction Head besides neck cancer(HNC) The word "avast" contains a variety of malignancy sites, including numerous oral cavity locations, such as maxilla, mandible, tongue, oral floor, oral mucosa, gingiva, mouth or pharynx and larynx. mouth cancer is amongst the most frequent cancers in tumors. The purpose of this research is to investigate the occurrence of HNC as well as its association with traditions, age , gender and place throughout India.
Aim: The goal of the research was to document the effect on Odisha coastal communities in East India for Head / Neck Cancer (HNC) and also its meanings by behaviors, age , gender as well as location.
Materials and methods: A study was conducted retrospectively between June 2009 and June 2019. A maximum of 1364 OSCCs (Oral squamous tissue carcinoma) were analysed with the results were statistically analyzed.
Result: Ratio of men to women 2:1 as well as average age between 40 and 59 years. Oral mucosa (48,97%) including tongue (16,49%) or maxila (6,94%) are now the most popular site for cancer, accompanied by lip (1 24%). Tobacco cigarettes and nibbling habits were prevalent amongst these people of eastern India as well as represented the greatest potential risk for onset of disease. Besides that, a strong relationship with OSSC has been discovered in the smokeless type with tobacco, particularly in females.
Conclusions: The result of this evaluation reveals the use of tobacco is among the main reasons for increasing oral cancer malignancy development. Therefore, it is important for an individual to be informed of this tobacco-linked cancer growth.

The Effects Of Smoking On The Relationship Between Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate And The Severity Of Coronary Artery Disease Based On Syntax Score

Eko Irawan Sudarmaji; Hasyim Kasim; Pendrik tandean; Syakib Bakri; Faridin HP; Hae-rani Rasyid; Khalid Saleh; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1440-1449

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor and caused high morbidity and mortality for coronary artery disease (CAD). Several scoring systems can be used in assessing the severity of CAD, one of which is using the SYNTAX score (SXscore). Smoking is one of the risk factors for the progression of CAD and CKD. Several observational studies have under-reported the smoking factor influencing the rela-tionship between eGFR and SXscore.
Methods: This research is an observational study with a cross-sectional approach conduct-ed at the Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar from July-August 2020. This study involved 62 CAD and CKD patients undergoing angiography. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was based on chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI).
Coronary angiography results were converted to SXscore and smoking grade based on the Brinkman index.
Results: This study involved 62 CAD and CKD patients male (71%), aged ≥ 55 years (77.4%), hypertension (71%), diabetes (35.5%), smoking (50%), eGFR G3a & G3b (53.9. %) and SXscore medium-high (50%). The results showed that lower eGFR could increase the SXscore (p < 0.001), especially in smoking subjects (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that gender was the most significant factor contributing to the relationship between eGFR and SXscore
Conclusion : The lower eGFR could increase the SXscore, where this correlation was more significant in smoking patients. Multivariate analysis showed that gender was the most significant factor contributing to the relationship between eGFR and SXscore.

“Effectiveness Of Structured Teaching Programme On Knowledge Regarding Adverse Effects Of Tobacco Usage Among B.Sc Nursing Students Of Sree Balaji College Of Nursing, Chrompet – Chennai”

Yerram Sai Rama Krishna Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6075-6079

Smoking leads to disease and disability and harms nearly every organ of the body. Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It increases risk for tuberculosis, certain eye diseases, and problems of the immune system, including rheumatoid arthritis. Secondhand smokers are also at great risk of developing certain disease conditions like stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease in adults.

Advice from Former-Smoking E-Cigarette Users to Current Smokers on How to Use E-Cigarettes as Part of an Attempt to Quit Smoking

Sasmita Das; Rubi Pradhan; Dinabandhu Barad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 839-848

The substitution of e-cigarettes with nicotine will almost remove the harm linked to smoking. Strategies that improve smokers' desire to use e-cigarettes rather than tobacco cigarettes are important. This must be understood. Current smokers who have successfully used E-cigarettes to quit smoking may be very useful for growing existing smokers' curiosity in converting and willingness to use E-cigarettes. In an online poll, the advice offered to smocks who intend to use e-cigarettes with e-cigarettes was asked of a global self-selected group from 4,192 former smokers who are stopping the smoking process. The subject of qualitative analysis of participant feedback established the following four main themes: (i) the mix of vaporizing devices, e-liquid flavors and the nicotine level 'functioning for all' and (ii) smoking for some time after the vaporization is begun OK; Experienced smoking vapors are able to give smokers tips and practical vapor awareness that can be useful when attempting to move from smoking to vaping. Encouraging smokers of tobacco to communicate with seasoned vapors as they were once told by vapers themselves, who are now recommending them on vaping shops who web communities – may have a tremendous ability to make more smokers transition to e-cigarette.

