Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Coronary Artery Disease

“A study to assess the level of knowledge of coronary artery disease among the primary school teacher at selected school.

Mrs Sangeeta Patil, DR. Mrs. Vaishali R.Mohite, Mrs.NamrataMohite

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7790-7795

Background of the study: -
The prevalence of cardiovascular disorders is rising daily, and teachers in the community are spreading varying levels of information about the condition.
Study investigated to assess the level of knowledge about coronary artery disease among primary schoolteachers.
Material and Methods:
Descriptive study done on 50 primary teachers to assess the knowledge about coronary artery disease in selected schools. Self-made check lists was prepared to assess the level of knowledge and before data collection ethical permission taken by the ethical committee. Researcher explained the purpose of the study to the samples and data collected. Knowledge level scored poor, good knowledge and poor per result from the study, had Good knowledge, Average knowledge and poor knowledge. Analysis done as per study objectives.


Dr Shivu Bidari , Dr Sankar Kalairajan , Dr Praveen Gandhi,Dr Manju M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7194-7207

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD’s) are the chief cause of mortality in country like India, were quarter of all mortality are due to CVD. Vitamin D inhibits inflammation through a variety of mechanisms. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of vitamin D level on the  lipid profile of patients of coronary artery disease.
Material & Method: The present hospital based observational study was conducted among the patients who are more than 18 yrs with signs, symptoms and investigation (ECG) of coronary artery disease admitted to the AVMC hospital. Patients with chronic kidney disease, patients with elevated CRP, fever, patients with cancer and on supplementation of Vitamin D3 were excluded from the study.  The lipid parameters and vitamin D3 were measured to assess the relation.
Results: In present study total of 160 patients included with mean age of patients was found to be 51.75±8.58yrs, 68.8% were male. Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 50%, insufficiency in 40.6% and sufficiency in 9.4% patients. We found a significant higher incidence of dyslipidemia among the patients with deficiency and insufficient vitamin D compared to sufficient vitamin D levels.(p<0.05) Also there is significant negative correlation of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol with the vitamin D3 level and a significant positive correlation with the HDL cholesterol. (p<0.05)
Conclusion: There is higher incidence of presence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among the patients with coronary artery disease in the present study


Gayathry A, Lasitha NK, Rachana Raveendran, Kanchana SB, Manjusha K, Aswathi Rajan, Dinesh Roy D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3301-3309

Coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of mortality globally, is one of the major cardiovascular diseases, which results in the buildup of plaque leading to narrowing of coronary arteries. Genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors have an important role in the development of the disease. Moreover, dyslipidemia is a major focus among the risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of CAD. Early diagnosis and management of the disease can be achieved by analyzing the level of biomarkers like NT-proBNP. The study was conducted among 110 test subjects who were dyslipidemic with CAD and 110 control subjects without any chronic illness. The study revealed that test subjects have an increased concentration of NT-proBNP than the control subjects. Moreover, NT-proBNP can also be used as a biomarker for the early prediction of CAD patients with dyslipidemia


Dr Hariom Gupta, Dr Umesh Pratap Singh, Dr Sunil Kumar Tripathi, Dr Vijay kumar Shah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1179-1186

Purpose: The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of risk factors in younger patients (age <45 years) presenting with ami.
Methods: In this observational, cross-sectional study, a total of 150 patients were studied between april 2020 and june 2021 for the risk factors of ami. Patients with characteristic electrocardiographic changes suggestive of coronary artery disease, within 15-44 years of age were included and data regarding baseline clinical characteristics were reported.
Results: Maximum patients (82%) were in the age group of 35-44 years where males (73.3%) outnumbered females (26.7%).Among all the risk factors, dyslipidemia (77.3%) was the most prevalent, and significantly higher in smokers, obese (body mass index ≥25) and diabetic patients. Major complication was arrhythmia (45.3%), and anterior wall myocardial infarction was the most prevalent pattern of myocardial infarction (61.3%). Majority of patients had two risk factors and maximum number of patients i.e, 141 (94%) were discharged from hospital after treatment while 9 (6%) died.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that dyslipidemia was the major modifiable risk factor of ami in the younger population followed by sedentary lifestyle, obesity, tobacco chewing, smoking, diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, and family history where majority of patients had two risk factors

