Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Calcium


STUDY OF VITAMIN D IN CHILDRENS UPTO THE AGE OF 18 YEARS

Dr Haseeb Ul Haq ,Dr Raghunath S.V, Dr Sushma.V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2876-2881

Objectives:1) To determine the Vitamin D in children up to age of 18 years
Methods: A prospective observational study was done from June 2019-Feb 2020 from 0 to 18 years of children’s
Results: Severe Vitamin D deficiency may cause rickets in infants and children However, subclinical vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent, and it is associated with falls or frac­tures. It has been observed that maximum children with rickets were breastfed, breast milk contains less vitamin D
Conclusion: Vitamin D is an essential nutrient not only important in bone health but also beneficial to many other systems. Therefore, Pediatricians should provide information to patients who are at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency on how to get sufficient dietary or supplemental vitamin D.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SERUM CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM AND URIC ACID LEVELS IN WOMEN WITH PRE-ECLAMPSIA AND NORMAL PREGNANCY

Swapnarani Seedipally, Malathi Verabelly, Anees Sultana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2840-2847

Background: Physiologically calcium plays a critical role in function of smooth muscle and its deficiency can cause increased blood pressure. Magnesium is a cofactor in several enzymes, cause vasodilatation and helps in neurochemical transmission. Besides magnesium and calcium, hyperuricemia may induce hypertension by impairing nitric oxide generation
Objective: To compare serum calcium, magnesium and uric acid levels in women with pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy
Methods: Hospital based Comparative Cross sectional study was carried out among 60 (30 pre-eclampsia and 30 normal pregnant women) aged 18-35 years between 20 weeks till term gestation for 18 months. Proteinuria, serum Calcium, Serum Magnesium, and serum Uric acid were measured using standard procedures.
Results: Majority were (40%) 25-29 years, (53.3%) were overweight, 46.6% had 36-38 weeks of gestation. 56.67% were Primi. 60% had severe preeclampsia. Proteinuria was seen in all with 46.67% had 2+. Pulse rate, SBP and DBP were significantly higher among the cases compared to controls.  Serum calcium was significantly lower among preeclampsia women and serum uric acid was significantly higher.  However there was no statistically significant difference between serum magnesium levels among preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. There was no statistically significant difference between pulse rates. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in severe preeclampsia group. Serum Calcium and magnesium were significantly lower in severe preeclampsia group.
Conclusion: Preeclampsia was found to be associated with low calcium levels and higher serum uric acid levels. But it was not found to be associated with the serum magnesium levels.

INCIDENT OF GALL STONE IN DIFFERENT GENDER AND SEX

Dr Ramaswami B,Dr Natarajkumar, Dr Rakesh Shaganti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 331-335

To study the incident of gallstone stone in different age and sex.
STUDY DESIGN:
Cross-sectional observational study,
Place and duration of study:
Mamata Medical College and General Hospital, Khammam from October 2018 to September 2020.
RESULTS: In the present study, among 50 cases, 41 (82%) were females and 9 (18%) were males
with male to female ratio of 1:4.5. Representing the majority of the study population were females.
Out of these 3 cases two were pigmented, one was cholesterol stone. But Chi-square statistic at 0.866
with P value of 0.64. Out of 41 female patients in the present study, 10 had a history of OCP use at
some point in their life. Among them 5, 4, 1 patients had pigment, cholesterol and mixed stones.
Mean serum bilirubin value was more among pigmented stone group (1.069 mg/dl) as compared to
mixed (0.850 mg/dl) and cholesterol group (0.6 mg/dl). Mean serum cholesterol group (3.382 mg/dl).
CONCLUSION: On the basis of the above observations, it is possible to say that pigment gallstone
patients have high serum bilirubin, calcium and phosphate levels and the type of gallstone doesn’t
depend on age, sex, BMI status and OCP usage.

STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE AND MACRO MINERALS -CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM ANDPHOSPHOROUS IN SERUM IN CASES OF TYPE II DIABETES MILLETUS

N. Chandralekha, P. V. Rajini, N. Jyothi, T. Arunmanas, T. Krishnasri Vathsav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1211-1221

Background:Diabetes Mellitus is the most common metabolic disease and is posing as a major public health problem in the world, developing countries like India in particular. India has the second highest number of diabetics worldwide after China. Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion and / or insulin resistance. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for more than 85% of the all the diabetics. It can occur at any age but is most common between 40 to 80 years of age. Macro minerals (calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphur and phosphorus) play an important role in intermediary metabolism and cellular function, including enzyme activities and electrical gradients. The present study of these parameters is essential in clinically diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus to show their role in the pathogenesis and to ascertain their role as possible biochemical markers of the disease progress.
Materials and Methods: Observational cross-sectional study was done. STUDY SUBJECT AND SIZEA total of one hundred patients aged between 30 years to 60 years, both male and female patients were selected from King George Hospital attached to Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Fifty patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending OP at Department of Endocrinology and fifty healthy non-diabetic subjects were selected. The subjects are divided into two groups, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A (Cases): consisting of 50, type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed patients Group B (Controls): consisting of 50 healthy non diabetic subjects. Study Period: This study was conducted between December 2020 to November 2021 in the Department of Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Sample Collection: After 12 hours of fasting, 5ml of venous blood is collected from the antecubital vein from each subject under aseptic conditions. Blood was collected in a clot activator vacutainer (red cap tubes) and allowed to clot spontaneously in the tube, and then centrifuged for about 10 minutes at 3000rpm. In case of delay, the sample was stored at -20 degree Celsius for further analysis on the next working day. Carewas taken to prevent hemolysis.The findings were recorded and then tabulated in excel sheets, statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Unpaired t-test was done and expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation. A p-value of < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.
Results: The (mean±SD) serum triglyceride levels in T2DM cases were 228±116.03 mg/dl and in healthy controls 103±18.23 mg/dl. The (Mean±SD) serum total cholesterol levels in T2DM cases were 208.26±48.14 mg/dl and in controls 164.18±12.71 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum HDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 33.82±7.89 mg/dl and in controls 45.16±3.35 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serumLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 128.36±44.80 mg/dl and in controls 99.74±9.23 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum VLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 45.68±23.20 mg/dl and in controls 20.47±3.31 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum calcium levels in T2DM cases were 9.12±0.79 mg/dl and in controls 9.83±0.53 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum magnesium levels in T2DM cases were 1.87±0.35 mg/dl and in controls 2.30±0.36 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum phosphoruslevels in T2DM cases were 2.92±0.64 mg/dl and in controls 3.06±0.70 mg/dl. There is no statistical significance in the serum phosphorus levels in between the two groups.
Conclusion: in this present study. The serum triglyceride (TG) levels, serum total cholesterol levels, serum LDL-C Levels,VLDL-C Levels were significantly increased in the T2DM cases compared to the controls. The serum HDL-C levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls. The serum calcium levels, Serum magnesium levels and serum phosphorous levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls.
 

Study of Serum Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorous Levels in Hypothyroidism

Bonala Sharat Babu, Azmatulla Shaik, Md. Siddique Ahmed Khan, Naveed Altaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1286-1292

Background: Thyroid disorders are the most common endocrine abnormality in the
world secondary to diabetes mellitus. Thyroid hormones are essential for growth,
neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. It influences
the metabolism of all substrates including minerals. Many studies have shown that
mineral metabolism is frequently disturbed in thyroid disorders.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on sixty newly confirmed
hypothyroid cases based on the thyroid profile and sixty euthyroid cases were recruited
as controls. Blood samples were collected from all the patients for the estimation of
serum T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by auto analyzer
method. Modified spectrophotometric micro-method was used to measure Serum
copper using Bathocuprine Disulphonate Disodium Salt (BCDS) and Guanidine
hydrochloride salt. The Statistical software namely SPSS 18.0, and R environment
ver.3.2.2 were used for the analysis of the data.
Results: It was found that the levels of serum sodium, potassium and calcium were
significantly decreased in cases than the controls. Serum magnesium and phosphorus
were significantly elevated in cases than controls.
Conclusion: Serum calcium, magnesium and phosphorous levels are significantly
altered in patients having hypothyroidism. Thyroid diseases have wide spread systemic
manifestations including their effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Also thyroid
hormone affects the glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, tubular reabsorption
and excretion of minerals which have direct effect on Calcium, Magnesium and
phosphorous level. Thus monitoring of these minerals in hypothyroid patient will be of
great benefit in improving clinical manifestation and can be treated appropriately.

