Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Upper Limb

Assessment of nutrient foramen of the humerus in the North Indian subjects

Dr. Sujata Netam, Dr. Amrita Bharti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2988-2993

The largest and longest bone in the upper limb is the humerus. The nutrient foramen is an aperture in the bone's shaft that permits blood vessels to get to the bone's medullary cavity for nutrient and growth. The long bones' nutrient foramina have been the subject of numerous published research. Since the literature has not yet established a palpable landmark for the nutrient foramina, the purpose of this study was to characterize the nutrient foramen in dry adult humeri in terms of their numbers and location.
Methods: The study comprised all the humerii (not necessarily paired and those of unknown age and sex) from the university of the Aam Admi Party's medical colleges. The length of the humerus, the number of nutrient foramen, the size of the nutrient foramen, the location of the nutrient foramen in regard to the surfaces and the zones, and the distance of the nutrient foramen from the midpoint of the humerus were all observed. All the data were recorded, and the percentage, mean, range, and standard deviation were computed as part of the statistical analysis.
Results: In our study we examined 147 humeri. Among 147 examined humeri there were 82 right humerus and 65 left humeri. The number of single nutrient foramen was most commonly recorded among examined humerus (78.91%). The examination of humerus for location of nutrient foramen based on surface showed that more than four fifth of nutrient foramen were located on anteromedial surface (83.67%). The mean total length of humerus examined was 269.75±22.53 mm and the mean distance from of nutrient foramen from proximal end of humerus was 151.93±17.57 and calculated foraminal Index (FI) was 55.36%.
Conclusion: When performing various surgical procedures on the humerus, such as treating fractures, bone repair, bone grafting, micro-surgical bone transplantation, in numerous fractures, and during extensive periosteal stripping, orthopaedic surgeons must have a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the number, location, and direction of the nutrient foramina of the humerus in order to minimise damage to the nutrient artery of the humerus.

Assessment Of Upper-Extremity Inter-Limb Girth And Volume Variance To Standardize Diagnostic Cut-Offs For Detection Of Upper Limb Lymphoedema In Indian Women Population

Dr. KM Annamalai; Dr. MS Satish; Dr. Jafar Khan; Dr. M Janarthinakani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 194-201

Background: Due to its diverse appearances and challenges in clinical evaluation, secondary lymphedema is frequently underreported and undertreated. Normative-determined criteria from western population have high sensitivity and specificity for detection of mild lymphedema in western women. It is uncertain if these requirements apply to Indian women, whose body types differ from those of Western women. The purpose of this study was to define the typical upper extremity inter-limb variation in a sample of healthy Indian women and to establish statistically based diagnostic cut-offs for both circumference and volume measures.
Methods:Descriptive research design was adopted. Six hundred and thirty one healthy Indian women, between the age the age of twenty to seventy years, participated in this study. At 5 cm intervals, the upper limb circumference was measured from wrist to above. Each segment of the limb depicted a frustum or truncated cone as a result of the measurement levels dividing the limb into parts. By combining the volumes of the segments individually, the ultimate volume was calculated. Diagnostics cut-offs for lymphoedema were derived by calculating three standard deviations plus the mean difference between the limbs.
Results: Significant differences were revealed by the paired t-tests between the dominant and non-dominant circumference and volumetric measurements. Regression analysis found a strong correlation between Age and BMI with the inter-limb circumference and volume difference. The diagnostic cut-offs ranged between 5% for the age 20-25yrs to ≤10% for the age upto 70yrs.
Conclusions: The threshold values provided by this study, taking arm dominance and population specificity into consideration, are likely to be appropriate for accurate diagnosis of changes in limb volume, helping in early detection of lymphoedema and increasing the probability of early intervention. This study delineates the percentage of ≤10% inter upper limb difference to be considered normal and acceptable as non-pathological.


Binigha. M; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 218-226

Introduction: Stature is a useful anthropometric parameter which is used to identify the bodily uniqueness of the person. Anthropometry is a basic tool in anthropology based on biological aspect. By knowing the length of anthropometric parameters we can estimate the stature of an individual. Stature estimation is useful for developing anthropometric databases. This technique helps in estimating the stature from bone length of unidentified body parts during mass disaster, accidents and also it help in identifying the victim in murder cases. The main task in forensic science is to identify an individual. Stature estimation is useful for identifying individuals in forensic science. The aim of this research study was to evaluate the stature from upper arm length in undergraduate student’s residents.

A Study on Quantitative Analysis of the Variations of Nutrient Foramen in the Clavicle

Renuka Tripathi (Dubey)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2668-2671

Background: The nutrient foramina of the clavicle have extensive clinical importance as these are involved in the repair of clavicular fracture. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphometry and topography of nutrient foramen in clavicle.
Material and Methods: This study was conducted in department of Anatomy. In this study we were included total 60 dried human clavicle bones. The duration of study was over a period of one year.
Results: The result of this study was revealed that one foramen was present in 65% bone. While, two nutrient foramen present in 26.7% clavicle bones & three nutrient foramen present in 8.4% clavicle bone. Which were found macroscopically.
Conclusion: This study concludes that from all the findings that the nutrient artery should be preserved carefully while doing surgical procedure like internal fixation and vascularised bone graft.

A case report on electrical burn: below elbow amputation of left upper limb

Ms. Swapna Morey; Ms. Vaishali Tembhare; Savita Pohekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2627-2632

Abstract: Introduction: These injure result from contact with faulty electrical wiring g or
high voltage power lines passing over the residences. Lighting is also an electrical injure the
extent of injuring is influenced by the duration of contact, current-voltage, type of current
(direct or alternate) the path of current and the resistance offered by tissues. Case
Presentation: A case of a 25-year-old male admitted in the burn unit on the date 22 October
2019 with complaints about he came in contact with the electric pole due to electrical shock
on 12/10/2019. He had wound over left hand up the wrist, wound over over the left axilla,
inner part of both thighs, head and back. The wound over the left hand was associated with
pus discharge, which was foul-smelling and scanty in amount, blood-stained.Interventions:
Generally, the burn victims with major burns are hospitalized and care is providing the burn
unit or ward. The goals during this phase are saving a life, maintaining and protecting the
airway, restoring hemodynamic stability and promoting healing and preventing or correcting
the complication. Outcomes: Over the short course of treatment, the patient significantly
improved in functional mobility, transfers, ambulation, and bed mobility. Progress even
further towards his goal of returning home. Discussion: The patient responded well to
treatment, however additional interventions could be utilized in the future to aid in greater