Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Age


Tushar Vishnu Tonde, Yashodeep Gaikwad, Sudam Khedkar, Bagde Arun motilal, Harishchandra rameshchandra Chaudhari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3308-3315

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycaemia.
Objectives: To study the co-relation of Depression in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with respect to age, gender, literacy, marital status.
Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, at a tertiary care Hospital. The study included 543 known diabetes patients coming to our hospital during a period of 12 months. All the cases were then assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) for the presence of depression.
Results: Mean age was 53.01 years and 51.56 years in diabetic cases with and without depression (p-0.18). Prevalence of depression was 19.6% among male diabetics while it was 18% in female diabetics (p-0.65). No association was observed between depression among diabetics with marital status (p-1.0). No association was observed between depression among diabetics with literacy rate (p-0.552).
Conclusion: No association was observed between depression   among   diabetics with age, gender, literacy, marital status.

Age Estimation by Epiphyseal Union of Medial Epicondyle, Lateral Epicondyle, Capitulum & Trochlea in the Age Group of 15 To 19 Years

Kishore Kumar G, Nikhil K, R.Jenifer Jacquiline

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1188-1194

Background: Age determination in both living and dead plays animportant role in
medicolegal cases. There are various methods to assess the age by physical
characteristics, odonatological development but the most valuable method seems to be
the osteological changes observed by radiological examination ie., the appearance and
fusion of secondary ossification centerslike medial epicondyle, lateral epicondyle,
capitulum & trochlea. The present study was conducted on 131 subjects out of which
110 were males and 21 were females. The main aim of the study was to find the age of
fusion of secondary ossification centersof medial epicondyle, lateral epicondyle,
capitulum & trochlea and to compare the distribution of fusion of ossification centers
between males and females.
Materials and Methods: Firstly, informed consent was taken. Preliminary details of
each individual were noted that included general examination, physical examination,
dental examination followed by taking X-ray AP view of elbow for radiological
examination. The results were noted based on the degree of fusion as No Union (O),
Beginning union(B), Recent union(R), Complete union(C).
Results: The present study showed among males, the fusion for each ossification centers
ofmedial epicondyle, lateral epicondyle, capitulum & trochlea started by 15-16 years
and was completed by 18-19 years whereas in females it started fusion by 15-16 years
but complete fusion occurred around 16-17 years itself.
Conclusion: Based on the analysis of fusion of ossification centers it shows that the
ossification centers of medial epicondyle, lateral epicondyle, capitulum & trochlea fuses
earlier in females by 1-2 years than in males.

A Study of Ossification Centres Around the Elbow and Wrist of Adolescent Aged 15 - 19 Years at a Tertiary Care Centre

Sharad Kumar Agarwal, Tariq Wali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 196-201

Introduction: Legal punishment and crimes are entirely based on the criminal
responsibilities and age of the person. The crime against the children and adolescent
and crime by the children and adolescent are increasing hugely in this modern era
where technologies are improving greatly. Evaluating the bone age in skeletally
immature patient gained importance for therapeutic decision-making, and the
knowledge about the skeletal development forms the basis for the results interpretation.
In Adolescence, the age of appearance of the ossification centers of their elbow has a
relatively well-established chronological sequence which are documented in literature:
humerus capitulum, radius head, medial or internal epicondyle, humerus trochleaand
lateral or external epicondyle.
Materials and Methods:The study was carried out on a total of 143 subjects out of
which 110 were males and 33 were females. After obtaining the written consent from
every individual, subjects were allowed for their radiological examination. The X-rays
of wrist were first taken with A-P view at 40- 44 KVp and 4 – 8 mAs (Focussing at mid
carpal area). The X-ray of elbow was then taken with A-P view at 42-44 KVp and 4–8
mAs (Centering at mid carpal area). The tube current was fixed at 40 inches and tube
current at 100 mA. The persons selected for the study were grouped as per their stated
age viz, 15-16 years, 16-17years, 17-18years & 18-19 years.
Results:The complete fusion of ossification centres around elbow joint in males starts at
the age of 15-16 years followed by individuals of 17-18 years showing complete fusion
from a range of 80-90% and all the 18 subjects between 18-19 years shows 100%
complete fusion. In females it showed that the complete fusion of all ossification centres
around elbow joint started at the age group of 15-16 years but was not complete and it
was followed by appearance of 100% complete fusion in 16-19 years age group of
Conclusion:This study proves that the complete fusion of ossification centres around
elbow and wrist joint in females occurs earlier than in males by 1-2 years. 100%
complete fusion around elbow joint in females occurs at 16-17 years whereas in males it
is seen at 18-19years. 100% complete fusion around wrist joint is seen in females of age
group 18-19 years whereas it is just the lower end of ulna that shows complete fusion in
males at the same age as females.

Prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus and role of corrected QT interval for its diagnosis

Dr. Rambabu Singh, Dr. ArvindKankane,Dr. BasavarajShirol

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1182-1188

The prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type 2 DM patients increases with
the duration and poor glycemic control. Patients with CAN are at increased risk for
autonomic dysfunction like resting tachycardia,abnormal systolic and diastolic function
leading to syncope and dizziness, prolonged QT interval, silent ischemia/infarction, lethal
arrhythmias and sudden death.Usage of 5 simple and cheap bed side tests for autonomic
function and corrected QT interval from ECG are helpful in early diagnosis of CAN. Early
recognition of CAN is helpful in delaying effects of CAN by strict control of blood sugar and
following healthy life style. Our study was conducted on100known and newly diagnosedType
2 Diabetes Mellitus patients<60 years whopresentedto Medicine OPD and admitted in IPD
wardsin Maharani LaxmiBai Medical College.Out of total 100 patients,49% had normal
score(0,1); 25% had borderline score(2,3,4); rest 26% had abnormal score ≥5; the prevalence
of CAN was 51%.Among 100 patients 47% patients were foundwith poor glycemic control
(HbA1C ≥ 8),in these 17% had early and 21% had definite CAN. Out of 100 patients of the
study, 55% patients had QTc>440ms out of which 17% had early and 23% had definite CAN.
The CAN also increased with older age group. So it is important to diagnose CAN early in
asymptomatic diabetics. There is significant correlation between CAN and QT prolongation.
QT interval in ECG can be used to diagnose CAN with reasonable sensitivity and specificity.
Usage of 5 bedside autonomic function tests are very helpful in early diagnosis of CAN.Strict
control of blood sugar can delay the early development of CAN. Intensive control of blood
sugar can delay the early development of CAN.

Comprehensive analysis of postmortem cases due to poisoning: A retrospective study

R. Karthick

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4993-4998

Background: Poisoning is a major epidemic of non-communicable disease in the present
century. Poisoning is common in the world including India but modes of poisoning varies as
it may result from the attempt of suicide, homicide and accidents. Present retrospective study
was aimed to analyse deaths due to poisoning at a tertiary care hospital.
Material andMethods: Present study was retrospective study, conducted with medical &
case-records of victims of poisoning whose body was autopsied in the mortuary of tertiary
care hospital.
Results: In this study, of the total of 3275 cases of postmortem, poisoning constituted 433
cases amounting to 13.22%. Most of cases were from the age group of 21-30 yrs (27.48%)
followed by 31-40 yrs (25.17%) & 41-50 yrs (16.4%). Most of cases were males (66.74%) as
compared to females (33.26%). Most of cases survived for less than 1 day period (54.73%) &
had manner of death as suicidal (94.46%). In present study, most common poison used were
organo-phosphorous compounds (64.43%), aluminium phosphide (5.77%), zinc phosphide
(5.77%), corrosive acid poison (5.08%) & carbonates (4.62%). In present study, negative
chemical analysis report (50.35%) were more common than positive chemical analysis report
(49.65%). In present study, common reason for intake of poison were physical illness
(41.11%), marital dispute (20.32%), economic crisis (13.16%), love failure (6.47%) &
accidental (5.54%). Other less common causes were conflict with parents (3.46%), family
dispute (3.46%), mental illness (3%) & academic failure (2.77%).
Conclusion: We noted that male sex, age group from second to fourth decade of their life,
married,low socioeconomic status are at high risk for poisoning.


