Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Gingivitis


Immune Response Mechanism of the Gingival Epithelium in the Tissue Repair Exposed to Porphyromonasgingivalis Toxin on Topical Administration of Nigella sativa Extract

Shafira KURNIA; Jonathan STEVEN; Vincent LAKSONO

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 886-898

Background and Objectives: Periodontal disease is not the typical cause of pain experienced by sufferers. This discomfort is commonly observed in advanced stage. P. gingivalisbacteria infections, and Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) have been identified as the main virulence factors. Furthermore, numerous attempts have been exploited during treatment with unsatisfactory outcomes, including the administration of local or systemic antibiotics, periodontal curettage and flap surgery. Therefore, early prevention is one of the effective and efficient approaches, particularly involving the use of medical plants, and the natural material selected was black cumin (Nigella Sativa). The aim of this research, therefore, is to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa extract against the inflammation reaction and beta defensin-2 (BD-2) mechanism in gingival epithelium exposed to P. gingivalis LPS. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental research performed in the laboratory, using Randomized Posttest-Only Control Group Design. The animals used include white 45 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) randomly allocated to 3 research groups, comprising K (LPS P. gingivalis), P1 (N. sativa extract + LPS), and P2 (LPS + N. sativa). Furthermore, each set was subsequently divided into 3 on the basis of time span, at 4, 7, and 21 days. The tissue expressions of BD-2, and MMP-8 were examined using immunohistochemical techniques. Results: This investigation showed a significant difference between K, P1, and P2 groups at any span of time. Moreover, lower MMP-8 expression were observed in the P1 and P2 groups, compared to K on day 4, 7, and 21, while the BD-2 expression was higher in P1 (31.3) and P2 (32.2) than K (19.8). Conclusion: Based on the study results, Nigella sativa was determined to be capable of decreasing MMP-8 expressions, and increase BD-2, as part of the host innate response.

Correlation Between Oral Health Behavior and Modified Gingival Index in Chronic Kidney Disease

Arman Mikael Singara; Syakib Bakri; Hasyim Kasim; Faridin HP; Andi Makbul Aman; Haerani Rasyid; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1585-1589

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is related to poor oral health, including gingival and periodontal diseases. Poor oral health in CKD patients is an important problem, but often neglected. Oral health status also associated with the individual's Oral Health Behavior (OHB). The aim of this study is to assess the impact of OHB on gingival health status in CKD patients.

ROLE OF TRIPHALA MOUTHWASH IN GINGIVITIS AND PERIODONTITIS- A NARRATIVE REVIEW

M. Bhuvaneswari; Preetha Chaly Elizabeth; J. E. Nijesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1133-1140
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.118

Aim:To assess the effectiveness of Triphala against gingivitis and periodontitis. Triphala is a mixture of three myrobalans known as Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), Terminalia chebula (Haritaki)
Methods: A search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus database was conducted.
Results: Triphala possess varying therapeutic potentials. Particularly antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, anti collagenase and anti oxidant properties are of greater importance in dentistry. Various studies show that Triphala is equally as effective as a standard chemotherapeutic agent that is chlorhexidine in treatment and prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis respectively.
Conclusion: Triphala can be a promising therapeutic agent in treatment of gingivitis and peridontitis with no side effects on long term use.

Periodontal Diseases: A Review on Clinical Trials and Disease Management

Satish Kumar Sharma; Sameera Ali Siddique

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1026-1035

Periodontal disease refers to infection in tissues of oral cavity that leads to building of plaque and other bacterial infections such as halitosis, gingivitis related to same. Management of such issues is a need of the hour. Although many measures have been taken but still some of the side effects are faced while having therapy from synthetic materials. The present review discusses about herbal medications that are undertaken to provide herbal therapy, wherein methods adopted in few past years are discussed and then a conclusion is drawn regarding the same. Further, the paper also discusses about some bioactive materials that can be adopted for providing therapy in case of chronic conditions of periodontal disease. The biomaterial discussed here includes bioactive glass, wherein at last the conclusion was drawn that the bioactive glass has enhanced bioactivity and biocompatibility which inhibits demineralization and promotes remineralization thereby preventing the development of plaque on teeth and preventing the issues caused due to gingivitis or gum disorders