A case control study to assess the role of magnesium and calcium among children with febrile seizures in a tertiary care hospital

Gowhar Wani, Nikhil Guptha, Mahtab Alam, Manjunath GM

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 959-964

Background: Febrile seizures defined as seizures that occurs between the age of six and sixty
months, with a temperature of 38 degree C or higher, that are not the result of central nervous
system infection or any metabolic imbalance and that occur in the absence of a history of
prior afebrile seizures. A seizure is a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms resulting
from abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Objective: to assess the role of Magnesium and Calcium among Children with Febrile
Seizures in a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: The present Case Control Study was
conducted by the Department of pediatrics at Government multispecialty hospital, Sector-16,
Chandigarh from November 2015 to October 2016. A total of 50 Children in study age group
6 months to 5 years admitted in the pediatric ward who were satisfying the inclusion criteria
were included.
Results: In the present study the mean Serum Magnesium level was found to be 2.10+0.24
mg/dl among cases and among control the level was found to be 1.95+0.16 mg/dl. The
association was found to be statistically significant between two groups on comparing Mean
Serum Magnesium. In the present study on analyzing the mean serum calcium levels it was
found that among cases group nearly 90% of them had normal levels and 10% of them had
abnormal serum calcium levels and in the control group all the subjects had normal serum
calcium levels and the association between both the groups was found to be statistically
significant.
Conclusion: This study shows that serum magnesium levels are normal in children with
febrile seizures. It indicates that serum magnesium may not have a significant role in the
pathogenesis of febrile convulsions. Our study sample was not representative of entire
population because all children were mostly from surrounding urban area.

Serum calcium and magnesium levels in patients with acute gastroenteritis

Dr. MA Reshamwala, Dr. Manish Maheshbhai Khokhar, Dr. Kartikeya Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1339-1342

Background: Though the earlier studies reported that there will be loss of magnesium and calcium ions in the patients with acute gastro enteritis, the exact measure was not provided.
Objective: The present study was undertaken to measure the levels of the calcium and magnesium in the patients of acute gastroenteritis. This information helps to plan adequate treatment in these patients.
Materials and methods: A total of 50 patients with acute gastroenteritis aged more than 18 years including both male and females were part of the study after obtaining the written, voluntary informed consent. Unwilling participants were excluded from the study. Patients with any severe complications were also excluded from the study
Results; Out of fifty participants, 20 participants were males and 30 participants were females. The range for calcium was found from 6.7 to 10.7 mmol/l. Majority of the patients have the calcium levels in the range of 7.7-8.7 mmol/l. The range for magnesium is 0.1-3.1 mg/dl. Majority of the patients have level of magnesium in the range of 2.1-3.1 mg/dl.
Conclusion: Significant decline in the serum calcium and magnesium levels was observed in the patients with gastro enteritis. The study results support the results of earlier studies. The study recommends the need of future studies with involving multiple centers and multiple samples to plan adequate treatment strategies for management of diarrhea cases and to prevent death of these patients.

Role Of Serum Calcium As A Predictive Factor In Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

Dr Anita Singh, Dr Jyoti Sengar, Dr Mamta Jadon, Dr Sonam Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5107-5114