Rizky Fawzyana Sarengat, Mohammad Saiful Islam Mohammad Saiful Ardhi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4685-4689

Background: Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) can cause thromboticcomplications, one of them is ischemic stroke. Stroke is one of the main cause of disability. Age has been shown to be associated with the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The aim of this study is to prove the correlation between age and clinical outcome as measured by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale(NIHSS) in acute thrombotic stroke with COVID-19.
Methods: This study usea cross sectional design. The sample in this study was acute thrombotic stroke patients with COVID-19 from March 2020 to May 2021 at the Emergency and Isolation Ward at Dr.Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya. Age and NIHSS datawere taken from medical records when the patient first admitted.
Results:We collected 21 subjects consisting of 12 males and 9 females. The mean age of the subjects was 57.62 ± 10.05, with the youngest age was 37 years old and the oldest was 78 years old. The range of NIHSS ​​in this study was 1-33. We found a positive correlation, with moderate correlation strength, between the age variable and the NIHSS which was statistically significant (r=0.483; p=0.026).
Conclusion: There is a positive correlation between age and clinical outcomes as measured by NIHSS in acute thrombotic stroke patients with COVID-19.

A clinical evaluation of MRI of pituitary gland height, shape in correlation with the age, sex

Dr. Najeeb Tallal Ahangar, Dr. Asif Majid Wani, Dr. Peerzada Ziaulhaq, Dr. Naseer Ahmad Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2792-2799

Background: The pituitary gland was first described anatomically by a Belgian scientist Andreas Vesalius in 1543.Pituitary gland is the master endocrine gland of human body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most suitable modality for the evaluation of pituitary gland pathologies. Knowledge of the normal dimensions of the pituitary gland is needed to differentiate normal from abnormal cases. Size of the gland especially height varies according to age group and also gender. The references values are helpful for evaluating pituitary gland especially in borderline cases in whom dynamic post contrast studies are needed for further evaluation. Hence we conducted a study to formulate the normal data for different age groups.
Aim of the study: Aim of the study is to evaluate the size and shape of pituitary gland according to different age groups on MRI.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in the department of Radiology, Government Medical College, Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir, India, a tertiary care teaching hospital. 203 patients who had undergone brain MRI, Patients with seller or parasellar pathologies and endocrine disorders were excluded from the study. Mid sagittal T1 weighted images were analysed for size and shape of the gland.
Results: Our study included 203 patients, 112 males and 91 females. The patients were divided into different age groups from 0 to 10 years, 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years, 51-60 years and 61 years and above. Mean height of pituitary gland in our study was 5.42 mm. Maximum height was found in 11-20 years age group. After 11-20 years age group, gradual decline in the height was noted. Minimal increase in the elderly age group was also seen. Most common shape of the pituitary gland was flat in our study.
Conclusion: The reference value of normal size of pituitary gland in various genders and age groups has been standardized. Any variation in size will help the clinician to deduce any pathology and make early diagnosis and plan adequate this will be avoid unnecessary suffering to patients. Knowledge of pituitary gland height in different age groups is helpful in distinguishing normal from abnormal gland. Normal data of the study is useful for the same.

Assessment of correlation between age and the parasympathetic nervous system

Dr. Richa Singh; Dr. Rajiva Kumar Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 5838-5842

Background:The parasympathetic division is primarily involved in relaxation, preparing the body to rest and recover. The present study assessed correlation between age and the parasympathetic nervous system.
Materials & Methods: 84 individuals of both genders were assessed for heart rate variation during deep breathing (Expiration/Inspiration ratio), heart-rate response to standing (30:15 ratio) and heart-rate response to Valsalva maneuver (VM ratio).
Results: Out of 84 subjects, males were 50 and females were 34. There was highly significant negative correlation between age and E:I ratio (P<0.00). There was highly significant negative correlation between age and 30:15 ratio (P< 0.05). There was nonsignificant negative correlation between age and VM ratio (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: There was decline in parasympathetic functions with increasing age


Huldani .; Siti Kaidah; Julia Kasab; Fauziah .; Muhammad Hasan Ridhoni

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 1126-1132

Background: Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) is an indicator of the basic concept of physical fitness (physical fitness). The factors that determine VO2 max include heart lung function, age, aerobic muscle metabolism, body obesity, exercise state, genetics, gender, multivitamins. The age of 20-30 years is the peak age of heart and lung endurance, then it will decrease due to increasing age, the person will reduce various sports activities. Methods: This study was conducted to determine differences in VO2 Max in riverbank communities in HST Regency based on age, sex, and cellular immunity (neutrophils and lymphocytes). The samples used were 30 samples each based on adult and elderly age, sex, and neutrophil and lymphocyte examination results. Sampling using simple random sampling on samples that meet the inclusion criteria. VO2 Max is measured by the Rockport method. Data analysis used unpaired t test if the data were normally distributed and Mann Whitney if the data were not normally distributed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: VO2 max values for the less fit and fit men group were 35.7% and 64.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, the VO2 max value for the less fit and fit women group was 62.5% and 37.5%, respectively. The p value of both groups is 0.03. The neutrophil mean of the less fit and fitter groups were 63.5 and 59.1, respectively. The neutrophil mean for the less fit and fitter groups were 27.6 and 31.1, respectively.Conclusion: There are significant differences in VO2 max in groups of women and men, adults and elderly residents of Hulu Sungai Tengah Regency, South Kalimantan. In addition, there was also a significant difference in the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes between the VO2 max fitter and less fitter groups.


