Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : isolation

Isolation, Identification, Validation of Determination Alpha Mangosteen on Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia mangostana L.)

Mr Kurniawan; Azis Saifudin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1941-1947

Mangosteen rind is currently widely used by people as an ingredient in health drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the quality of raw materials, extract preparations and their compounds in order to meet the quality requirements as stated in the Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The content of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana L.) consists of various kinds of xanthones, especially αmangosteen and γ-mangosteen. The presence of these two compounds can be a standard quality parameter of the mangosteen rind extract as an herbal medicinal ingredient. The method of determining the standard content in the methanol extract of mangosteen rind using the HPLC method. The extract was prepared by maceration method using methanol. Then fractionated and purified to obtain fractions into isolates using various chromatography techniques. The identification of isolated compounds by TLC used the mobile phase of hexane: ethyl acetate (2: 3), H-NMR and reverse-phase HPLC with the mobile phase of water: acetonitrile (80: 20). The assay results for the α-mangosteen standard compound had a mean value of 0.155 mg / mL. The validation of the α-mangosteen content determination method in methanol extract of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana L.) was carried out by determining the values of linearity parameters, detection limits and quantitation limits. The αmangosteen linearity study shows that the analysis carried out in the concentration range (0.4; 0.2; 0.1; 0.05; 0.025) mg / ml provides a measurement of the relationship coefficient (r) of 0.993 with a detection limit (LOD). ) of 0.043 mg / ml and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.129 mg / ml. So that in this range α-mangosteen gives a linear response. The specificity value of the α-mangosteen spectrum purity test results obtained a correlation value above 0.99. The results of the α-mangosteen test met the validation criteria.


Almass.M. AL- bayati; Hala. M. Majeed; Ziyad. T. AL- doori

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 383-391

Background:- Mastitis is the term for a bacterial infection of the udder. It is most
common in ewes raising multiple lambs or with high milk production. Most cases occur
during the first weeks after lambing or immediately before weaning. Good ewe
nutrition and providing a clean lambing environment are important factors in reducing
the incidence of mastitis.
Objective: The study was focused on using of rapid & efficient methods for detection of
Subclinical Mastitis in 4 small holder dairy flock in central of Kirkuk &its affiliated
Material and Methods:- A total of 94 milk samples sheep were collected from four
farms in October to December 2018 to determine pathogens responsible for subclinical
mastitis in sheep.
Results:- Screening Subclinical Mastitis(of SCM) were done using California mastitis
and White Slide Test (WST). the prevalence percentage of SCM in California mastitis
and White Slide Test according the early stage lactation was(74 % and 70%)
respectively. While the prevalence percentage of SCM in California mastitis and White
Slide test according the according the dry period lactation was(66 % and 64 % )
respectively. identification of the isolates was achieved using Gram’s staining,
hemolytic pattern, colony morphology, Catalase , Coagulase test, IMVIC test and
confirmation of bacteria species by using Vitek 2 compact after identification to the
primary biochemical tests using Analytical Profile Index. Bacteriological examination of
all milk samples found the presence of (82.85% ) isolates where Staphylococcus was
predominant species (74.28 %) and the coagulase negative Staphylococcus (25.7% )
species was identified at the least bacteria .than staph. aureus, while environmental
pathogen represented E. coli second common pathogen followed by klebsiella
pneumonia (14.8% ) , Manhemia haemolytica (12.8 %) proteus spp.( 11.4%) And low
percentage to the Enterobacter spp. (4.3 %) .
Conclusion:- subclinical mastitis seems to be, as deduced from the high prevalence
observed in this study, an important health problem for milking sheeps in the Kirkuk
Application of VITEK system could be practiced at selected samples from time to time
to confirm identification of causative organisms.

Features Of Relationships In Families And Their Impact On The Development Of Adolescents

Norboeva Dilafruz Jumakulovna; Kipchakova Sanobar Baxriddinovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4137-4147

This article examines the influence of family relations on the development of a teenager, which is associated with the process of individualization and self-realization of a person. The development of the adolescent's autonomy and individualization can be disrupted in a family crisis. In particular, adolescents who have experienced parental divorce may develop too early, an excessive desire for autonomy, independence from parents, and independence, which, in turn, may lead to further conflicts in the family.


Nandini. P; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr .S . Gheena

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1322-1329

In 2019 -2020 coronavirus is a major public health issue and self-isolation is among the best suggestions to reduce the spread of the virus.COVID-19 is a communicable disease caused by a newly discovered virus named ‘coronavirus’ which is rapidly spreading all around the world. The coronavirus pandemic is being, with physicians seen as the frontline soldiers with the war against the disease. COVID-19 infected people are experiencing mild to moderate respiratory disorder and they are getting recovered without requiring special treatment but for some, it is a fatal outcome. As a mitigatory measure, lockdown is imposed by most of the governments. The main aim of this study is about the public perception of being productive during the lockdown. A self-structured questionnaire was distributed through google forms linked to 100 individuals of the general population of India. The questionnaire was studied carefully and answers were marked by the participants. The results were collected and the data were analysed using SPSS software version 20. The majority of Indian population are aware of COVID -19 and that they know the density of medical support. The overall accept lockdown as a necessary measure. Most of them know about the COVID -19 outbreak associated with the population around the world. 90% of the participants know the outbreak of coronavirus and the advantages of being isolated. The results of this survey concluded that in India people are aware and they know how to be productive during this isolation period. The study shows that being productive can make people do more things and be creative and learn more things.