Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : thyroxine

Review On Hypothyroidism In Women: An Update

I.Mufida Begum, D.Kumudha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9680-9691

Hypothyroidism, an autoimmune common endocrinopathies, where the TSH level elevates, which impairs activity in tissue level. It is the second most endocrine disorder, where the prevalence in females is more compared to males in second and third decades, with lifelong treatment. During the gestation period in women, there is increase in the demand of the thyroid hormone for the development of brain, essential functions of body cells, tissues, maintains the metabolism and other vital body functions in fetus. Iodine and zinc are essential components for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is characterized into primary, secondary (or) central, subclinical, chronic (or) transient, overt hypothyroidism and congenital hypothyroidism. The primary cause is chronic auto immune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) due to damage caused by chronic inflammation by one’s own immune system. The secondary cause is due to disruption in feedback loop at the level of pituitary gland. The complications in women due to hypothyroidism are varied. Women often present myriad symptoms as age increases. TSH is highly sensitive screening test along with T3 and T4 index also to be measured. The damage of thyroid gland can be detected by presence of antithyroid peroxide. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) screening indicates the bone resorption defect. Monotherapy of levothyroxine is the standard treatment and dose depends of patient’s age. Initial dose is 12.5 to 28 µg/day. Levothyroxine is safe during pregnancy, as it does not cross placental barrier. Hypothyroidism paves ways for the development of other co-morbid diseases. Undiagnosed dysfunction of thyroid hormone leads to mortality. Pharmacist role is to educate patients about basics of thyroid functions, risk and optimal therapy where by the observation gap and ineffective treatment can be rectified.


Rohatoy Takhirova; Shakhnoza Abzalova; Gulchehra Pirnazarova; Kamola Yakubova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2307-2313

Abstract. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory progressive disease of the
connective tissue with a predominant lesion of small joints of the type of erosive-destructive
polyarthritis of unknown etiology with complex autoimmune pathogenesis, which often
leads to combined pathology of the body and disability of children and adults. The disease
is characterized by a rather early manifestation of high disability (70%). The main causes
of death from the disease are infectious complications and renal failure. Treatment focuses
mainly on pain relief, slowing the progression of the disease and repairing injuries
through surgery. Early detection of the disease using modern means can significantly
reduce the damage that can be done to joints and other tissues. The first cases of
manifestation can be recorded after severe physical exertion, emotional shock, fatigue,
during hormonal adjustment, exposure to adverse factors or infection. With all this, it is
necessary to study the intersystemic relationships of this disease. In this regard, the goal of
our research is to study the relationship of immunological parameters and indicators of the
endocrine system in rheumatoid arthritis in children. We examined 98 children, 58 of
which were girls (59%) and 40 boys (41%) aged 7 to 17 years with the JRA. The duration
of the JRA ranged from 6 months to 7 years. Among the patients examined by us, about
half were children with a disease period of 1-3 years. The articular form of the disease was
observed in 66 children (the maximum activity of the disease was in 19, moderate in 27,
minimal in 20), articular-visceral in 32. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children
of the same age. The results of our studies showed that with rheumatoid arthritis,
depending on the form of the disease in children, there was a high level of TSH and ACTH
and a low content of T3, T4 and cortisol. With prolonged exposure to stress, the excretion
of hormones by the effector glands decreases and the level of pituitary hormones increases
according to the principle of negative feedback. A similar type of endocrine system
functioning has been identified in children with rheumatoid arthritis. There are also
significant changes in the immune status: the content of T-lymphocytes in the blood
decreases and the activity of the B-system of immunity increases. Depending on the severity
and form of the disease, the closeness of correlations was also revealed. Based on this, our
observations of children with articular rheumatoid arthritis over three years showed that
changes in the parameters of the immune and endocrine systems persist. The inclusion of
glucocorticoid hormones in therapy in patients with articular-visceral form of rheumatoid
arthritis showed a positive dynamics of indicators, the state of the immune, as well as the

Analysis Of Thyroid Profile In Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Abdur Rahim Abidi; Ravjit Kaur Sabharwal; Niamatullah Zaheer; Pranav Kumar Prabhakard

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4383-4390

Diabetes mellitus and thyroid gland abnormalities are interlinked and coexist with influencing each other. Current study was planned and conducted to evaluate thyroid status in patients with type-2 diabetics. The main aim of the study was to understand the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid abnormalities. Total 100 known diabetic patients were studied, out of them 37 were males with the mean age 59.81 ± 12.8 years, and 63 females with average age of 55.31 ±11.10 years. 50 non-diabetic healthy subjects included 13 males and 37 female of mean age 48.86 ± 12.9 and 48.86 ± 17.94 years respectively selected as a control. All the patients were evaluated for thyroid profile (TSH, FT3, and FT4) and diabetic profile (RBS and HbA1c) by using Cobas C-311 and Cobas E-411 fully automated immunoassay analyzer. The observations were recorded. The result showed that, out of 100 diabetic subjects 41.03% male and 58.97% female were faced with euthyroid and the remaining 22% had thyroid dysfunctions. Hypothyroidism was more common in females (78.97%) as compared to men (21.05%). The mean values for TSH, FT3 and FT4 at (p> 0.05%) probability level shows statistically no significant difference. The relationship between diabetes and thyroid abnormalities was significantly difference, interdependency of these two conditions and evaluation of thyroid hormones status with the diabetic profile in the early days of diabetes is recommended. This will induce the management strategies of diabetes and can delay and avoid the progression of the secondary complications in diabetic patients with uncontrolled diabetes.