Claudia Michelle Darjanki; Sonny Perdana; Yunita Purwaningsih; Retno Palupi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 699-708

Background:Dental and oral health problems can have an impact on the ability to chew, bite, swallow or talk, one's appearance, smile and self-esteem, social factors such as eating or talking in front of others, pain or discomfort, which will affect the quality of life of individuals. Purpose:of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between the age of patients with oral health problems with the quality of life.Method:This research is a descriptive type of research with 118 respondents. The questionnaire completed by the respondent which contained primary data including name, gender, age, disease history, OHIP-14 scale, and five-point scale. Result:Most of the study subjects were respondents who were in the young adult age group (25-44 years), with a higher quality of life score (12.04%). The average results of OHIP scores of subjects with the highest scores stated that subjects in both ages ranges felt disturbed especially in terms of mastication, ingestion, and speech functions by 11.9%. The lowest score is at the point of feeling hard to do any activity at 4.89% and feels easily offended or upset at 5.67%.Conclusion: The result shows a significant difference from the statistical analysis test of OHIP-14 scores according to age. Thus it can be concluded that there is a relationship between the age range in patients with oral health problems with the quality of life.

Different Types Of Veneering Techniques Planned For Cases Requiring Smile Correction - A Retrospective Study.

Harsh Kasabwala; Kiran Kumar Pandurangan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3053-3061

Background:Due to the increasing esthetic demands in today's world it becomes necessary to study various treatment options which enhance an overall aesthetics of an individual. One of the most important topics in contemporary dentistry is re-establishing a patient lost dental esthetic appearance. In cases where aesthetics plays an important role such as restoring the anterior teeth, clinicians mostly prefer a conservative yet aesthetic approach instead of restoring the teeth with full coverage crowns. In such situations direct and indirect veneers play an important role. So therefore, it becomes necessary to study direct and indirect veneers.Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of direct and indirect veneers used in smile correction.Materials and Methods:It is designed as a retrospective study. A total of 111 patient records where veneering with direct and indirect technique was planned were acquired. It was done by analysing records of 86000 patient data who were treated from March 2019- March 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the frequency and percentages of direct and indirect veneers . Chi square test was used to evaluate the association between age and gender with the type of veneering technique. SPSS version 20 software was used to perform statistics.Results: Out of the total cases evaluated, 78. 4 % of the cases were planned for indirect veneering and 21.6% of the cases were planned for direct veneering. There was a significant association between age of the patient and the type veneering technique planned p value 0.001 and no significant association between the type of veneering and gender of the patient p value 0.790Conclusion:Within the limitations of the study, Indirect veneering technique was found to be more convenient and it was performed much more as compared to that of direct veneering technique. There is a positive association between age of the patient and type of veneering technique planned for them.

Effect Of Age On Taste Perception - A Review

Mabbithasri A; Gifrina Jayaraj; R Gayatri dev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2941-2948

Taste is a sensation of the gustatory system . Taste sensation along with olfaction is carried out by the trigeminal nerve. Taste receptors are present in the taste buds .Human tongues have papillae mostly on the anterior two-third of the tongue . The taste cells present on the tongue are responsible for the perception of taste.Around 50 years of age taste sensation tends to disappear slowly .the study aims to find and analyse about the effect of age on taste perception.To undergo this review, articles from PUBMED and Google scholar were collected and many other articles were collected from the reference section of other articles.It is found that many factors are responsible for loss of taste sensation like reduction of taste buds , poor oral hygiene ,salivary flow, systemic diseases, smoking, and medication. After referring to many articles it is evident that perception of bitter taste is lost with age. From the current study it is evident that many techniques have been used to detect the taste perception in old age people and the most effective method was threshold perception.

