Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Antibacterial activity

Efficiency Of Silver Nanoparticle Coated Filtering Device For The Control Of Bacterial Pathogen In Ornamental Fish Culturing System

Enilda Rexy Antonykennedy, Sivanadanam Vaithilingam, Serinemichael Michaelbabu, Citarasu Thavisimuthu, Selvaraj Thangaswamy, Mary Josephine Punitha Satniuslas, Michaelbabu Mariavincent

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 3720-3732

Nanoparticles are of great interest because they are extremely small in size and large in surface-to-volume ratio, which lead to both chemical and physical enhancements in their properties compared to their bulk composition. Tremendous growth in nanotechnology has opened up novel, fundamental, and applied frontiers in material science and engineering, nanobiotechnology, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and applied microbiology. In this study, the cell free extract of four micro algae were used for the biosynthesis of Ag-NPs. The size, shape and antimicrobial activity were also determined.  The effectiveness of the four silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) produced by microalgae and biosynthesized and coated on activated carbon (AC) granules was evaluated in fish culture tanks. The cell-free extract derived from the various species of microalgae influences the size, shape, and antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticle. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterise the Ag-NPs/AC that was produced (SEM). The synthesised Ag-NPs/AC had effective antibacterial action against aquatic diseases, and its efficacy may be increased by adding a cell-free extract from the chosen algal species. A silver nanoparticle-coated activated carbon filter fabricated in this study was found to be cost-effective and simple-to-use as an antibacterial water filter in ornamental fish culture tanks


Vipra Sharma; Gayatri Devi. R; Pitchiah Sivaperumal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1320-1329

BACKGROUND: The study's main aim was to synthesize copper nanoparticles utilizing the aqueous extract of Suaeda monoica plant (Salt marsh), a mangrove plant. The nanoparticles synthesized are of small size and high stability, leading to further analysis of the antibacterial activity of gram-positive (S.mutans) and gram-negativeKlebsiella species, Salmonella typhi) bacterial strain using the disk diffusion method. The study is done to analyze the antibacterial activity of the biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles against various pathogenic bacteria.

Study On Antibacterial Activity Of Padina Gymnospora And Ulva Lactuca

N.Praba and Dr. S. Sumaya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9900-9904

New and therapeutic agents play a vital role to fight against various diseases prevailing in the present era. The bioactive compounds from the marine algae are known to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer properties. Seaweed originates from a natural marine environment had to be tested for their bacterial contamination before consuming it in the raw form. The avoidance and treatment of such pathogens had to be rectified by consuming natural products. One such naturally occurring marine renewable resource is the seaweeds which provide variety of primary and secondary metabolites such as polysaccharides, fatty acids, phlorotannins, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial activity. Several species of alga have been investigated for their bioactive compounds. There are many studies pertaining to the antibacterial activity of marine seaweeds against various infectious microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Padina gymnospora and Ulva lactuca collected from Gulf of Mannar Bioreserve. The selected seaweed extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity against the clinical pathogens, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  There was no detectable bacterial growth using the selected seaweeds. The methanolic extracts were found to inhibit the growth of all bacterial organisms tested. The antibacterial effects of the selected seaweed extracts were compared with standard amoxylin and Chlorampenicol against the clinical pathogens. The results showed that Padina gymnospora had maximum zone of inhibition of 13.0mm, 14.3mm and 13.3mm than Ulva lactuca with 12.7mm, 13.8mm and 12.9mm against clinical pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study proved that the selected seaweeds had a remarkableantibacterial potential due to their bioactive compounds present naturally than the commercially available medications.


