Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Postmenopausal women


Vinit Gupta; Pooja Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 895-899

Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) is a quantitative measure of bone mass and represents the total mineral in a selected volume of bone in the hip or in the spine. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is currently the gold standard in the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). Present study was aimed to study bone mineral density in postmenopausal women at a district hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, descriptive, observational study, conducted women who were post-menopausal for at least one year.
Results: 220 postmenopausal women were studied.  Mean age was 50.93 ± 5.19 years, mean height was 154.44 ± 8.20 cm, mean weight was 64.39 ± 14.25 kgs & mean BMI was 24.44 ± 3.51 kg/m2, mean age at menopause was 48.24 ± 4.14 years & mean menopausal duration was 3.17 ± 1.91 years. Bone mineral density at lumbar spine was normal in majority of cases (44.55 %), while 32.27 % cases had osteopenia & 23.18 % cases had osteoporosis. While, bone mineral density at femoral neck was normal in majority of cases (46.82 %), while 30.91 % cases had osteopenia & 22.27 % cases had osteoporosis.
Conclusion: Estimation of bone mineral density is the key to early diagnose osteoporosis among postmenopausal women.


Dr.Borra Dharmendhar, Dr.Ketham Veera Sudhakar, Dr.Laxmi Chapidi, Dr.Kankata Jhansi Rani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1323-1327

Introduction: Vitamin D belongs to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids which helps in increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc. In humans, vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) are important compounds. Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of postmenopausal women attending gynaec OPD department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kakatiya Medical College and MGM hospital, Warangal from1st October 2021 to 30th September 2022 (1 year). Apparently healthy postmenopausal women without any prolonged medical illness like diabetes, thyroid, hepato-renal disease, malignancy, or without any surgical illness were selected. Besides patients on HRT, steroids, bisphosphonates or any drugs affecting bone metabolism, smokers and alcoholics were excluded.
Results: Out of total 206 postmenopausal women attending gynaec OPD during the study period, only 122 women were found eligible for study after satisfying inclusion-exclusion criteria. We divided these postmenopausal women according to their age into five years age-groups, starting from 50 years to 70 years of age. Most common age-group was 55-60 years accounting for 49% followed by 50-55 years age-group making 41%, thus together adding up to 90% of study population. This shows the authenticity of study population. Mean age of study group was 56.9 years.
Conclusion: There is high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Indian postmenopausal women, but our study shows no correlation between hypovitaminosis D and fasting blood sugar. Besides, the cut-off level for vitamin D deficiency should be reviewed in Indian population looking at the scenario of adequate sunlight exposure, to prevent it from overtreatment and also for dietary modification. The role of bioavailable 25(OH) vitamin D should be ascertained.


Inchara. R; Dr. Balaji Ganesh .S,; Dr. Subhashree. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1150-1158

Menopause is associated with many systemic and oral changes. Many researchers have tried to evaluate the influence of hormonal changes associated with menopause in the periodontium. The aim of this study isto evaluate the furcation sites in postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis. It is a single centered retrospective study. A total of 215 case records that met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the study. Patient records were collected and evaluated. The data analysis was done using SPSS software.Within the limits of the study, grade II furcations are more common compared to grade I, III and
IV. Furcations are most commonly seen in 16,26,37,46 as compared to other molars. In relation to 46, grade II furcation was more common in the age group of 50-60 years, p value = 0.014 ﹤0.05 which was statistically significant. In relation to 47, Grade II furcation was more common in 50-55 years of age, p
value =0.031﹤0.05, which is statistically significant. Post menopausal women are more prone to poor periodontal health status. There is a need to create awareness about periodontal health and the associated problems in postmenopausal women.