Assessment Of Maxillary Single Complete Denture Treatment In A Private Dental College: A Retrospective Study

A Paul; Ashok V; Deepa Gurunathan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3192-3201

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the frequency of the number of patients who undergo maxillary single complete denture in a private dental college, Chennai.
Materials and Methods: The data were reviewed from patient records in a private dental college from a particular time period of June 2019 to March 2020. The data collected was then tabulated in excel and exported to SPSS by IBM. The outputs were obtained through statistical analysis..
Results: The results obtained were based on age, the most common age groups found were 44- 49 years. Based on gender, the gender predilection was towards females. The total number of patients who were diagnosed was greater than the number of patients who underwent treatment ( 51.2%) Conclusion: Within the limits of the study, the maxillary complete dentures are the most prevalent in the female gender of the age group 44-49 years of age. The number of patients treated were less compared to the number of patients diagnosed with partial edentulous maxilla.


SarojiniRamyaPillay .; Jessy P; Remmiya Mary Varghese

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1587-1596

Oral health is a vital part of overall infant health.An early age between 6 months to 12 months dental visit is important in rendering prevention,intervention and parental counselling regarding oral health. Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual potential tissue damage according to internal association for the study of pain. Aim of the study is to assess the association between age of the first dental visit and pain in children. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the patient records from the Department of pedodontic, Saveetha Dental College,visited from February 2019 to February 2020.The children with first dental visit without the past dental history were collected and from which whosoever first visit with chief complaint of pain data were gathered . The collected Data was then subjected to statistical analysis using spss version 20.0.Overall prevalence of chief complaint of pain during first visit was (96.5%). Among first dental visit with pain about 47.2 % was seen in the age of 6-8 years while the least was (14.0%) seen at the age of 11-13 years.The results proved that many parents were unaware about the right age of the child first dental visit.Most of the parents bought their children to the dentist after their child experienced or suffered from pain.There is a need to raise awareness about the importance of oral health care of their children sensitively at the budding stage of life


Sharon keziah.V Sharon keziah.V1; Dr. Deepika Rajendran; Dr. R. Pradeep Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1237-1246

Denture Stomatitis( DS) is one of the common denture related complications in patients wearing dentures after years of denture use. There have been various studies on its prevalence despite the fact that its exact etiology is still unknown. Removable dentures have served as an important prosthesis in dentistry, whereby it helps in regaining the phonetics and masticatory functions as well as esthetics in edentulous patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors that can cause denture stomatitis in denture wearers. This study was designed as a retrospective clinical study. All the patients with removable dentures (Complete dentures , Removable Partial dentures , Cast partial denture ) were taken into account and the data was retrieved. The data was analysed and results were recorded.Out of the 1415 subjects wearing dentures (complete or partial ) , 80 were found to have denture stomatitis in which 57.4% were women and 42.6% were men. The majority of the DS patients were in the age group range of 51-80 years. Temporary partial dentures (50%) were the most prevalent type of prosthesis in patients with denture stomatitis. When the medical history was reviewed most of the patients did not have any underlying systemic diseases(61.1%) did not have any medical condition, (18.5%) were diabetic, (11.1 %) were hypertensive. When all the diabetic patients(2577) were evaluated , 9.32% had denture stomatitis .In the study, it was observed that denture stomatitis was prevalent in elderly patients with slight female predilection. Diabetes was the most prevalent systemic illness associated with denture stomatitis


Karthikeson. P.S; Deepak. S; Kiran Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1204-1210

Endodontic file fracture is an uncommon event. It is important to assess the variations in root and root canal morphology before initiating any endodontic treatment .Occurrence of instrument fracture is reported to range between 0.3% and 16.2% . The aim of the study is to assess the association between age and teeth referred for retrieval of a separated instrument. In this retrospective study a total of 82000 patient records were reviewed and data related to instrument retrieval were extracted and tabulated for data analysis. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and chi square test was used to determine the occurrence of instrument fracture in patients undergoing root canal treatment based on age and teeth. Occurrence of instrument fracture was found to be highest in the 31 to 41 years age group and there is no relation between age and teeth referred for retrieval of separated instrument.