Aim: To compare serum calcium status in pregnant women with and without PIH.
Material and method:It was a hospital based prospective observational study conducted
in the department of Obstetric and Gynecology, National Capital Region Institute of
Medical Sciences, Meerut for a period of 12 months. 200 antenatal cases after 20 weeks
pregnancy having age between 18-40 years were divided into 2 types based on BP i.e.
Cases-100 patients of PIH (Pregnancy induced hypertension) and Control- 100
normotensive patients. A detailed family and medical history of all the childbearing
women with gestational age 20 weeks or more admitted with the features of HDP
(hypertension disorder of pregnancy) was recorded followed by a thorough clinical
examination. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of all the participants was carefully
recorded every four hourly. Serum calcium levels were measured by the O- Cresol
PhthaleinComplexone (OCPC) method.
Results: Mean SBP in case and control group was 152.30±10.45 and 118.20±7.66
respectively. Mean DBP in case and control group was 99.42±7.29 and 75.82±5.21
respectively. Hence SBP and DBP was higher in case group as compared to control
group. According to Pearson correlation analysis, negative significant correlation was
found between BP and serum calcium(mg/dL) i.e. with increase in BP, there is decrease
in serum calcium(mg/dL).
Conclusion:The present study emphasizes the need of monitoring serumcalcium during
antenatal period and appropriatemeasures may reduce the incidence of PIH.In areas
where dietary calcium intake is low,calcium supplementation during pregnancy (atdoses
of 1.5–2.0 g elemental calcium/day) isrecommended for the prevention of PIH in all
women, but especially those athigh risk of developing PIH.

Correlation analysis of serum calcium level with the blood pressure among patients with essential hypertension in rural population of Himachal Pradesh

Vijay Kumar, Jagjit Singh Bahia, Sharad Lodhi, Sameer Singh Faujdar, Harharpreet Kaur, Sahil Chhabra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1475-1481

Introduction: A high blood pressure that doesn't have a known secondary cause is called as essential hypertension, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Calcium supplementation known to reduce the blood pressure in normal healthy individuals.
Objective: The present study aims towards analysing the correlation between serum calcium level with the blood pressure among patients with essential hypertension.
Methods: 30 cases of essential hypertension patients as cases and 30 suitable healthy age sex matched individuals with normal blood pressure as controls, as per JNC-8 guidelines were recruited in study. Serum calcium level and blood pressure was analysed in all patients.
Results: Systolic Blood Pressure in control group was 111.1 ± 7.570 and in cases was 158.1 ± 9.066. Diastolic Blood Pressure in control group was 72.80±6.183 and in cases was 92.33±6.456. Serum calcium in control group was 9.207 ± 0.7249 and in cases was 8.130 ± 0.4843.
Conclusion: Patients with lower calcium level tends to have raised blood pressure and vice versa. Thus, routine dietary restriction salt in hypertensive individuals can help in better management of hypertension.

Organoleptic Evaluation of Calcium and Protein-rich snacks Developed from Macrotyloma uniflorum, Papaver somniferum and Sesamum indicum using TOPSIS

Shelly Garg, Dr Luxita Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3526-3537

Horse gramis used as a remedy for kidney stones, bronchial asthma, bronchitis, leukoderma, urinary discharges, heart diseases and piles. Besides, it also possesses anti-diabetic, anti-ulcer interest and helps in nutritional management of obesity due to the presence of beneficial bioactive compounds.The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a variety of extensively used medicinal alkaloids like morphine, codeine, thebain and porphyroxine which might be the maximum important element of this plant. It is used as analgesic, narcotic, sedative, stimulant in addition to nutritive, and so forth. It is also beneficial in headache, cough, insomnia, cardiac asthma, and biliary colic.Sesame seeds likewise contain two exceptional substances: sesamin and sesamolin known to have a cholesterol bringing impact in people and down to forestall hypertension. Cephalin, a phospholipid from sesame seed has been accounted for to have haemostatics action.The product is made by using different methods including soaking, drying, grinding, roasting and microwave baking. Overall, 4 samples have been advanced to determine the most ideal food product thru sensory evaluation by using different individuals.Statistical tests like MAHP and TOPSIS were used to rank the samples. Sample D shows both highest ranking in TOPSIS as well as high hedonic rating, among all four samples containing 40% horse gram, 35% poppys seeds and 25% sesame seeds. The aim of the product developed is to prevent and control Calcium deficiency. Apart from this, the product is calorie dense; rich in protein, omega fatty acids and antioxidant, which are required in building immunity.