PREVALENCE OF GINGIVITIS IN 5-6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN WITH EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Anisha A Mahtani; Ganesh Jeevanandan; Ravindra kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1313-1321

Having a broad knowledge about the association of gingivitis in children with caries will give us a better insight on what to expect when the patient arrives and how to proceed with the treatments. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the association of gingivitis in 5-6 year old children with Early Childhood caries. This would enable us to understand the prevalence of various diseases in a population and help us to devise appropriate treatment plans. A retrospective study was conducted amongst 755 children aged 5-6 years who were diagnosed with Early Childhood Caries upon reporting to a dental hospital in Chennai from June 2019 to March 2020. The gingival health status of these patients was evaluated based on the digital case records. The data of 755 children were reviewed and the data was extracted. Data Analysis was done using IBM SPSS Software Version 20 to run Chi Square tests.The results revealed the overall prevalence of gingivitis among 5-6 year old children with ECC to be 18.3% with 81.7% of children with clinically healthy gingiva and no incidence of periodontitis. Prevalence of gingivitis among 5-6 year old children with Early Childhood caries was 18.3%. The study also found a statistically significant relation between gingival health and age of the patients with ECC.

ASSOCIATION OF PERIODONTAL HEALTH AND ANGLE’S MALOCCLUSION- AN INSTITUTIONAL BASED STUDY

Thanish Ahamed. S; Nivethigaa B; Mebin George Mathew

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1820-1826

Of the several pathologies that affect the oral cavity, malocclusion is the third most important problem in the world population. It not only affects the appearance but also affects the periodontal health. The aim of the study was to assess the association between periodontal health and different angle’s malocclusion. This retrospective study was conducted among outpatients reported to Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019 to March 2020. The study consisted of 300 patients (50 patients in each group). Patients were segregated into six groups based on Angle’s classification (Group 1: Class I; Group 2: Class II division 1; Group 3: Class II division 2; Group 4: Class II subdivision; Group 5: Class III; Group 6: Class III subdivision). The type of molar relationship was then correlated with the periodontal status. Out of 300 patients, the prevalence of gingivitis (92%) was higher among Class II subdivision patients and the prevalence of periodontitis (22%) was higher among Class II division patients. Also, the correlation between different types of malocclusion and periodontal health was assessed and found to be statistically not significant (p=0.306).

ROLE OF HERBAL MEDICINE IN DENTAL HEALTH- A DETAILED REVIEW

P. Anushya; A. Jothi Priya; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2185-2196

Dental Disease is one of globally affecting diseases. Oral bacteria involved within the bloodstream are linked to coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and stroke. Oral hygiene plays an important role within the prevention of oral diseases, including periodontitis, cavity and oral candidiasis. Consequently, the utilization of both chemical and mechanical plaque control is suggested for optimal oral hygiene. Sodium hypochlorite it’s not only irritant to the periapical tissues but also possesses disadvantages such of instruments, blazing of surrounding tissues, undesirable taste, high toxicity, corrosive to instruments, inability to get rid of the smear layer, reduction in coefficient of elasticity and flexible strength of dentin. As well as Antibiotics like tetracycline, penicillin, amoxicillin, metronidazole and antiseptics like chlorhexidine which are commonly used in dentistry, but they have many side effects. While herbal medicine is so effective in oral diseases and has less side effects. The present study is aimed at reviewing various extracts of herbal products and their effects on dental health. The articles were collected from pubmed, scopus and google scholars. The outcome is predicted on the previous studies which debate the role of herbal products in dentistry and this collected data is analyzed by using appropriate statistical tools. The use of herbal medicine in dentistry is helpful in reducing inflammation and controlling plaque formation. From this review study, it is evidenced that Ginger, Garlic, Aloe Vera and Miswak showed better results than conventional denitrificans in dental plaque and gingival inflammation reductions. The disadvantages of using herbal medicine like Clove oil is meant to cause serious problems like pharyngitis, vomiting, cytotoxicity, kidney failures, damage to the liver, seizures, difficulty in breathing and others if used in higher doses. Therefore, the Preclinical and clinical trials are needed to gauge biocompatibility and safety before herbal medicine are often recommended conclusively for oral care.

