Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Tobacco

Palatal changes of reverse smokers in a population

Dr.Shweta Chouhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 3573-3577

Reverse smoking has been identified as a unique way of tobacco usage where the smoker usually places the lit end of the chutta into his or her mouth so that they directly inhales from the lit end. On an average, each adult might smoke 3–4 chuttas per day and each chutta relatively lasts for about 15–30 min.
Materials and Methodology: Oral screening camp was conducted and almost over 1500 individuals were screened and a total of 65 individuals were reported to indulge in reverse smoking. Of these, 49 were females and 16 were males who had given meticulous history of reporting no other tobacco and alcohol habits and there were no systemic disturbances. Proper history pertaining to the habit, systemic illness, pigmentation related to any medications, family history and reason for indulging in reverse smoking were collected from all the 65 individuals.Palatal mucosal observations were made by four examiners and the mean and percentage prevalence of lesions among 65 subjects were computed. Fisher’s exact test was used to assess the association between the agreements of four examiners, a P value was calculated by two‑tailed t‑test. Logistic regression analysis model was used for co‑efficient of prediction in presence or absence of a lesion.
Results: The mean and percentage prevalence of the each lesion recorded and agreed by four examiners among 65 subjects shows presence of 88.7% of hyper-pigmented areas, 63.4% of depigmented areas, 51.6% of excrescences, 33.0% of potentially malignant lesions and 10.5% of frank ulcerations. Fisher’s exact test was used to test the association between the agreements of four examiners, a P value was established at 0.7203. In the logistic regression analysis model the coefficient of the variable was set at 1, the confidence interval was found to be 95% and P < 0.005 was established.
Conclusion: In order to make healthy choices, a stern focus on the health promotion is mandatory that majorly include those that emphasize on the need of educating the individuals about the risks associated. Moreover in view of considering the high-risk groups in order to influence the personal routines and behaviours, it is aimed at emphasizing the measures through information campaigns.

Prevalence of Nicotine Usage among Medical and Paramedical Students in Al-Rayan Colleges

Fahad S Alshehri, Zayed Mohammed Alnefaie, Eyad Esamalden Albashir, Ziyad Abdul razzaq AbuAlshor, Abdullah Refat Abutaleb, Faris Fuad Shukrey, Ayman Khaled alsughayyir, Badr Moneer Qumqumji

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6165-6173

Objective: To determine the prevalence of nicotine usage among medical and paramedical students at Alrayan medical colleges at Al Madinah Munawara and assess the association between nicotine usage and socio-economic factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking, and attempts to quit. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey in which an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the nicotine usage habits of medical and paramedical students at Alrayan medical collages medical college at Al Madinah Munawara January 2022. Results: Upon our study with a total of 313 participants, 7%(23) refused to be participating in the survey by saying (no) while 93%(290) agreed to be participating. The participant's gender was 34% female and 66%, male. Almost half of the participants had an experiment with cigarette smoking. The mean age of starting cigarette smoking is 16 years old or older (49% of smoking students). Smokeless tobacco product usage is prevalent among students as 20% are using them. Health warnings on cigarette packages are very useful as they led 60% of the students to think about quitting smoking or not starting smoking. The main group which provides help or advice for smokers to quit smoking is friends while the least is the professionals such as doctors. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among medical and paramedical students at Alrayan medical College. Electronic cigarettes or also known as vape-pens, hookah-pens, and electronic hookahs (e-hookahs) are incredibly known among students as 66% of them know them. Close contact advice and health considerations are important reasons for not smoking, quitting, or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies

A cross sectional study using the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening (ASSIST) questionnaire &Scores among local workers

Dr.Mithun Dutta; Dr.Vikalp Wasnik; Dr.Shalini Bijali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 742-747

Introduction:Large epidemiological surveys have shown alcohol, tobacco (i.e., cigarettes), and marijuana has the highest prevalence rates across all age groups. Alcohol is a serious public health problem.There is a lacuna of evidence on screening for harmful alcohol use linked to ASSIST in Indian workplace settings. This prompted the us to explore this area to generate an evidence base while planning for workplace alcohol interventions.

How does tobacco affect quality of life of patients of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder: A comparative study

Bishnoi D, Bhardwaj P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9335-9341

Introduction: The rate of smoking in people with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder is at least two to three times more that in the general population. They consume more cigarettes per day and are less likely to quit tobacco. In treating schizophrenia and BPAD clinicians often ignore factors that are directly related to QOL and prognosis of disease. The evaluation and management of nicotine dependence in these patients can contribute to improving the outcome, reducing the disability and improving QOL along with decreasing the burden of disease on caregivers.
Aim and Objectives

Comparison of socio-demographic and various clinical variables related to tobacco use among persons with schizophrenia and BPAD.
To compare the impact of tobacco on QOL among persons with schizophrenia and BPAD.

