Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : periodontal disease


Bharat B. Chavan; Seema S. Salve; . Razvi N A; Mohan K. Doibale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1142-1148

: Overall health status of an individual is greatly influenced by the oral cavity. Periodontal disease (PDD) and dental caries are the biggest threats to oral health among the various oral diseases. Despite increasing awareness and improvement in oral health, the global epidemiological data suggests that a worldwide prevalence of periodontal disease is 11.2%. It is a complex chronic disease which can lead to chronic inflammation, destruction of tooth supporting structures, and tooth loss in adults. With this background the study was planned to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease and perceptions towards oral health among the community in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2151 subjects in Aurangabad district, being the capital of Marathwada region by Rural Health Training Center, Paithan under Govt. Medical College, Aurangabad. The standard pro-forma was designed and house to house survey was conducted over a period of 3 months i.e. from June to August 2021. Mouth mirrors, caries explorers and periodontal probes were used for oral examination with proper aseptic precautions. All the findings were recorded in the data sheet and descriptive statistics and chi-square test were applied using SPSS-17 version. Results: Prevalence of periodontal disease in the present study was found to be 31.06%. It was observed that various factors act as predicators for periodontal disease. Conclusion: For reducing the disease Burdon and its impact on the community, school and community based oral health awareness programs should be implemented.


1 Dr PoojaPalwankar , Dr DeepshikhaTyagi, Dr LipikaGopal, Dr PoojaPalwankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4852-4858

Periodontal diseases are associated with local and systemic risk factors. Stress is one of the risk factors for periodontal diseases. This review is aimed to assess the relationship between the gingival crevicular fluid and salivary levels of psychological stress biomarkers and periodontal disease. The Electronic literature search was conducted through online search engines Pubmed, Scopus, WOS articles published from 2010 to April 2021. Cross-sectional and case-control studies that investigated the association between stress biomarkers and periodontal disease were included. Review paper, animal studies, Interventional studies were excluded from the search. Results from the observational studies suggest that elevated levels of psychological stress biomarkers were observed in salivary and gingival crevicular fluid levels of subjects with periodontal disease in contrast to the healthy controls. Within the limitations of the study Psychological stress biomarkers are correlated with the severity and complexity of periodontal disease

Results Ofintegrated Treatment Of Hypertrophic Gingivitis In Adolescents

Saidova N.A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3749-3756

Among dental diseases, periodontal diseases dominate in their intensity, prevalence and devastating consequences for the dentition of the person. In this regard, the search for effective methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of inflammatory periodontal diseases remains urgent. Recent studies have allowed to expand and complement the modern view in the regulation of many physiological processes of the body. Periodontal diseases are no exception. It is well known that in the complex treatment of periodontal diseases, dentists use a wide arsenal of medications that affect both the microflora of periodontal pockets and various mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the inflammatory process. However, modern methods and tools do not fully justify their clinical effectiveness. In this regard, an integrated approach to the treatment of gingivitis is gaining increasing recognition in dental practice.
Aim:To study the causes of hypertrophic gingivitis in adolescence, find optimal treatment options, introduce new methods in the treatment algorithm.
Material and research methods.
The study used material (oral fluid, gingival blood) obtained from 50 patients aged 12-18 years with a diagnosis of moderate hypertrophic gingivitis and 20 healthy individuals.
Depending on the treatment and preventive measures taken, all patients were divided into 2 groups of 25 people each. In the 1st control group for treatment, traditional antiseptic treatment of the oral cavity was used using a 0.05% solution of chlorhexidinebigluconate and periodontal pockets were injected with a metrogel dent gel under a bandage in the amount of 10 g for 5-7 days. In the 2nd group (n = 25), patients underwent anti-microbial, topically anti-inflammatory and decongestant therapy. Traumeel C 301.5 mg in the form of a paste was injected into the interdental space under a dressing in the amount of 10 g for 5-7 days. The 2nd group was taken as the main one.
The clinical condition of periodontal tissues was evaluated using the following indices: hygienic (Green-Wermillion), PI (Russel). The state of immune resistance of the oral cavity was evaluated using cytological methods (determination of the content of cellular elements in the liquid of the periodontal pocket); assessment of the absorption activity of neutrophilic leukocytes by calculating the phagocytic number during the induction of phagocytosis by latex particles, as well as the test of spontaneous reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (HCT test).
Statistical data processing was performed on a PVEM using MS Excel 10.0 tools.
Results.When examining patients, hyperemia of the gingival mucosa, swelling, loose consistency, bleeding, a small amount of supra and subgingival tartar, profuse soft plaque, false pockets up to 5 mm with serous exudate, papillae enlarged and deformed, hypertrophy up to 1/2 were determined the length of the crown of the teeth, the average value of the clinical indices was IG - 2.58 ± 0.5 and PI - 5.5 ± 0.4. After completion of the 
course of therapy, improvement was noted in patients of all groups: tightening of the gingival margin, decreased bleeding, disappearance of false pockets. The positive dynamics of changes in the index indicators of the periodontal condition was noted. The highest results were achieved in the 2nd group, where the value of the PI indicator from 2.58 ± 0.5 points to 0.14 ± 0.1, PI from 5.5 ± 0.4 to 2.56 ± 0.8 (p <0.05).
Conclusion. Thus, the effectiveness of the local use of the drug "Traumeel C" is confirmed by the results of clinical and laboratory studies.

