Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : saliva

Evaluation Of Color Stability Of Denture Base Material In Pre Measured Polymer Monomer Ratio With Hand And Rationed Mixed.

Thaslima Nandhini J S; Dr. Vikraman Rakshagan; Christopher VarushaSharon; Mahesh Ramakrishnan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1725-1735

Aim and objective: To test the colour stability of acrylic denture base material that had been manually blended and rationed before being submerged in artificial saliva.
Materials and Methods: The study groups consisted of group 1 which included handmixed specimens and group 2 comprising pre-measured specimens. The color stability values of these specimens were obtained from Konika Minolta Spectrophotometer. Both the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 1 week and color stability were again obtained and compared using independent T-test.
Results: It showed that color stability values obtained from the spectrophotometer were better in pre-measured specimens. However, the obtained p value was 0.05 which makes the study non-significant.
Conclusion: Pre-measured samples provide better color stability in the long run of the denture.
Clinical Significance: Measured values of polymer and monomer in the cold cure denture base material during manipulation of the material  provide better color stability signifying its long run.


Dharahaas Chinthagumpala; Dr. R.V. Geetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1763-1770

Aim: This study aims to determine the changes caused by microbes in patients with periodontitis
Background: Periodontitis is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. The disease is a consequence of destructive host immune responses to pathogenic bacterial species resulting from the dysbiosis of oral microbiota
Objective: To comparatively analyze the oral microbial flora of healthy individual and patients with periodontitis
Materials & Method: Salivary samples of healthy individual and patients with periodontitis will be collected and will be analyzed in the Microbiology Laboratory for presence of any microorganisms. The findings will be compared to arrive at a conclusion on the diversity of the microbial profile between the two groups.
Results: The oral microbes included Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Candida Albicans, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus.
Conclusion: Knowledge of the difference in the microbial flora of healthy individual and patients with periodontitis can help aid in more specific treatment options and prevent recurrence of the disease.

Association of salivary soluble CD44 in patients with oral leukoplakia: A case control study

Dr. Megha.D.B,Dr. Seema Patil,Dr. Asha R Iyengar,Dr. Sanjana M, Dr. Aparna K,Dr. Ritika Agarwal,Dr. Subash BV,Dr. Revan Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6664-6677

Background: Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa.  Latest developments in the field of molecular biology have greatly increased our knowledge of the role of various bio markers in carcinogenesis and prognosis of precancerous and cancerous lesions.
Aim: The present study aims to assess the expression of CD44 in saliva of subjects with leukoplakia by quantitative Real Time-polymerase chain reaction.
Methodology: 30 subjects with leukoplakia (clinically and histopathologically confirmed) and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Quantitative real time PCR was run on the salivary samples of these study subjects. 
Results: An individual pattern of down regulation of CD44 was noted in 60% of the subjects with leukoplakia and upregulation was noted in 90% of controls by absolute quantification method. The gene fold expression ratio by relative quantification method between subjects with leukoplakia and controls delta ct method was found to be 5.777/5.827= 0.9914 and by double delta ct method was found to be 28.4151/28.0694=1.0123. No statistical significant difference was noted in the expression of CD44 and grades of epithelial dysplasia.
Conclusion:  Although an individual pattern of   down regulation of CD44 was noted in subjects with leukoplakia, the gene fold expression ratio between subjects with leukoplakia and controls by both the methods was approximately 1 suggesting no difference in the gene fold expression ratio between subjects with leukoplakia and controls. CD44 was not found to be a reliable marker in determining the malignant transformation of leukoplakia.

Salivary Metabolomics As Markers Of Progression, Prognosis And Effectiveness Of Therapy In Oral Leukoplakia And Oral Cancer: A Review

Usha Adiga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9061-9067

The overall goal of the review is to discuss about establishing a panel of salivary metabolomics markers which may be useful as a non-invasive prognostic markers of oral precancerous and cancerous conditions. The non-invasive panel of salivary metabolomics may be unique in predicting the prognosis of oral pre-cancer and cancerous states, progression of the disease states as well as the effectiveness of treatment. A future researchstudy may be planned to develop a panel of salivary metabolomics for predicting the prognosis of oral leukoplakia as well as oral cancer. It may also predict association of salivary metabolomics with the treatment effectiveness oral cancer.
A non-invasive and cost-effective salivary metabolomic parameters may be developed for predicting the prognosis of oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of salivary metabolomics panel may be compared as routine histopathology in predicting the transformation of precancerous to cancer may be established


Dr Pallavi Priya,Dr. Deepika Khurana,Dr. Gauri bhatia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 676-685