Material and Method: This was a cross sectional study. Purposive sampling was done and total 60 patients were recruited. Various scales were applied and date thus collected was analysed using SPSS ver. 24.
Observation and Discussion: We found there was no significant difference between the two groups with sociodemographic profiles of two groups of patients except for education of patients. The difference of QOL scores was highly significant between tobacco users and non-tobacco users of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Within the bipolar disorder group, tobacco use seemed to affect quality of life significantly in the psychological (p 0.042) and social (p 0.028) domains of WHOQOLBREF. In the schizophrenia group, QOL was significantly affected in the psychological (p 0.026) and environmental (p 0.015) domains.
Conclusion: Tobacco dependence leads to significant differences in quality of life, so it should be addressed along with other psychopathological symptoms

A Study to assess the prevalence of Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in association with tobacco consumption in a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Durgadevi; Dr. Jayaganesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 879-885

Head and neck cancers are the sixth most common type of cancers and has a steady rise in
India, predominantly in males .The most common etiological factor contributing for the
cancer development is Tobacco consumption in various forms. This was a laboratory based
,retrospective study to assess the prevalence and association of HNSCC in a subset of
population of tobacco consumers A total of 50 positive cases of Head and neck squamous
cell carcinomas were collected at our hospital for a period of two years and history collected
in view of age , sex and tobacco consumption . In this study, 64% affected cases are males
and 48% of the cases had the history of tobacco consumption. Tobacco consumption prevails
as the sole risk factor for the development of Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Evaluation Of Prevalence And Incidence Of Smokeless And Smoking Form Of Tobacco With Correlation With Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test And NRT Therapy- A Cross-Sectional Survey

Akansha Budakoti; Anuridhi Choudhary; Fozia Sultana; Priya Kaushal; Ruchika Naryal; Malik Gulzar Burgus

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6904-6915

BACKGROUND- The recent epidemic of drug abuse has been recognized as one of the major problems facing the human race, both in the developing and developed countries. Tobacco is a leading preventable cause of death, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. This is a matter of great public health concern. India’s tobacco problem is very complex, with a large use of variety of smoking forms and an array of smokeless tobacco products. Reversing this extremely preventable man made epidemic should be our top priority. This epidemic can be resolved by becoming aware of the devastating effects of tobacco, learning about the proven effective tobacco control measures, national programs and legislation prevailing in the home country and then engaging completely to halt the epidemic to more toward a tobacco free world.
There are various methods to curb this menace through various tobacco cessation programs like Psychological motivation, Nicotine replacement therapy, medications that mimic nicotine effects.
AIM- With this background the aim of the study is to assess the incidence and prevalence of tobacco use, to check the effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement Therapy in cessation of tobacco and as well as to identify the association between NRT, stress, anxiety and depression.
METHOD- The study will be conducted after obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. The patients reporting to the Out-patient department of the reputed Dental College of North India will be screened and their demographic details will be recorded. The patients will be asked about their tobacco consumption habits, the various forms of tobacco which they would be using and if any lesions associated the consumption of tobacco. The nicotine dependence levels will be assessed by the Fagerstrom nicotine dependence test of the patients who will be giving positive history of tobacco consumption 
in some form or other. The patients will be asked about their willingness to quit tobacco and those patients who would be willing to quit tobacco will be given Nicotine Replacement Therapy in the form of chewing gums. Pre and post-depression, anxiety and stress will be evaluated in the patients receiving NRTs. A 6 month follow up will be done to evaluate the effectiveness of NRTs in cessation of habit and reducing the depression, anxiety and stress amongst these patients.
RESULT – The results revealed that out of 1760 patients, 317 patients gave positive history of tobacco consumption in some form or other (86.0% males and 14.0% females) and the various types of tobacco used by the patients were Beedi (55.0%), cigarette (25.0%), Ghutka (11.0%), pan masala (9.0%) and quid. Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence test was performed for 66.2% of patients who were willing to quit habit and out of 209 patient 184 were given. Nicotex chewing gum (2, 4 mg) and 25 patients refused to continue the treatment. It was noted that there was substantial decrease in the depression, anxiety and stress level on DASS 42.

Advice from Former-Smoking E-Cigarette Users to Current Smokers on How to Use E-Cigarettes as Part of an Attempt to Quit Smoking

Sasmita Das; Rubi Pradhan; Dinabandhu Barad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 839-848

The substitution of e-cigarettes with nicotine will almost remove the harm linked to smoking. Strategies that improve smokers' desire to use e-cigarettes rather than tobacco cigarettes are important. This must be understood. Current smokers who have successfully used E-cigarettes to quit smoking may be very useful for growing existing smokers' curiosity in converting and willingness to use E-cigarettes. In an online poll, the advice offered to smocks who intend to use e-cigarettes with e-cigarettes was asked of a global self-selected group from 4,192 former smokers who are stopping the smoking process. The subject of qualitative analysis of participant feedback established the following four main themes: (i) the mix of vaporizing devices, e-liquid flavors and the nicotine level 'functioning for all' and (ii) smoking for some time after the vaporization is begun OK; Experienced smoking vapors are able to give smokers tips and practical vapor awareness that can be useful when attempting to move from smoking to vaping. Encouraging smokers of tobacco to communicate with seasoned vapors as they were once told by vapers themselves, who are now recommending them on vaping shops who web communities – may have a tremendous ability to make more smokers transition to e-cigarette.