CORRELATION BETWEEN SMOKING AND SEVERITY OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Cinthura. C; Arvina Rajasekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1113-1120

Smoking is a highly prevalent addiction present worldwide, especially in India. It not only affects the pulmonary system but also has a major impact on oral health. Periodontal disease comprises a range of polymicrobial infectious diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis that affect the tooth-supporting structures. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for periodontal disease progression and can also alter treatment response. This study aims at associating the type of tobacco use and periodontal disease progression. This retrospective study was conducted among 500 patients using their records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019-April 2020 and patients who had smoking habits were identified. Data regarding their age, gender, type of tobacco use and periodontal status were collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (SPSS version 20.0,IL,Chicago,USA) for analysis. The results of the study showed that among the patients with smoking habits, individuals within the age group of 25-35 years (31.4%) showed the highest prevalence of tobacco use whereas people among 65-75 years (1.2%) had the least. Majority of the smokers were diagnosed with periodontitis (84.4%), followed by gingivitis (12.4%) but diagnosis of healthy gingiva was very rare (3.2%). Smokeless form of tobacco was commonly used (61.2%). There was a male predominance (94.2%). Smoking, especially the type of tobacco used and severity of periodontal disease was found to have a strong association (p=0.000). The study draws attention to the fact that tobacco usage has a negative impact on oral health and can lead to periodontitis.

Awareness On Risk Factors Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) Among College Students

A.Akshaya .; V.Vishnu Priya; K. R . Don; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2681-2699

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease characterised by obstruction in the airflow which interferes with the normal breathing pattern. The World Health Organisation ( WHO ) announced COPD will be the third common cause for death by 2020. The objective of study is to assess the level of awareness of risk factors of COPD and its complications among college students. A Self structured questionnaire was circulated among 100 participants within university. This survey was done online using google forms link. The questions were designed in order to assess the knowledge about COPD and its risk factors. The results and responses were collected and analysed by using SPSS software. The findings from the study were represented in pie charts. In our study about 85% of individuals were aware that COPD is a respiratory disorder. 52% of participants know the difference between COPD and asthma. 58% of individuals were well aware of the signs and symptoms of COPD. From the survey conducted, the awareness and knowledge about risk factors and complications of COPD is found to be moderate. Further future studies and management programs may be conducted to create more awareness to the individuals.

IMPACT OF SMOKING ON PERIODONTAL HEALTH

Kiruthika Patturaja; Arvina Rajasekar; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1099-1104

Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults. It is an inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. It is associated with various risk factors. Tobacco is one of the potent risk factors for periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to find the impact of smoking on periodontal health. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 200 male patients (Group 1: 100 smokers; Group 2: 100 non-smokers) were recruited. Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. The present study showed that smokers had a high prevalence of periodontitis (37.5%) when compared to non-smokers (8.5%). Whereas, non-smokers had a high prevalence of gingivitis (41.5%) when compared to smokers (12.5%). Also, there was a statistically significant association between smoking and periodontal health (p=0.000). The findings of the present study showed that smokers had increased risk of periodontitis than non-smokers.

ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL VARIANTS OF LEUKOPLAKIA WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOBACCO - AN INSTITUTION BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Gayathri Karthikeyan; Hannah R; Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1440-1448

The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of leukoplakia in different types of tobacco users. Tobacco utilization in India is increasing but there are considerable changes in the types and methods by which it is used. Oral cancer affects as many as 274,000 people worldwide annually 20. In this study The data collection was carried out during the period between July 2019 to march 2020. After searching through 86,000 patient records the Sample size for the study was taken as 93 patients diagnosed with leukoplakia. The data that was collected was tabulated in excel and then imported into SPSS software. Smoking form of tobacco was found to be used by 72.92% of patients. Smokeless form of tobacco use was noticed among 25% of the patients and a combination of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco used was noticed among 2.083% of the patients . Homogenous types of leukoplakia were found among 76.04% of the patients followed by the non-homogenous form which included about 23.96% of the patients. Males were the most common gender comprising about 96.88% of the patients and females comprised about 3.13% . It was also noted that the most common type of tobacco used was cigarettes. Chi- square test was done to associate the type of tobacco used and clinical variants of leukoplakia, it was not statistical significant (p=0.596). Within the limitations of the present study we were able to conclude that there was no association between the habit of tobacco use and the clinical variant of leukoplakia . Multicentric study with a larger sample size will give a more definitive outcome.

