Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Biomarkers

Fractalkine (CX3CL1) as a Diagnostic Marker for Childhood Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Alshymaa A. Ahmed; Ebtehag H. Hassan; Hany Elsayed; Asmaa M. Alhussiny

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2453-2463

Background: - more specific, sensitive, and in the same time non-invasive indicators for the early prediction of juvenile SLE are required.
Aim: - to evaluate serum fractalkine (CX3CL1) as a diagnostic marker, predictor of nephritis, and indicator of disease activity in pediatric SLE.
Methods: - study included 41 children newly diagnosed with SLE, age ranged from 5 to 18 years, 24 (58.5%) were presented lupus nephritis “diagnosed by renal biopsy”. A total of 20 healthy age and sex matched children were included as controls. Serum Fractalkine levels were measured using human CX3CL1 ELISA.
Results: - Serum Fractalkine were significantly higher in SLE patients (median = 1323, range 591- 16547 IU/ml) than healthy controls (median = 950, range 591- 1583 u/ml) p=0.001. Serum Fkn can be a significant diagnostic marker for juvenile lupus indicated by the are under the ROC curve, AUC = 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.92, P<0.001), at the level 1213 IU/ml serum Fkn detected SLE with sensitivity 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62 - 0.89), specificity 0.91 (95% CI, 0.71 – 0.99), positive predictive value 0.94 (95% CI, 0.80 – 0.98), negative predictive value 0.67 (95% CI, 0.55- 0.80), and accuracy 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71 – 0.91). Serum levels of Fkn showed no statistically significant differences when compared in patients with lupus nephritis against patients without nephritis, and was not correlated with disease activity.
Conclusions: - Serum level of Fractalkine can be a diagnostic marker for childhood onset SLE either with or without lupus nephritis, with no significant correlation with activity status or the stage of LN.

Assessment and Comparison of Ghrelin and Chemerin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum as Predictive Biomarkers in Aggressive Periodontitis Patients: A Study Protocol

Dr. Pavan , Bajaj; Dr. Prasad V. , Dhadse; Dr. Vidya Baliga; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2027-2033

Abstract: Background: Ghrelin is a recently described peptide hormone that is secreted
predominantly by the stomach. It induces appetite and thereby controls food intake and energy
balance. It has been also observed modulatory effects on the immune system and bone
metabolism. Chemerin binds to an orphan G coupled receptor which modulates the innate
immune system and chemotaxis of immature dendritic cells and macrophages. Objective:
Comparative evaluation of GCF & Serum “levels of Ghrelin and Chemerin” as the
(Predictive) biomarkers of inflammation in aggressive periodontitis. Methodology: Total 80
samples will be included and divided into two groups. Group I includes 40 GCF samples from
40 subjects with aggressive and Group II includes 40 Serum samples from 40 subjects with
aggressive periodontitis group. The GCF will be collected from the site with deepest probing
depth. Gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level will be measured
one day before GCF collection to avoid stimulation of the sample and its contamination with
blood. The Ghrelin and Chemerin levels in GCF and serum samples will be measured using
an ELISA kit. Expected Result:

Detection Some Biomarkkers In Sarcopenia Patients-Basra City

Abdullah Abbas Hamzah Al- Rubaye; Amna Nasser Habeeb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2417-2429

Background: Sarcopenia is a reduction in the rate, strength, and function of skeletal muscle mass that occurs mainly during aging, reduced physical activity, inflammation, and, or as a result of oxidative stress. C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF), procollagen type 3 N-terminal peptide (P3NT), and myostatin circulate biomarkers in elderly people associated with skeletal mass. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is also a circulating inflammation marker that contributes to the release of hs-CRP and alpha1 antichymotrypsin (AACT).
The objective of Research: To define the differences between certain biomarkers in the sarcopenic subject, the study compared the findings with those of the non-sarcopenic subject that may support awareness of the sarcopenia principles.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 170 participants living in Basra city. The weight (kilogram)/height (meter) 2 equation was used in the BMI calculation. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and calcium were estimated by a fully automated biochemistry analyzer using enzymatic methods. VLDL-cholesterol was tallied by using the Fridwald equation. Vitamin D, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP were measured by a fully automated ELISA analyzer.
Results: current study parameters included (BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP) ) in the sarcopenic subject showed more than the control subject with significantly higher changes (P<0.01)., whereas the parameters included (HDL-cholesterol, calcium, and vitamin D) were demonstrated in sarcopenia group less than 
a control group with significantly higher changes (P<0.01). BMI had a direct correlation with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP, with highly significant (P < 0.01). BMI had an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol, calcium, and vitamin D, with highly statistic changes (P <0.01).
Conclusions: A findings of the study revealed that obesity serves as a health risk for sarcopenia in elderly adults. High blood levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, IL-6 AACT, and hs-CRP in blood circulation raise the risk for sarcopenia in the elderly. Decrease concentrations of vitamin D, calcium, and HDL-cholesterol increase the opportunity for the elderly to have sarcopenia.

MetabonimicsOf Oral Cancer Diagnosis - A Review

Navya Khanna; Dr.M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2900-2913

Metabolomic analyzes move the medical diagnostics sector forward at unparalleled levels because of its ability to accurately classify concentrated metabolites at the metabolic stage. Biomarker research has benefited from these advances to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium for disease detection. Oral cancer (OC) is defined as a malignant tumor of the oral cavity and is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an attractive strategy to increase the survival rate of patients. If detected early, oral cancer survival is better than 90% at 5 years, whereas the late-stage survival of disease is only 30%. Therefore, novel metabolic markers have an obvious clinical utility that helps to diagnose oral cancer at an early stage and monitor the response to treatment. In combination, five salivary biomarkers (propionyl choline, N-acetyl - L-phenylalanine, sphinganine, phytosphingosine, and S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine) yielded adequate precision (AUC = 0.997), sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.7%) in separating OSCC from control in the early stages. In this study, a comprehensive saliva metabonomics analysis review for identifying potential biomarkers to early diagnose OSCC is successfully demonstrated, which has the advantages of non-invasive, simple, reliable and low-cost. Such novel metabolic biomarkers have an clear clinical usefulness that will aid in the early diagnosis of OSCC. Their diagnostic utility for clinical applications has been discussed by the discovery of salivary biomarkers that could be used to track health and disease surveillance. Comprehensive salivary metabolome will be an important resource for researchers studying metabolite chemistry, especially in the fields of salivary diagnostics, and will be helpful in analyzing and thus identifying appropriate salivary biomarkers related to the disease.