Oral Cancer: A Retrospective Study of a Decade

Dr. Ruchi Bhuyan; Dr. Sanat Kumar Bhuyan; Sidhant Bhuyan; Akankshya Sahu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1200-1207

Introduction Head besides neck cancer(HNC) The word "avast" contains a variety of malignancy sites, including numerous oral cavity locations, such as maxilla, mandible, tongue, oral floor, oral mucosa, gingiva, mouth or pharynx and larynx. mouth cancer is amongst the most frequent cancers in tumors. The purpose of this research is to investigate the occurrence of HNC as well as its association with traditions, age , gender and place throughout India.
Aim: The goal of the research was to document the effect on Odisha coastal communities in East India for Head / Neck Cancer (HNC) and also its meanings by behaviors, age , gender as well as location.
Materials and methods: A study was conducted retrospectively between June 2009 and June 2019. A maximum of 1364 OSCCs (Oral squamous tissue carcinoma) were analysed with the results were statistically analyzed.
Result: Ratio of men to women 2:1 as well as average age between 40 and 59 years. Oral mucosa (48,97%) including tongue (16,49%) or maxila (6,94%) are now the most popular site for cancer, accompanied by lip (1 24%). Tobacco cigarettes and nibbling habits were prevalent amongst these people of eastern India as well as represented the greatest potential risk for onset of disease. Besides that, a strong relationship with OSSC has been discovered in the smokeless type with tobacco, particularly in females.
Conclusions: The result of this evaluation reveals the use of tobacco is among the main reasons for increasing oral cancer malignancy development. Therefore, it is important for an individual to be informed of this tobacco-linked cancer growth.


Kiruthika Patturaja; Arvina Rajasekar; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1099-1104

Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults. It is an inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. It is associated with various risk factors. Tobacco is one of the potent risk factors for periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to find the impact of smoking on periodontal health. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 200 male patients (Group 1: 100 smokers; Group 2: 100 non-smokers) were recruited. Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. The present study showed that smokers had a high prevalence of periodontitis (37.5%) when compared to non-smokers (8.5%). Whereas, non-smokers had a high prevalence of gingivitis (41.5%) when compared to smokers (12.5%). Also, there was a statistically significant association between smoking and periodontal health (p=0.000). The findings of the present study showed that smokers had increased risk of periodontitis than non-smokers.


Gayathri Karthikeyan; Hannah R; Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1440-1448

The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of leukoplakia in different types of tobacco users. Tobacco utilization in India is increasing but there are considerable changes in the types and methods by which it is used. Oral cancer affects as many as 274,000 people worldwide annually 20. In this study The data collection was carried out during the period between July 2019 to march 2020. After searching through 86,000 patient records the Sample size for the study was taken as 93 patients diagnosed with leukoplakia. The data that was collected was tabulated in excel and then imported into SPSS software. Smoking form of tobacco was found to be used by 72.92% of patients. Smokeless form of tobacco use was noticed among 25% of the patients and a combination of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco used was noticed among 2.083% of the patients . Homogenous types of leukoplakia were found among 76.04% of the patients followed by the non-homogenous form which included about 23.96% of the patients. Males were the most common gender comprising about 96.88% of the patients and females comprised about 3.13% . It was also noted that the most common type of tobacco used was cigarettes. Chi- square test was done to associate the type of tobacco used and clinical variants of leukoplakia, it was not statistical significant (p=0.596). Within the limitations of the present study we were able to conclude that there was no association between the habit of tobacco use and the clinical variant of leukoplakia . Multicentric study with a larger sample size will give a more definitive outcome.


Priyadharshini Suresh Babu; Deepika Rajendran; Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1211-1220

Oral leukoplakia is seen as a predominant white patch in the oral mucosa and is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. Habits such as tobacco, betel nut chewing and alcohol increases the incidence of oral leukoplakia. This study was aimed to evaluate the association of oral leukoplakia in patients having smoking and alcohol habits. In this study, patients having oral leukoplakia were sorted out by reviewing and analysing 86,000 patients records who visited the private dental college during the time period of June 2019 to March 2020. The personal history with habits such as smoking and alcohol were also recorded. A Chi-square test was used to determine association between variables to obtain the results. In our study, we found that the males showed higher prevalence of Oral Leukoplakia than females. A statistically significant result was found in patients between 41-50 years of age (29.2%) with smoking habits (84.8%) and alcohol intake habits (51%). It also showed that there was stronger association between oral leukoplakia and patients with both smoking and alcohol habits, than in patients having alcohol habit alone.