Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : malignancy

Figo’s Palm Coein Classification of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding – It’s Clinico-Histopathological Correlation in Indian Setting"

Keshamalla Swetha, Mortha Sanjana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3728-3740

Background: To study and analyze the structural and functional component of PALM COEIN of AUB in Perimenopausal women and its correlation with the Histopathology where ever applicable especially PALM component.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study carried out on 100 non gravid women of perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups who came to Gynaecology OPD with complaints of AUB. The data was analysed considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PALM- COEIN classification was used to classify causes of AUB.
Results: In our study most of the patients were in the age group of 41-50 years (45%). So that AUB is most common in late reproductive years and perimenopausal age groups. Most women with AUB were multiparous. More than half of the women were overweight and obese. So that high BMI is a risk factor for AUB. Most common presenting complaint was heavy menstrual bleeding (44%). Most cases of AUB were due to structural (PALM) abnormalities (61%) &67% based on HPE. Most common cause of AUB was leiomyoma (30%) and more cases were seen in the age group of 31- 50 years .most of the cases of leiomyoma were. Sub mucosal type. 2nd most common cause of AUB was ovulatory dysfunction (17%). In endometrial polyps the D & C reports showed more cases of proliferative endometrium showing that estrogen regulates the growth of the polyps. More cases of AUB-A, AUB-M, AUB-A,L were detected on histopathological examination. Malignancy and hyperplasia is mostly seen after 51 years and mostly these are post-menopausal.
Conclusions: In our study more cases of AUB-A,AUB-M,AUB-A,L were detected more than that of clinical case after histopathological examination, which is more accurate in detecting the pathology. Hence, a proper and adequate clinico histopathological workup of perimenopausal patients helps in accurate diagnosis which aids in better management of AUB.

Assessment of Growth parameters in Children with Malignancy at a Tertiary hospital

Pujitha Bandla, Ruma Deshpande, Rahul Jahagirdar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4043-4049

Background: Childhood cancer survivors may face growth impairment due to late effects of childhood cancer therapies. Present study was aimed to study the impact of various modalities of treatment on growth of children with malignancy.
Material and Methods: Present study was Prospective observational hospital-based study, conducted in children between age group 1-18 years, diagnosed with Haematological malignancy or any solid tumour and are on treatment/follow-up in Pediatric hematoncology unit, at least on 4 occasions (4-6 months apart).
Results: Out of 45 children, 30 (66.7%) were boys, mean age of the children enrolled was 5.4 ± 3.684 years. 29 (64.4%) had Leukaemia, 31 (68.8%) received only chemotherapy, 12 (26.6%) received surgery and chemotherapy, 10 received radiotherapy and chemotherapy (22.2%) and 8 (17.8%) of them received all 3 modes of treatment. Among 29 children with leukaemia, there was significant weight gain as well as increase in height at each follow up compared to baseline.  There was no statistically significant gain in weight or height in children with lymphoma at all 3 follow ups. In children with solid organ tumor significant weight gain is observed at each follow up compared with baseline weight which was taken at initiation of chemotherapy. Significant gain in height & weight at each follow up was observed among all 31 children who received only chemotherapy, there was gain in weight & height observed in all children who received both chemotherapy and underwent surgery.  No significant weight gain but a significant gain in height in all 13 children who received both chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Conclusion: Weight is more affected in children who received radiotherapy along with chemotherapy and in children who received all 3 modes of treatment that is chemotherapy, radiotherapy and underwent surgery for excision of tumour when compared with children who received chemotherapy alone


Anil Kumar Sethiya, Madan Kumar Solanki, Hanuman Ram Choudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1696-1705