Inchara. R; Dr. Balaji Ganesh .S,; Dr. Subhashree. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1150-1158

Menopause is associated with many systemic and oral changes. Many researchers have tried to evaluate the influence of hormonal changes associated with menopause in the periodontium. The aim of this study isto evaluate the furcation sites in postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis. It is a single centered retrospective study. A total of 215 case records that met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the study. Patient records were collected and evaluated. The data analysis was done using SPSS software.Within the limits of the study, grade II furcations are more common compared to grade I, III and
IV. Furcations are most commonly seen in 16,26,37,46 as compared to other molars. In relation to 46, grade II furcation was more common in the age group of 50-60 years, p value = 0.014 ﹤0.05 which was statistically significant. In relation to 47, Grade II furcation was more common in 50-55 years of age, p
value =0.031﹤0.05, which is statistically significant. Post menopausal women are more prone to poor periodontal health status. There is a need to create awareness about periodontal health and the associated problems in postmenopausal women.


Gayathri R Menon; Kiran Kumar Pandurangan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1691-1700

Tooth wear is a multifactorial condition which can lead to the loss of dental hard tissue which is enamel and dentin. Attrition is mechanical wear of tooth as a result of function or parafunctional habit caused due to tooth to tooth contact. Attrition on the occlusal surfaces of teeth is happening throughout life which results in esthetic disfigurement, occlusal disharmony, pulpal trauma and impaired function. Premilarily diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures of tooth wear is necessity and an important part of day today practice. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine prevalence of tooth wear based on age and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with age groups of 27-73 years and reviewing the 86,000 patient records between June 2019 to November 2019. A total of 58 patients were evaluated for category, age and gender of tooth wear. The Collected data were recorded by evaluating the clinical photographs and examination. Data were collected and tabulated in the excel sheets which were Imported to the SPSS version 20 for statistical analysis. Out of 58 patients 53.4% were males and 46.6% were females. The prevalence of tooth wear is more among 61-70 years of age with male predilection. The most prevalent type is category 2 followed by category 1 and category 3.


Baala vignesh .A; Ravindra Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1858-1863

Crossbite is the discrepancy in buccolingual relationship between the upper and lower teeth involving skeletal or dental components. Cross bites can be anterior or Posterior and skeletal or dental and unilaterally present or bilaterally present. Posterior crossbites as and when identified should be corrected since they are known to cause growth impairment. This study was done to report the prevalence of posterior crossbites and gender association in class II malocclusions. This retrospective study was done on case records of the patients who had reported to the orthodontic department, saveetha dental college, in the past 8 months. 1016 class II malocclusion case records in the age range 12-40 yrs were selected for the study, presence of posterior crossbites was evaluated in them and the frequency of crossbites was tabulated and statistical analysis was done in SPSS.The study showed that the overall prevalence of posterior crossbite in class II malocclusions was 3.8 %. single tooth crossbites(73.7%) were more common than multiple teeth crossbite(26.3%). No gender association for posterior crossbites was noted. In conclusion the present study reports a prevalence of 3.8% for posterior crossbites in class II malocclusion and there was no significant gender association.


Pratheebha C; Gifrina Jayaraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1411-1419

Age is an important factor in clinical practice, research, and court of law. One of the interesting applications of forensic odontology is age estimation by means of teeth. Dental development is relatively independent from other systems maturation. Detectable variation in the tempo of tooth mineralization and duration of tooth maturation between children from different geographical regions were reported. Enamel is translucent and varies in color from light yellow to grey white. The color of the teeth has been reported to be affected by chronological age. Enamel color may also depend on environmental factors viz. diet, occupational habits, vitamin deficiencies, fluoride level in drinking water etc. Enamel color was found to be associated with the chronological age . The enamel color was evaluated using a VITA classical shade guide. Identification of individual age with no birth record can be done using enamel color. Further advance in enamel shade for age estimation with increased sample size would enhance the knowledge and improve the accuracy of methods used in the field of forensic odontology.


B Vivek Babu; Dhanraj M; Samuel Raj Srinivasan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1370-1376

Dental injuries result in functional , esthetic and psychological disturbance accompanied by great concern.Traumatic dental injuries are due to the physical impact on a tooth and its surrounding tissues which may be direct or indirect trauma to the teeth may result either injury of pulp, with or without damage of crown or root displacement of the tooth from the socket. The most frequent causes of these injuries are falls, sport activities, bicycling, traffic accidents. A cross sectional retrospective study of, study population will 100 adult patients visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospital with tooth fracture . Data was gathered and analyzed. The data was tabulated and Chi square analysis done using IBM SPSS software version 20. With the limited population and parameters of this study, there is a more prevalence of tooth fracture in male over females .The most common tooth involved in fracture is 21.Traumatic dental injuries are recognized as a public dental health problem worldwide.