A.A. Shihad, M.A. Khanchevskii, A.G. Sysa, E.R. Gritskevitch, E.I. Kvasyuk

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1861-1871

In this work, the influence of various concentrations of modified nucleosides 2-fluoro-arabinofuranosyl adenine, 2-amino-6-chloro-arabinofuranosyl purine and nucleotide 2-fluoro-arabinofuranosyl adenine monophosphate on conditionally pathogenic bacterial cultures in the exponential phase of their growth, in which there is an intensive growth of cells that actively consume oxygen and nutrients, was evaluated. B. cereus cells belong to gram–positive, obligate aerobes, and P. Mirabilis to gram-negative, facultative anaerobes. It was found that gram-positive culture B. cereus is more susceptible to the action of the studied compounds: when the concentration of the studied compounds reaches 10‾3 M, a 30-40% slowdown in bacterial growth was found, while for P. mirabilis, 15-20% suppression of bacterial cell viability was noted at the same concentrations of compounds. It was also shown that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacterial strains was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner when bacterial cells were cultured in the presence of all the compounds studied. The greatest increase in the level of ROS was found when bacterial cultures were cultured in the presence of fludarabine, which, however, does not completely correlate with the effect of inhibiting cell growth.

Antibacterial effect of Swertia chirata against multi-drug resistant strains S. aureus and E. coli: in vivo and in vitro study

Bindu Sati, Sanjay Bhatt .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1106-1115

Misuse and overuse of antibiotics results in widespread multi-drug resistance. The major cause of increased mortality and morbidity rates is Multi-drug resistance to antibiotics and it becomes a global heath challenges now a days, therefore it becomes a necessity and need for researchers to seek for alternative and natural sources of antimicrobials. In the present study an experimental trial (In-vitro and In-vivo) was undertaken to examine the antibacterial activity of extracts of Swertia chirata leaf against multi drug resistant (MDR) E.coli and S.aureus. Broth dilution test for MIC and Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility test were applied to investigate Antibacterial activity of plant methanolic extracts. Twenty five albino mice weighted between 180-200g were used for bacterial inhibitory activity (In- Vivo). Plant extract showed broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against S.aureus in comparison to E.coli and showed MIC values of 20µg/ml. Swertia chirata plant extract contains lesser inhibition zone against E. coli (8.7±0.80) and showed highest zone of inhibition against S.aureus (16.2±0.60). It can be concluded that Swertia chirata plant extract was significantly better (P<0.05) against S.aureus than E. coli. The number of bacteria in treated groups was very low, These findings have cleared demonstrated that the clearance of bacteria from the blood of infected mice by sub-MIC of plant extract was significant. the findings of present study provide a suitable evidences for the use of a drug composed of plant extract as a new generation of drugs to attack the antibiotic resistance of bacteria.

Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and their Biological Activity

Sumit Yadav Dr. Sourabh Jain Dr. Veenu Sisodia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9524-9541

Zinc Oxide Nano particles promise an important role in various industries like pharma, fertilizer, textiles and garments due to their specific properties such as anti-fungal, antibacterial and anti-rust. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by eco-friendly wet chemical method. Formation of ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed by using spectroscopic and microscopic investigations. Samples were characterized using Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron microscope, X-ray Diffraction and four probe Voltage-Current characterizations. Antifungal and antimicrobial activity  

Synthesis Of Heterocyclic Nitrogen Containing Compounds Including In Silico Toxicity And Structural Activity Relationship

S. Singh; Dr. Shamim Ahmad; Dr. Md Shamsher Alam; Huma khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6633-6645

In silico toxicology tools, steps to generate prediction models, and categories of prediction models. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing modeling methods and algorithms for toxicity prediction (element D above), with a particular (but not exclusive) emphasis on computational tools that can implement these methods (element E), and expert systems that deploy the prediction models (element F). Due to the nature of this expanding field, this study cannot provide an exhaustive overview of all the seven in silico components mentioned above. Prediction of Toxicity-associated properties of new chemicals is a big challenge. In admetSAR, probabilistic, regression as well as qualitative classification models were implemented for 'Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene Inhibition', 'AMES Toxicity', Carcinogenecity', 'Fish Toxicity', 'Tetrahymena Pyriformis Toxicity', 'Honey Bee Toxicity'.Among all the synthesized Pyrimidine derivatives (P1 to P5) , Pyrimidine derivatives P4 and P5 shows lesser toxicity.