An observational study of haemodynamics with etomidate as an induction agent in patients with coronary artery disease

Dr. Vishal Mallappa Kappattanavar, Dr. PG Raghavendra, Dr. Chandana MH, Dr.Jyoti Magar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 459-468

Etomidate has been widely used in western countries has now become available in India. Etomidate is
preferred in patients with CAD, especially with poor left ventricular (LV) function as it provides stable
cardiovascular profile but it has less inhibitory effect on pharyngolaryngeal reflex thus may cause less
blunting of response to laryngoscopy and intubation. After getting approval from institutional ethics
committee, study was carried out in all patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria during the
study period. Patient diagnosed or known case of CAD either from history, investigations were
included in the study after obtaining written valid informed consent. There was no hypertension or
hypotension in group A (EF<45%) but in group B (EF>45%) hypertension was noted in just 1 patient
and no hypotension noted. Statistically they were non-significant (p value-0.077). There was no
occurrence any arrhythmias or significant ST changes in either group at any point of time from
induction to 10min after intubation.

Colour Doppler EvaluationofExtracranial Carotid Vessels in Patients of Coronary Artery Disease

Mandakini Keesara, Madhavi Thatipamula

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10013-10021

Background:Carotid disease i s a common finding in patients with CAD & its presence
is associated with worse clinical outcomes, IMT provides incremental value over the
traditional risk factors in predicting cardiovascular events. Ultrasonography of the
carotid arteries is easily available, cost effective, non-invasive method ofevaluation. The
purpose of the present study is to evaluate the severity of atherosclerosis in extracranial
carotid vessels in patients diagnosed of coronaryartery disease.
Materials and Methods: The present study included 30patientsdiagnosedascoronary
artery disease by coronary angiogram. The conclusions of coronary angiogram were not
made available to theradiologist. Thepatients included in the study were subjected to
gray scale &color duplex examination of extracranial carotid arteries. The presence &
severity of atherosclerotic disease in the extracrani al carotid vessels will be assessed
interms of increased IMT and plaques.Luminalnarrowing andspectral wave pattern
were evaluated.
Results: Among the 30patients examined, 25patients hadcarotiddisease in the form of
increased IMT inone ormore ofthe examined vessels. Highest number of plaques were
noted in the carotid bulb followed by internal carotid artery. Most of the examined
plaques had uniform surface and were predominantly echolucent. The severity of
coronary disease i s correlated with the carotid atherosclerosis.
Conclusion: With the increase in the number of coronary vessels involved, there was an
increase in the percentageofpatientswithcarotiddiseaseinthe form of increased IMT or
plaque. There was also increase in the percentage
ofpatientswithcarotiddiseasewithincreaseintheseverity ofcoronary stenosis.

Assessment of the risk factors and clinical profile of CAD in female patients

PranavAshokrao shende; S. K. Malani; Ravindra K. Jain; Chandrakant S. Upadhayay; Snehal A Shende; Vivek V. Manade

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7130-7136

Background:Coronary artery disease (CAD) has emerged as the major cardiovascular disease of the era and also the commonest cause of premature death. For several decades, conventional invasive angiography (CIA) has been considered as the well-established gold standard for making the diagnosis of CAD. Hence; the present study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the risk factors and clinical profile of CAD in female patients. Materials & methods:A hospital-based descriptive observational study was conducted with 100 patients to evaluate clinical profile and angiographic pattern in women with Coronary Artery Disease. Baseline demographics, clinical and risk factor profile was collected. Disease is defined as presence of stable angina, unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Baseline demographics, clinical and risk factor profile was collected. Appropriate statistical software, including but not restricted to MS-Excel. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. Graphical representation was done in MS-Excel 2010.