Assessing The Prevalence Of Periodontal Diseases And Treatment Needs: A Cross Sectional Study

Dr Khalid Gufran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4668-4674

Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of periodontal diseases and treatment needs in patients visiting, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj.
Methodology: In our study, 400 patients were included within the age group of 15 to 60 years. Using the CPITN index, the status of periodontium as well as treatment needs was recorded. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using frequency calculation. Pearson Chi-square test was used to measure the significance.
Results: mAs far as CPITN score was concerned, in the age group of 30-40 years of age group, maximum score was Code 2 (calculus deposition) whereas in comparison age group 40-50 years had Code 3 (shallow pockets) and 50-60 years had Code 4 (Deep pockets). There was an increasing shift of this percentage as the older age group was approached. In case of age group of 40-50 years, around 34.3% of participants were in need of complex periodontal treatment. This trend was increased for the age group of 50-60 years (54.1%).
Conclusion: We observed that as the age advanced the CPTIN score increased as well as treatment needs in relation to complex treatment strategy also augmented. It is essential to know the importance of the treatment needs of patients so that proper age based therapy can be carried out.

Periodontal Diseases: A Review on Clinical Trials and Disease Management

Satish Kumar Sharma; Sameera Ali Siddique

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1026-1035

Periodontal disease refers to infection in tissues of oral cavity that leads to building of plaque and other bacterial infections such as halitosis, gingivitis related to same. Management of such issues is a need of the hour. Although many measures have been taken but still some of the side effects are faced while having therapy from synthetic materials. The present review discusses about herbal medications that are undertaken to provide herbal therapy, wherein methods adopted in few past years are discussed and then a conclusion is drawn regarding the same. Further, the paper also discusses about some bioactive materials that can be adopted for providing therapy in case of chronic conditions of periodontal disease. The biomaterial discussed here includes bioactive glass, wherein at last the conclusion was drawn that the bioactive glass has enhanced bioactivity and biocompatibility which inhibits demineralization and promotes remineralization thereby preventing the development of plaque on teeth and preventing the issues caused due to gingivitis or gum disorders

C-reactive protein and periodontal disease – A Review

Mohana Kondapally; Ramesh KSV; NVS Sruthima; Gautami S Penmetsa; P. Mohan kumar; G. Meghana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1664-1670

C- reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein observed in increased quantities in plasma during the infections and presence of any inflammation, which could be a further possible risk factor in systemic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. CRP molecules help as a biological marker for the determination of the inflammatory process when obtained from the gingival crevicular fluid and there is association between periodontitis and CRP levels. These levels are found to be reduced after the non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment. Therefore, the levels of CRP would play a major role in determination of the inflammatory process.


Subasree .Soundarajan; Sankari Malaippan; Priyalochana Gajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1933-1942

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between haemoglobin level & severity of chronic periodontitis. This retrospective study was carried out by analysing the patient records from June 2019 to March 2020 at Saveetha Institute of Medical & Technical sciences (SIMATS).Two forty four patients were included in the study. Parameters assessed were a)Demographic details – Patient name, Patient identity number, Age & Sex; b)Periodontal parameters – Probing pocket depth (PDD), Loss of attachment (LOA), Bleeding on probing (BOP), Severity of Periodontitis (mild, moderate & severe);c) Blood parameters - Haemoglobin levels (g/dl). Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Bivariate Pearson correlation of Haemoglobin with mean PPD, mean LOA & mean BOP score were calculated. Mean Hb was compared with severity of periodontitis using ANOVA. A total of 244 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the study sample was 40.42 (±11.38). Females constituted about 58.06%, whereas males constituted 41.4% of the study sample. Majority of the population had severe periodontitis (64.76%), followed by mild periodontitis (18.03%) & moderate periodontitis (17.21%). The mean haemoglobin level in severe periodontitis (13.35g/dl) is higher when compared to moderate and mild periodontitis (13.30g/dl & 13.18g/dl respectively). Mean PPD was 5.24 mm, mean LOA was 4.6 mm & mean BOP score was 0.98. Association between mean CAL and mean haemoglobin levels was positive and statistically significant with a p value of 0.012. Mean Hb level was not significantly different with varying severity of periodontitis

Cheiloscopy as A Potential Tool in the Prediction of Periodontal Diseases - A Cross Sectional Study