CORRELATION BETWEEN SMOKING AND SEVERITY OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Cinthura. C; Arvina Rajasekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1113-1120

Smoking is a highly prevalent addiction present worldwide, especially in India. It not only affects the pulmonary system but also has a major impact on oral health. Periodontal disease comprises a range of polymicrobial infectious diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis that affect the tooth-supporting structures. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for periodontal disease progression and can also alter treatment response. This study aims at associating the type of tobacco use and periodontal disease progression. This retrospective study was conducted among 500 patients using their records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019-April 2020 and patients who had smoking habits were identified. Data regarding their age, gender, type of tobacco use and periodontal status were collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (SPSS version 20.0,IL,Chicago,USA) for analysis. The results of the study showed that among the patients with smoking habits, individuals within the age group of 25-35 years (31.4%) showed the highest prevalence of tobacco use whereas people among 65-75 years (1.2%) had the least. Majority of the smokers were diagnosed with periodontitis (84.4%), followed by gingivitis (12.4%) but diagnosis of healthy gingiva was very rare (3.2%). Smokeless form of tobacco was commonly used (61.2%). There was a male predominance (94.2%). Smoking, especially the type of tobacco used and severity of periodontal disease was found to have a strong association (p=0.000). The study draws attention to the fact that tobacco usage has a negative impact on oral health and can lead to periodontitis.

Role Of Herbal Medicine In Dental Health- A Detailed Review.

P. Anushya; A. Jothi Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2497-2512

Dental Disease is one of globally affecting diseases. Oral bacteria involved within the bloodstream are linked to coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and stroke. Oral hygiene plays an important role within the prevention of oral diseases, including periodontitis, cavity and oral candidiasis. Consequently, the utilization of both chemical and mechanical plaque control is suggested for optimal oral hygiene. Sodium hypochlorite it’s not only irritant to the periapical tissues but also possesses disadvantages such of instruments, blazing of surrounding tissues, undesirable taste, high toxicity, corrosive to instruments, inability to get rid of the smear layer, reduction in coefficient of elasticity and flexible strength of dentin. As well as Antibiotics like tetracycline, penicillin, amoxicillin, metronidazole and antiseptics like chlorhexidine which are commonly used in dentistry, but they have many side effects. While herbal medicine is so effective in oral diseases and has less side effects. The present study is aimed at reviewing various extracts of herbal products and their effects on dental health. The articles were collected from pubmed, scopus and google scholars. The outcome is predicted on the previous studies which debate the role of herbal products in dentistry and this collected data is analyzed by using appropriate statistical tools. The use of herbal medicine in dentistry is helpful in reducing inflammation and controlling plaque formation. From this review study, it is evidenced that Ginger, Garlic, Aloe Vera and Miswak showed better results than conventional denitrificans in dental plaque and gingival inflammation reductions. The disadvantages of using herbal medicine like Clove oil is meant to cause serious problems like pharyngitis, vomiting, cytotoxicity, kidney failures, damage to the liver, seizures, difficulty in breathing and others if used in higher doses. Therefore, the Preclinical and clinical trials are needed to gauge biocompatibility and safety before herbal medicine are often recommended conclusively for oral care.

IMPACT OF SMOKING ON PERIODONTAL HEALTH

Kiruthika Patturaja; Arvina Rajasekar; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1099-1104

Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults. It is an inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. It is associated with various risk factors. Tobacco is one of the potent risk factors for periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to find the impact of smoking on periodontal health. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 200 male patients (Group 1: 100 smokers; Group 2: 100 non-smokers) were recruited. Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. The present study showed that smokers had a high prevalence of periodontitis (37.5%) when compared to non-smokers (8.5%). Whereas, non-smokers had a high prevalence of gingivitis (41.5%) when compared to smokers (12.5%). Also, there was a statistically significant association between smoking and periodontal health (p=0.000). The findings of the present study showed that smokers had increased risk of periodontitis than non-smokers.