Disease resistance efficacy of macroalgae mediated silver nanoparticles and its prophylactic activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Oreochromis mossambicus

Thanigaivel Sundaram; S. Srinivasan; M. Nandhini; P. Vishnupriya; M. L. Pavithra; Perolla Haripriya; Vickram Sundaram; Gulothungan Govindarajan; Nanmaran Rajendiran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5739-5745

Bacterial pathogens are major threat to the aquaculture industry and small scale aqua farming. The emergence of various virulence pathogens during the culturing period leads to mass mortality and influence the loss of aquaculture production. As a result it causes economic imbalance. This relies on the very importance position to serve the protein rich sources for human consumption. In order to improve the sustainable aquaculture production the biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles have been used as an alternative method for commercial antibiotics to control such pathogenic infection. Marine microalgae Caulerpa racemosa was used as a silver reducing agent in this study. This controls Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in tilapia. The bioactive compounds present in the extracts showed potential antioxidant and antibacterial activities against P. aeruginosa infection. The formation of AgNPs was observed by the visualization of the colour change and further confirmed by the UV spectroscopy. It was characterised by Dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS). The antibacterial activity was tested against the fish pathogen. It was found to be effective.

Synthesis of New Reagents as a ligands and Study of (Investigation, Chromatographic Behavior, Solubility)

Dr. Fatimah A. Wannas; Nemah Sahib Mohammed Husien; Dr. Afaq Jaber Kadhium; Dr. Nagham Mahmood Aljamali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5266-5279

Formazane ligands are described by many chemical and physical properties that have increased their applications in several fields and therefore have been classified as reagents or ligands with donor or multi-sites. Multiple methods have been used to prepare aldamine and formazane reagents, including imination reactions, condensation, substitution, duplication, including the formation of the carbanion and the reaction of nitrogen in coupling reaction. It is followed by investigation of prepared ligands by various sources that improved all results in this paper via various spectral measurements in inorganic chemistry area like (Uv-Vis, FT.IR, H.NMR) - spectra, besides to other measurements in analytical area like: (solubility, chromatographic behavior, TLC –plate), besides to bio- assay as antibacterial compounds for determination of efficiency of inhibition and other chemical characterizations (melting points, Rf, …).

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Methanolic Extract of Medicinal Plants (Senna alata and Senna hirsuta) and Analysis of Antibacterial Activity

D. Madankumar; S. Pari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1581-1594

Because of their environmental friendly nature and effectiveness cost wise, green
synthesis of nanomaterial’s from plant has become progressively popular. In this research, we
used methanol extracts from fresh leaves of Senna alata and Senna hirsuta medicinal plants to
synthesize silver (Ag) nanoparticles as bio reducing agents. This method allowed the synthesis of
nanoparticles supported by spectrophotometry Ultraviolet-visible, FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD
research. UV-Vis spectra and visual observation showed that after treatment with Ag precursors,
the color of the fresh Senna alata and Senna hirsuta leaf extracts turned into light greenish and
brownish yellow, respectively. This screened antibacterial activity against five different bacteria,
viz. Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and
Escherichia coli with the use of Disc Diffusion method. Silver nanoparticles extracted from
Senna alata and Senna hirsuta leaf extracts, which inhibited B.subtilis (18 & 16), E.faecalis (19
& 14), S.aureus (20 & 14), K.pneumoniae (21& 16) and E.coli (17 and 15), size in mm. The
higher Inhibition zone occurs in K.pneumoniae and S.aureus follows. It has been shown that
inhibiting bacterial growth, the Methanol extracts of Senna alata leaves containing Ag
nanoparticles is comparable with chloramphenicol.