The rapid spread of the COVID-19virus and related pneumonia has posed a major challenge for
healthcare systems worldwide. The infection was discovered in the city of Wuhan, Central of
China and swept across the world.Theincubation period of the viruscan range from 1–14 days,
and the virus spread can happen in the absence of clinical symptoms as well.The most frequently
reported symptoms are fever, cough, dyspnea, and myalgia or fatigue. Modes for transmission of
virus include direct transmission through coughing,sneezing, and inhalation of droplets and
contact transmission through contact with nasal, oral, and ocular mucosa. Droplet and aerosol
transmission of the virus are the most common causes of COVID-19 infection in dental clinics
and hospitals.COVID-19 virus has lately been detected in saliva of infected patients, thus posing
an alert to health professionals to be customarily vigilant in protecting against the infectious
disease spread. Because of the presence of virus in saliva, it may be helpful as a non-invasive
tool in the rapid detection of the virus.During this pandemic dissemination of COVID-19, dental
treatment must be confined to the procedures that cannot be deferred. All the precautions must be
taken in terms of triaging, personal protective equipment, hand hygiene, pre-procedural
mouthrinse, use of rubber dam, disinfection of the surfaces. Dental professionals are at the
highest risk of COVID-19 infection; hence, dental practicehas to be reorganized in order to
ensure higher safety standards for both dentists and patients.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1821-1826

Forensic odontology is a speciality in dentistry which occupies a primary niche within the total spectrum of methods applied to medico legal identifications. Forensic odontology deals with human identifications based on dental records, bite marks, lip prints, tooth prints and palatal rugae patterns. This article primarily aims at making general practitioners aware about the importance of keeping various types of dental records and its implication in forensic odontology.

Proteomics and Oral Cancer: The Road Less Travelled

Dr. Kumar Gaurav Chhabra; Nandini Hake; Sayali Limsay; Radhika Kulkarni; Dr. Gargi Nimbulkar; Dr. Amit Reche

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1816-1825

The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is evaluated as the eighth driving reason for malignant growth all inclusive. OSCC shows high predominance and grimness, with the death pace of 145,000 passing for every year universally. The result of the treatment and anticipation of oral cancerous growth relies for the most part upon early finding. For the high morbidity of the oral cancer, deferred identification is probably going to be an essential explanation and this backing the basic requirement for sensitive biomarkers to improve early recognition of oral malignant growths. Along these lines, early location and counteraction of oral cancerous growth is one of the destinations set by World Health Organization (WHO). Abnormal cellular products from malignant cells can be recognized and estimated in different body fluids, for example, blood, urine and saliva. Saliva can be utilized to identify biomarkers explicit for oral cancer as it is anything but difficult to acquire and non-intrusive, additionally due to its immediate contact with oral cancer, salivary assessment for discovery of oral cancer can show the best benefit. Biomarkers are utilized for patient assessment in various clinical settings. They are likewise utilized for assessing disease risk, screening for mysterious primary cancers, differentiating benign from malignant findings/one sort of malignancy from another, determining prognosis, acting as indicators/screening, and observing disease status. Salivary biomarkers can possibly recognize normal biological, pathological as well as pharmacological response to treatment. Huge endeavours from scientists and clinicians are significant so as to transform salivary diagnostics into clinical and commercial reality and in this way helping in battling oral disease. This article gives survey of salivary proteomic biomarkers, strategies for examination of salivary proteomic biomarkers and their clinical significance in early discovery of oral cancers.

Evaluation of Efficacy of Green Tea Neem Extract, Frezyderm and Rexidine Mouthwash on Plaque Induced Gingivitis

Dr Vardharajula Venkata Ramaiah; Dr Sabahat Ullah Tareen; Dr Arshad Jamal , Sayed; Dr Mohammed Mutni Al- Mutairi; Ziyad Ahmad Alsuwaydani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5459-5471

Background: Herbal mouthwashes carry a wide array of advantages such as antimicrobial properties, antioxidant properties and more. They are affordable and have minimal or no side effects. They are more efficient than commercially available mouthwashes in the market.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare and to analyze the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea mouthwash, neem mouthwash, homeopathic (Frezyderm) mouthwash, rexidine mouthwash on dental plaque.
Materials and Methods: This is a double-blinded, random controlled research study conducted in the Department of Periodontics. A total of 200 patients were selected randomly, comprising of four groups (Group-I:green tea, group-II-:neem sticks, Group-III: homeopathic (Frezyderm) mouthwash and group-IV: rexidine mouthwash) with gingival index score II. Saliva samples were collected on at baseline and on day 10 and 20 and microbial colony count was done. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using SPSS version 26 with ANOVA test.
Results: Microbial colonies were reduced better in Group IV on the day 10, whereas on day 20, greater reduction was observed in Group II with the difference was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Neem mouthwash formulation had better effects as compared to other three mouthwashes and it could overcome the disadvantages of other mouthwashes as well.


