Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Leukoplakia

Association of salivary soluble CD44 in patients with oral leukoplakia: A case control study

Dr. Megha.D.B,Dr. Seema Patil,Dr. Asha R Iyengar,Dr. Sanjana M, Dr. Aparna K,Dr. Ritika Agarwal,Dr. Subash BV,Dr. Revan Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6664-6677

Background: Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa.  Latest developments in the field of molecular biology have greatly increased our knowledge of the role of various bio markers in carcinogenesis and prognosis of precancerous and cancerous lesions.
Aim: The present study aims to assess the expression of CD44 in saliva of subjects with leukoplakia by quantitative Real Time-polymerase chain reaction.
Methodology: 30 subjects with leukoplakia (clinically and histopathologically confirmed) and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Quantitative real time PCR was run on the salivary samples of these study subjects. 
Results: An individual pattern of down regulation of CD44 was noted in 60% of the subjects with leukoplakia and upregulation was noted in 90% of controls by absolute quantification method. The gene fold expression ratio by relative quantification method between subjects with leukoplakia and controls delta ct method was found to be 5.777/5.827= 0.9914 and by double delta ct method was found to be 28.4151/28.0694=1.0123. No statistical significant difference was noted in the expression of CD44 and grades of epithelial dysplasia.
Conclusion:  Although an individual pattern of   down regulation of CD44 was noted in subjects with leukoplakia, the gene fold expression ratio between subjects with leukoplakia and controls by both the methods was approximately 1 suggesting no difference in the gene fold expression ratio between subjects with leukoplakia and controls. CD44 was not found to be a reliable marker in determining the malignant transformation of leukoplakia.

Salivary Metabolomics As Markers Of Progression, Prognosis And Effectiveness Of Therapy In Oral Leukoplakia And Oral Cancer: A Review

Usha Adiga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9061-9067

The overall goal of the review is to discuss about establishing a panel of salivary metabolomics markers which may be useful as a non-invasive prognostic markers of oral precancerous and cancerous conditions. The non-invasive panel of salivary metabolomics may be unique in predicting the prognosis of oral pre-cancer and cancerous states, progression of the disease states as well as the effectiveness of treatment. A future researchstudy may be planned to develop a panel of salivary metabolomics for predicting the prognosis of oral leukoplakia as well as oral cancer. It may also predict association of salivary metabolomics with the treatment effectiveness oral cancer.
A non-invasive and cost-effective salivary metabolomic parameters may be developed for predicting the prognosis of oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of salivary metabolomics panel may be compared as routine histopathology in predicting the transformation of precancerous to cancer may be established

Cryosurgery in the management of maxillofacial lesions: A review literature

Dr. Vijay ebenezer; Dr. Balakrishnan Ramalingam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1885-1889

There are various methods of tissue destruction have been employed in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery like chemicals, irradiation by X-rays and high-frequency electric current and other methods. However any technique in question with the surgeon’s scalpel should be painless, produce minimal damage to the surrounding tissues, should be selective against, for example, malignant cells, it is very much applied locally, promote uneventful healing rapidly and provides good control. Cryosurgery is a therapeutic method of treatment in which inflammation and destruction tissue cells is created by high cold freezing. This review article aimed to throw insight into the efficacy of cryosurgery in the treatment of oral and maxillofacial lesions.
With the recent development of better equipment and use of liquid nitrogen, this mode of therapy appears to have promising role in the management of locally aggressive and recurrent lesions in the maxillofacial region. Thus, its ease of application and the absence of postoperative infection, contraction, scarring with little or no recurrence makes cryosurgery a highly useful method in treating various conditions of oral cavity. Cryosurgery procedure can be done in out patient clinic, very much cost feasible and comparatively in treating various oral lesions. It is an less invasive form of therapy when compared to the conventional surgery. Cryoprobes can be used as an adjuvant material with other surgical methods in treating various types of oral lesions. In conclusion there would be a considerable increase in the use of cryotherapy in oral surgery, along with a much better understanding of the basic principles and techniques related to this form of treatment.

Scientific Productions on Leucoplakia from Central India- A Bibliometric Analysis

Manoj Patil; Roshan Umate; Kumar Gourav Chhabra; Gargi Nimbulkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1902-1915

Background: Leukoplakia is the term used to recognize white plaques of questionable risk having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk for cancer. Leukoplakia is clearly a clinical term with no specific histology. The histological sections reveal atrophy or hyperplasia (acanthosis), hyperkeratosis and with or without epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma. WHO states that based on geographical location prevalence of oral leukoplakia ranges from 0.1% to 10.6% and India has a significantly higher number of cases. This article focused on extracting the scientific literature on leukoplakia from Central India published in Web of Science database.
Methodology: Using specified Search Query with selected keywords, the Web of science database was accessed and publications arising from Central India were extracted. The file was imported and analysed using R-Studio Application.
Results:Main list of publications included 188 documents from 125 sources. Majority were Journal articles. Most corresponding authors were from India whereas a few authors were from 9 other countries including US, France, Canada and Germany. Collaboration Index was 4.39. Annual Percentage Growth Rate of publications was 3.21.
Conclusion: Scientific Productions on Leukoplakia from Central India as a special entity are on rise over a period of last 10 years. Researchers are more focussed on searching the rate of progression of leukoplakia and effectiveness of early diagnosis and treatment on the progress of leukoplakia to well-developed squamous cell carcinoma.


Gayathri Karthikeyan; Hannah R; Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1440-1448

The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of leukoplakia in different types of tobacco users. Tobacco utilization in India is increasing but there are considerable changes in the types and methods by which it is used. Oral cancer affects as many as 274,000 people worldwide annually 20. In this study The data collection was carried out during the period between July 2019 to march 2020. After searching through 86,000 patient records the Sample size for the study was taken as 93 patients diagnosed with leukoplakia. The data that was collected was tabulated in excel and then imported into SPSS software. Smoking form of tobacco was found to be used by 72.92% of patients. Smokeless form of tobacco use was noticed among 25% of the patients and a combination of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco used was noticed among 2.083% of the patients . Homogenous types of leukoplakia were found among 76.04% of the patients followed by the non-homogenous form which included about 23.96% of the patients. Males were the most common gender comprising about 96.88% of the patients and females comprised about 3.13% . It was also noted that the most common type of tobacco used was cigarettes. Chi- square test was done to associate the type of tobacco used and clinical variants of leukoplakia, it was not statistical significant (p=0.596). Within the limitations of the present study we were able to conclude that there was no association between the habit of tobacco use and the clinical variant of leukoplakia . Multicentric study with a larger sample size will give a more definitive outcome.