Organoleptic Evaluation of Calcium and Protein-rich snacks Developed from Macrotyloma uniflorum, Papaver somniferum and Sesamum indicum using TOPSIS

Shelly Garg, Dr Luxita Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9122-9132

Horse gramis used as a remedy for kidney stones, bronchial asthma, bronchitis,
leukoderma, urinary discharges, heart diseases and piles. Besides, it also possesses antidiabetic,
anti-ulcer interest and helps in nutritional management of obesity due to the
presence of beneficial bioactive compounds.The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum)
produces a variety of extensively used medicinal alkaloids like morphine, codeine, thebain
and porphyroxine which might be the maximum important element of this plant. It is used
as analgesic, narcotic, sedative, stimulant in addition to nutritive, and so forth. It is also
beneficial in headache, cough, insomnia, cardiac asthma, and biliary colic.Sesame seeds
likewise contain two exceptional substances: sesamin and sesamolin known to have a
cholesterol bringing impact in people and down to forestall hypertension. Cephalin, a
phospholipid from sesame seed has been accounted for to have haemostatics action.The
product is made by using different methods including soaking, drying, grinding, roasting and
microwave baking. Overall, 4 samples have been advanced to determine the most ideal food
product thru sensory evaluation by using different individuals.Statistical tests like MAHP
and TOPSIS were used to rank the samples. Sample D shows both highest ranking in
TOPSIS as well as high hedonic rating, among all four samples containing 40% horse gram,
35% poppys seeds and 25% sesame seeds. The aim of the product developed is to prevent
and control Calcium deficiency. Apart from this, the product is calorie dense; rich in protein,
omega fatty acids and antioxidant, which are required in building immunity.

The Influence Of Lemuru Nugget Giving Against Protein, Calcium, Zinc And Z-Score HG / U Intake Of Class 1 Elementary School Children Stunting In The Work Area Of Pantai Labu Health Center, Deli Serdang Regency

Oslida Martony; Dini Lestrina; Novriani Tarigan; Ginta Siahaan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4569-4581

Failure of Height Growth (HG) results in human resources being unable to compete in the era of globalization, affecting work productivity, increasing the risk of obesity and triggering the metabolic syndrome. The incidence of stunting in school children is quite high, including North Sumatra with a prevalence of 42.3%. During the growth period of very high bone mineralization, low intake of protein, calcium and zinc influences linear growth. Growth failure is caused by inadequate intake of one or more nutrients. Aged 5-12 years is an opportunity to catch up and improve height. Objective: To determine the effect of lemuru fish nuggets on protein, calcium, zinc and Z-Score HG / U intake for grade 1 elementary school children who are stunted. Research Methods: the study was conducted in April-June 2018, quasi-experimental with a pre and post-test design, a sample of 31 people treated and 36 controls. The treatment group was given lemuru fish nuggets for 30 days for 75 gr—data collection using 2x24 hour Food Recall method, five-day food recording and HG measurement. The data collected was processed using T dependent test data analysis with α = 0.05. Results: There were significant differences in the average values of protein, calcium and zinc intake before and after administration of lemuru fish nuggets, these differences in intake affected the average Z-Score HG / U values, the treatment group was higher than the control. Suggestion: to the sample mother to continue giving food made from fish containing high protein, calcium and zinc in the daily menu, so that the lagging of HG growth can be pursued.

A Two-Dimensional Model To Estimate The Effect Of Calcium Diffusion In Circular Shape Hepatocyte

Vijendra Singh Rawat; Rinku Mathur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 3519-3530

Hepatocyte is the primary functional cell of the liver. More than 80 % of liver is constructed by the hepatocyte cell. Calcium is working as a second messenger. The particular cytosolic Ca2+ level in hepatocyte cell is responsible for frequently working of the liver. In signal transduction calcium play an essential role in hepatocyte cell. Many biological processes are controlled by the calcium like secretion, muscular contraction, cell differentiation, movement of cell, signaling in cell and processes of buffering etc. Diffusion of calcium in the cell is represented by the reaction-diffusion equations. Here two-dimensional model is developed to estimate the effect of the essential biophysical parameters as association coefficient, bound buffer, influx and coefficient of diffusion over profiles of calcium on hepatocyte cell. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of cytosolic calcium diffusion in hepatocyte cell when the buffer is present in large amount. The results have been used to establish the relationships among various biophysical parameters.