Madhushriee V; Manovijay B; Saranyan R; Sayee Ganesh N; Priya K; Venkatesh T

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4472-4482

Periodontitis is a common oral disease causing destruction of the periodontal tissues prevailing in the population. Early diagnosis and preventive measures can be taken to prevent the severity of the disease. The aetiology varies from exogenous factors such as environment, various local factors or inherited genetic aberrations. Early detection of the disease is essential to prevent tooth loss and also to decrease the chances of the patient’s morbidity. In recent years, demands for non – invasive and in-expensive adjunctive diagnostic techniques are increasing for early detection. With this in view, cheiloscopy, the study of lip patterns have been proved to be considerably efficient as an early diagnostic tool. The technique has proven valuable for screening and monitoring periodontal disease. Awareness should be created in public in employing screening methods that are non-invasive, robust and economic thereby it would enhance early detection of periodontitis which gives a positive impact on patient’s well being. The cross sectional study was an attempt to correlate the occurrence Periodontitis in an individual, with their lip print to assess whether these investigation tools can be used to predict the occurrence of these diseases at an early by considering it as a genetic marker.

Development and Activation of T cell subsets– An Overview from a Periodontal Perspective

Saranya Balaji; Priyanka K Cholan; Dhayanand John Victor; Devapriya Appukuttan; Venkatesh Thangarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4489-4501

Innate immunity and adaptive immunity form the two main components of human immune system. Unlike the innate immunity, adaptive immune response is specific and more complex which may be cell-mediated or humoral-mediated. T lymphocytes, the effectors of cell-mediated immunity (delayed hypersensitivity) are immune cells derived from bone marrow and develop in the thymus. The diversity of the T cell receptor enables recognition of wide variety of specific antigens expressed by antigen presenting cells (APC) in the Major Histocompatibility (MHC) context. Following complete activation, T cells differentiate into any of the subtypes depending on the cytokine milieu. Plasticity among T helper subsets have also been noted. Knowledge of how the immune-inflammatory mechanisms are regulated is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases like periodontitis where the complex interplay between microbial flora and the host immune mechanisms govern the balance between tissue homeostasis and disease progression. This review highlights on the processes of development, subsequent activation of T cells, and differentiation into various subtypes, briefly summarizing their role in periodontal disease.

Association Of Dental Plaque And Periodontal Diseases Among Outpatients - A Record Based Study

Chris Noel Timothy; L. Leelavathi; Suresh V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3037-3109

Aim:The aim of this study was to associate plaque and periodontal diseases among outpatients. Materials and methods:This was a comparative, descriptive study, where all the data of the patients who reported to the dental clinics in saveetha dental college, SIMATS, Chennai, India, was obtained from the department of public health dentistry. Patient records of plaque index score and periodontal index scores between June 2019 and March 2020. were reviewed and analysed from April - June, 2020. Data was collected and tabulated. The collected data was further analyzed, recorded in microsoft excel software and was subjected to statistical analysis using IBM SPSS statistics analyzer.Results:
The total sample size of the current study was 158 cases. The most common age group that was observed was 36 to 50 years with 43.7 %. A male predilection was seen with males making up 63.9 % of the study population. Most commonly seen periodontal index score interpretation was established destructive periodontal disease with 51.9 %. Most prevalent plaque score interpretation was a fair plaque score with 55.1 % of the population. It was also observed that a fair plaque score was more commonly present in established destructive periodontal disease in 59.7 % of the cases. In this study we observed that there was a significant relation between the plaque and periodontal index scores among outpatients. [p value < 0.05 ] [ p = 0.008] obtained through chi square test.
Conclusion:Within the limitations of the current study, we observed that fair plaque score was found to be more common prevalent among participants with established periodontal disease and this association was not statistically significant.


Cinthura. C; Arvina Rajasekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1113-1120

Smoking is a highly prevalent addiction present worldwide, especially in India. It not only affects the pulmonary system but also has a major impact on oral health. Periodontal disease comprises a range of polymicrobial infectious diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis that affect the tooth-supporting structures. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for periodontal disease progression and can also alter treatment response. This study aims at associating the type of tobacco use and periodontal disease progression. This retrospective study was conducted among 500 patients using their records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019-April 2020 and patients who had smoking habits were identified. Data regarding their age, gender, type of tobacco use and periodontal status were collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (SPSS version 20.0,IL,Chicago,USA) for analysis. The results of the study showed that among the patients with smoking habits, individuals within the age group of 25-35 years (31.4%) showed the highest prevalence of tobacco use whereas people among 65-75 years (1.2%) had the least. Majority of the smokers were diagnosed with periodontitis (84.4%), followed by gingivitis (12.4%) but diagnosis of healthy gingiva was very rare (3.2%). Smokeless form of tobacco was commonly used (61.2%). There was a male predominance (94.2%). Smoking, especially the type of tobacco used and severity of periodontal disease was found to have a strong association (p=0.000). The study draws attention to the fact that tobacco usage has a negative impact on oral health and can lead to periodontitis.