Dr S.Aafiya Reshma; Dr. L. Malathi; Dr. N.Aravindha Babu; Dr.E. Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1798-1803

Menopause is a physiological activity in women which brings changes at both systemic and oral level. At old age, oral hygiene and oral health becomes a major problem and the dentist are the ones who find those changes in the body throughout the menopause. The gums and teeth are more prone to changes in hormones that take place before menopause and slows down body’s capacity to fight back minor infections too. This article reviews about dry mouth during menopause which is of major concern which causes xerostomia.


Keerthana B; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1377-1383

Viruses cause familiar infections and diseases like common cold, flu. They invade living, normal cells and use those cells to multiply and produce colonies of cells.Viral infection is a proliferation of harmful viruses inside the body. Viruses infect the host body by introducing their genetic material into the cells. The main aim of this study is to explore detailed information about saliva and viral infections. This research is seen as a scoping literature review. In seeking to identify the relevant articles, we used common databases such as the Pubmed and Google scholar online websites. Totally 27 articles are found related to the topic. 12 articles are used in this study. From the articles collected and reviewed, it is understood that viral infections can transmit through the saliva and oral specimens, though saliva protects the body from infections. It is concluded that, as saliva has become the transmitter of the virus, we should maintain proper oral hygiene and oral health to prevent these viruses. Future studies have to be done on the viral infections causing cancer.

Salivaomics - A Review

V.T. ThamaraiSelvi; M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2914-2931

The term Salivaomics was coined in 2008, which is used for the development of knowledge about the salivary constituents. Saliva contains salivary markers which are used in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc. Diagnosis from saliva is a developing field with appreciation as it contains hormonal status, neurological effects, nutritional and metabolic influence and immunological status, the diagnostic markers are very useful in various assays. There are 5 different branches in Salivaomics which are the diagnostic alphabets which include proteins, mRNA's, miRNA, metabolic compounds, and Microbes. Salivary genomics is the study of whole genomes i.e., DNA of all the organisms. Salivary proteomics is the study of the proteins present in the saliva. Saliva contains about 1,166 proteins. Salivary Metabolomics is the study in which small metabolites present within the system. Salivary transcriptomics is related to the diagnosis of mRNA. Around 185 mRNAs are found common in all healthy humans. Saliva has a proportionately distributed ratio of bacterial colonies like Bacteroidetes, Fusobacterium, Prevotells, Proteobacteria, Veillonella etc. The advantages of Salivaomics include potential diagnostic value, Safer and easier for the health care professionals compared to blood sampling which sometimes causes cross-infection, Multiple samples can also be obtained easily. There are certain disadvantages which make salivaomics less reliable and preference as a diagnostic tool, These include Composition and flow of the saliva is influenced by the method of saliva collection and also stimulation of saliva flow, biomarkers in saliva which are not reliable, Proteins present in the saliva are also affected by the rate of flow of saliva. SALO is a cross-disciplinary interaction creation, which helps in growing semantically enhanced web-enabled will be created within Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB).
With this background, the present study aims to review the uses, advantages, disadvantages, techniques and methods used in Salivaomics.

Estimation of Salivary Calcium and Phosphorus in Children with different caries status – A Cross- Sectional observational study

Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, Pratibha Ramani, R Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 50-58

Background and Objectives
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a chronic disease of childhood affecting the primary
dentition. ECC begin early in life and can affect the quality of life of child. It is also termed
as nursing caries or baby bottle tooth decay. It has a multifactorial etiology and salivary
parameters are considered as one of the important etiological factors of ECC. The present
study was done to determine the level of salivary calcium and phosphorus in children with
ECC, severe ECC and caries free. The main objective of the study is to determine the
correlation between calcium and phosphorus level and to compare it with the three groups
of children with different caries experience.
Materials and Methods:
It is a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Saveetha Dental college and
Hospitals. Children between 3-6 years were examined and 20 caries free, 20 children with
ECC and 20 children with Severe ECC were recruited for the study. The examination and
sample collection were done by a single qualified Pediatric dentist. The samples were
collected and analysed for salivary calcium and Phosphorus.
Results: The results showed that there was a statistically significant differences in salivary
calcium and phosphorus levels among caries free, ECC and Severe ECC children.
1. There was a significant difference in salivary calcium levels among caries free,
ECC and Severe ECC children
2. There is a significant difference in salivary phosphorus level among caries free,
moderate ECC and Severe ECC children