AFFECTIVE-RESPIRATORY PAROXYSMS IN CHILDREN: CLINICALNEUROLOGICAL ASPECTS

Ya.N. Madjidova; U.T. Babajanova; V.K. Abdullaeva; Sh.A. Shirmatov; Khalilova A.A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1673-1679

Introduction. Affective-respiratory paroxysm (ARP) or breath-holding spells is a
common phenomenon that occurs in children from 6 months to 6 years. Up to 90% of
children experience ARP for the first time before the age of 18 months. The mechanism of
the condition is still unclear. Scientists have found that children with breath-holding spells
are much more likely to be diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia and, perhaps, it
contributes to the development of pathology. 20-35% of children have a burdened family
history. Some families have a dominant type of inheritance.
Materials and Methods. The algorithm for examining children included: general
clinical, neurological and psychological examination of children, conducting laboratory
research, registration of an electroencephalogram, according to indications, conducting an
echocardiographic study. We examined 50 children with ARP aged 6 months to 6 years.
Research was carried out in the clinic of the Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute. The
diagnosis of ARP was established based on the history provided by mothers and
observations of seizures. Paroxysms were defined as stopping the baby's breathing at
exhalation after deep inhalation during crying. Paroxysms were classified as cyanotic,
pale, and mixed.
Results. A detailed study of the passage of the ante-, intra- and postnatal periods
made it possible to determine the significance of various unfavorable factors such as
anemia (p <0.05), toxicosis (p <0.01), acute respiratory infections (p <0.1), stress, use of
obstetric aids (p <0.05) and birth trauma. (p <0.1). In addition to perinatal risk factors, 13
(28%) children were found to have a hereditary predisposition to ARP and 4 children (8%)
to epilepsy. In most cases, seizures began at 6–12 months of age (38%). According to our
observations, the main provoking factors of seizures were: anger, inability to get what you
want - 70%, pain - 18%, fear - 12%. At clinical and neurological examination in children,
ARP of neurotic nature (82%) prevailed over affectively provoked syncope (10%) and
"epileptic" ARP (8%). The seizures in most cases were characterized by a typical course,
medium duration and high frequency. When assessing psychoemotional and behavioral
characteristics, children with ARP were more sensitive, intense, persistent, active, less
distracted, and differed in mood variability compared to healthy children. According to the
indicators of the functional state of the autonomic nervous system in children of the main
group, the initial autonomic tone was characterized by sympathicotonia, normal autonomic
reactivity was recorded significantly less than in the control group (p <0.05). According to
the results of laboratory studies, anemia (88%) and hypocalcemia (82%) were significantly
more common in children with ARP. Analysis of electroencephalographic data revealed:
signs of age norm - in 14 (28%) children, signs of dysfunction of nonspecific midline
structures of the brain - in 6 (12%) children, general cerebral changes. - in 3 (6%)

Using Fourier Transform Infrared and chemical Analysis for differential between Gallbladder stone diseases

Antesar Rheem Obead

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4342-4349

Background:- the aim of the present study was to evaluate component of variety color of gallstone samples using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Technique (FTIR) , also study the cost and simple method of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Technique (FTIR) compare with result of quantitative chemical analysis like total cholesterol, calcium , total bilirubin , total protein . Material and method:- the material in the study were gallstones removed from 140 patient ( 94 female, 46 male) after surgical. All samples were stored in sterile dried counter and used for FTIR spectral analysis and quantitative chemical analysis. Result :-the results of FTIR were suggested that cholesterol and mixed gallstones content were a major component , cholesterol gallstones were characterized by the band 2949,1456,1053 cm -1 , while in mixed stones the band of cholesterol between 2800-3000 cm1 due to asymmetrical stretch vibration of CH2 and CH3group, and quantitative chemical analysis were explained the cholesterol stones and mixed stones were higher cholesterol compared to pigmented stones which were richer in total bilirubin and total protein. Conclusion:-the investigation were suggested thatFourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Technique (FTIR) is the less cost and simple method to find component of differential gallstone samples and this method conformed the cholesterol and mixed with calcium carbonate , bilirubin and total protein is the major component of human gallstones from Babylon,Iraq.