Background: The proper evaluation of ascitic fluid helps in narrowing the diagnostic dilemma faced by the physicians and helps in better management of the patients. Early and accurate diagnosis often depends on appropriate ascitic fluid analysis. The aim of this study to correlate the cytological features of the ascitic fluid with clinical data at newly established tertiary care center.
Materials & Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, in a tertiary health care centre over a period of one year. Cytological examination was performed to reveal important information regarding the causes of ascites and classified as benign (with or without infection/ spontaneous bacterial peritonitis), suspicious or malignant conditions. Cytomorphology of the cells was studied and documented paying attention to cellular arrangement, cytoplasmic features and nuclear characteristics. Clinical information of the patient and cytomorphological features of the smears were studied and the samples were categorized into benign (with or without infection/ SBP), suspicious of malignancy or malignant.
Results: Our study showed that the mean age was 55.67 years. Out of 30 cases, 14 were males and 16 were females, with male to female ratio being 7:8. Out of 30 samples, 26 (86.66%) were benign, 2 (6.66%) were suspicious of malignancy, and 2 (6.66%) were positive for malignancy. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was Alcoholic Liver disease comprising of 8 (26.66%) cases. The predominant cell type was Lymphocyte in 14 (46.66%) of cases, Neutrophil in 9 (30%) of cases, Reactive mesothelial cell in 5 (16.66%) of cases and atypical/malignant cells in 2 (6.66%) of cases. Histiocytic cells were also seen.
Conclusion: We concluded that non neoplastic and neoplastic conditions causing ascites can be diagnosed on ascitic fluid cytology. Increased neutrophil count is strongly suggestive of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The careful cytomorphological examination of ascitic fluid is a valuable, simple, rapid, inexpensive and reliable technique in the differential diagnosis of ascites, particularly in resource limited settings.


Dr. Bairi Laxminarayana, Dr. V. Srinivas Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2743-2755

Prostatic pathology is deceptively simple. Benign prostatic Hyperplasia, prostatitis and prostatic carcinoma are the three principal conditions involving the prostate accounting for more than 95% of lesions. Though the morphologic diagnosis of prostatic lesions, separating benign from malignant is relatively straight forward, there are several benign proliferations and normal histo-anatomic structures of prostate which mimic malignancy and their awareness is essential to avoid diagnostic pit falls.

Study of cell block technique in the cytodiagnosis of serous fluids at a tertiary hospital

Ashvini Pandit Mane, Hemant R. Kokandakar, A.R. Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 12216-12225

Background: Conventional smear is a less complicated procedure than that of cell block technique, it has lower sensitivity due of overcrowding of cells, cell loss, lack of architecture and also abundance of inflammatory cells and scarcity of representative cells contribute to appreciable difficulties in creating conclusive diagnosis on conventional smears. The aim of this study was to check the diagnostic yields of cell block technique in the cytodiagnosis of serous fluids.
Material and Methods: Present study was cross-sectional observational study, conducted in samples of ascitic fluid, pleural fluid, pericardiac fluid that were received in the cytology section, collected from patients clinically and radiologically diagnosed as having serous effusion. After reporting the conventional cytological smear the representative received samples were processed for cell block preparations.
Results: Findings of cellularity differs significantly, indicating better yield of cellularity in cell blocks as compared to conventional smear method. Distribution of findings of background obscured by blood or proteinaceous material differs significantly, indicating less degree of background obscured by blood or proteinaceous material on cell block preparation. Distribution of findings of morphology differs significantly, morphology is better appreciated with the help of cell blocks as compared to conventional smear method. Distribution of findings of architecture differs significantly, indicating better appreciation of architecture on cell blocks. Conclusion: Cell block method, concentrates cellular rich material, and it can increases cellular yield for diagnosis. Cell block increases cellular architecture pattern like acini, cells in sheets, papillae, which has helped to identify possible type or primary site of malignancy


Nivethitha R; Dr.Deepika Rajendran; Dr. Saravana Dinesh S.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1221-1236

Oral submucous fibrosis(OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder of oral mucosa affecting mainly the population in south and southeast Asia. OSMF is precancerous condition caused by areca nut chewing characterised by restricted mouth opening, burning sensation and stiffness and blanching of oral mucosa.Complete regression of the condition had not been achieved in all cases with any of the present treatment regimen.The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge among dental students about the significance of Oral Submucous Fibrosis and it’s management. The questionnaire based study was conducted among 100 participants. A self administered questionnaire was used. The questionnaire based study was conducted through an online forum , google form software. The questions were formed to observe knowledge,attitude,and practical approach of dental students towards treating OSMF patients attending private dental hospitals .The data collected were stored and results were analysed by SPSS software. Out of 100 participants, 55% participants reported that females have an increased prevalence of OSMF compared to male. Majority of participants were aware that betel quid were the most common habits and blanching mucosa were the common features associated with OSMF. 60 % of participants were aware that stopping gutka / pan chewing habits alone will not resolve the problem in patients having trismus. Within the limits of the present study, students showed good knowledge on the various clinical and diagnosis aspects of Oral submucous fibrosis, however the knowledge on the management aspect of oral submucous fibrosis was moderate. A better knowledge of OSMF will endure safer health care services for the population.