Assessment of the profile of CAD patients: An observational study

Vivek Vilas Manade; Dr. S. K. Malani; C. Sridevi; Rajendra Patil; Shilpi Lahoty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7125-7129

Background:Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and its complications account for approximately 12 million deaths annually in the Indian subcontinent. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing the profile of CAD patients. Materials & methods:A total 50 cases of CAD in young patients [age < or = 40 years] were studied. The cases were taken from medical, surgical, cardiology OPD, wards & ICU. The study population was a mix of urban and rural population. Both males and females were included in our study. The history of each patient was noted in detail and a thorough clinical examination was performed. Relevant investigations were performed in individual
case. Each patient was followed up until discharge and the final Outcome was noted – complications / recovery / death. Data analysis was done with the help of experts.

The Effects Of Smoking On The Relationship Between Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate And The Severity Of Coronary Artery Disease Based On Syntax Score

Eko Irawan Sudarmaji; Hasyim Kasim; Pendrik tandean; Syakib Bakri; Faridin HP; Hae-rani Rasyid; Khalid Saleh; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1440-1449

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor and caused high morbidity and mortality for coronary artery disease (CAD). Several scoring systems can be used in assessing the severity of CAD, one of which is using the SYNTAX score (SXscore). Smoking is one of the risk factors for the progression of CAD and CKD. Several observational studies have under-reported the smoking factor influencing the rela-tionship between eGFR and SXscore.
Methods: This research is an observational study with a cross-sectional approach conduct-ed at the Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar from July-August 2020. This study involved 62 CAD and CKD patients undergoing angiography. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was based on chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI).
Coronary angiography results were converted to SXscore and smoking grade based on the Brinkman index.
Results: This study involved 62 CAD and CKD patients male (71%), aged ≥ 55 years (77.4%), hypertension (71%), diabetes (35.5%), smoking (50%), eGFR G3a & G3b (53.9. %) and SXscore medium-high (50%). The results showed that lower eGFR could increase the SXscore (p < 0.001), especially in smoking subjects (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that gender was the most significant factor contributing to the relationship between eGFR and SXscore
Conclusion : The lower eGFR could increase the SXscore, where this correlation was more significant in smoking patients. Multivariate analysis showed that gender was the most significant factor contributing to the relationship between eGFR and SXscore.

New Trend Towards Healthy Fibre : Friendly Oats

B. Dhanalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6092-6095

Over the past few decades oats have become a very popular health food .Oats are loaded in dietary fibre (containing more than any other grain) and having a range of healthy cholesterol lowering properties. Recentstudies also have shown that oatmeal have some heart healthy benefits. This is mainly due to the rich source of water- soluble dietary fibres, particularly beta glucagon, that are found in oat meal. The U.S.Food and Drug administration claims that oats, as part of overall heart healthy diet, could lower the risk of heart disease. The potential health benefits of oats include: reducing the risk of coronary heart disease and lowering levels of cholesterol.

Association Of Spot Urinary Albumin Creatinine Ratio (UACR) With Coronary Artery Disease

Sanyukta H; A.H. Inamdar; Sunil Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1962-1966

Background: Microalbuminuria has been recently found to be a marker of
atherogenesis. It is associated with various risk factors of atherogenesis and damage of the
vascular endothelium. There have been few studies in which it has been found that
mortality in cardiovascular disease are increased with microalbuminuria. Urine is
collected over 24 hours and this study has similar sensitivity as urinary albumin creatinine
ratio. A urinary albumin to creatinine ratio is as sensitive as a 24 hours urine study even
though it itself is a gold standard test. In patients with CAD other factors have been
explored then urinary albumin has been recently identified.
Objectives: To assess correlation between urinary albumin creatinine ratio with coronary
artery disease and to correlate Urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) with
Framingham heart study Cardiovascular disease (FHS-CVD) score in all patients of
coronary artery disease.
Methodology: In this study which is cross sectional, Subjects to be included in the study
will be explained regarding the study and proper consent will be obtained. A random urine
sample will be collected. Urinary albumin concentration will be measured by auto analyser
and urine albumin creatinine ratio will be calculated. The values of the same will be
recorded and will be statistically analysed.