EFFECT OF SMOKING ON GINGIVAL HEALTH - A REVIEW

Reishy V; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayatri Devi R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1346-1352

Smoking is recognised as a risk factor for human health. It is related to many problems like respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, cancer, etc. Smoking is associated with incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It increases the number and depth of periodontal patients. Loss of tissue strength caused due to harmful compounds like tobacco, increase gingival recession and changes to the oral cavity. Prevalence of moderate and severe diseases are higher in smokers than non-smokers. Smoking affects both gingival epithelium and connective tissue. Density of blood vessels is decreased in smokers. Effect of smoking on vascular status is caused by nicotine compounds. This review was done based on the articles obtained from various platforms like PubMed, PubMed central and Google Scholar. They were collected with a restriction in time basis from 2000-2020. The inclusion criteria were original research papers. In vitro, studied among various conditions and articles that contain pros and cons. Exclusion criteria came into account for review articles, retracted articles and articles of other languages. All the articles are selected based on the effect of smoking on gingival health. Thus, smoking results in various oral health problems like incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It affects gingival recession and changes to the oral mucosa. This review article gives knowledge about the correlation between smoking and health of gingival treatment with various dental problems.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PEER PRESSURE AND RELAPSE DURING TOBACCO QUIT PROCESS

Keerthika Saravanan; Arthi Balsubramaniam; Santhosh Kumar MP

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1091-1098

It has been established that smoking is a very different addiction to break. Many smokers persist in
tobacco use for several years and cycle through multiple periods of remission and relapse Smoking is not a
single event process and relapse is an ordinary component of this process. International guidelines have
greatly emphasized on relapse prevention. Very few studies examine the association between the number
of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and physiological
distress. This study aims to evaluate association between peer pressure and relapses during tobacco quit. A
retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 75,000 patient records of University hospital for a period
of nine months from June 2019 to March 2020. About 150 case reports containing information on tobacco
dependence and quit rate (in terms of number of relapses) were retrieved and analysed. Descriptive
statistics was done to present the sociodemographic details. Chi-square association was done to find the
association. Most of the participants (34%) were in the age group 29-38 years, followed by 49-59 years
(26%), 19-28 years (24%) and 39-49 years (16%). About 13.3%, 20%, 4%, 10% of 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs,
39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs of patients respectively had peer pressure during their quitting process.About
11.3% 20%, 8.67 and 13.3% of patients in the age group 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs, 39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs had
no relapses during the quitting process.No significant association between age and number of relapses
(p=0.746; not significant). Hence proving no influence of age on relapse during quitting process. About
28% of patients with peer pressure and 25.3% without peer pressure had no relapse during quitting.
However 19.3% and 27.3% with and without peer pressure had >1 number of relapses. during their
quitting process,No significant association of peer pressure in relapse (p=0.295, not significant). No
influence of peer pressure on relapse during the quitting process. Peer pressure is not much influencing the
number of relapses during the quitting process, however a watch over this factor to be taken in account
during cessation counselling

RISK OF RESPIRATORY MORTALITY OR MORBIDITY IS HIGH WITH CHRONIC TOBACCO SMOKING IN INDIANS

M. Kaja Lakshmy, E. Prabhakar Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 99-103

Tobacco smoking is widely prevalent all over the world and it continues to rise in
developing countries. Smoking has a deleterious effect on pulmonary functions. Smoking
is the single most significant risk factor contributing to the development of Chronic
obstructive airway diseases (COPD). Spirometry by a trained health professional gives an
indication of lung health by measuring airway abnormality. Objectives were to study
pulmonary function test (PFT) in smokers and non-smokers Tobacco smoking, in the form
of cigarettes, has a deleterious effect on the health, mainly on the pulmonary functions.
Smoking is highly associated with an abnormal PFT. Cessation of smoking should be
encouraged and PFTs from time to time in asymptomatic adults both smokers and nonsmokers
will be useful for early identification of abnormalities.