Keywords : bilingualism
GERMAN BORROWINGS AT THE LEVEL OF VOCABULARY IN THE CONDITIONS OF UZBEK-GERMAN AND UZBEK-RUSSIAN BILINGUISM (IN CONDITIONS COVID - 19).
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2943-2953
This article examines the German borrowings existing in the
Uzbek and Russian languages, many of which have been developed in a
particular language environment.In particular, the condition and features of
interlanguage relations were discussed, which is one of the reasons for the
most significant changes and interactions in the semantic, lexical and
grammatical structure of languages, as well as the influence of borrowings on
the phenomena of bilingualism and polylingualism.
The purpose of the study. The work is devoted to identify German
borrowings in the Uzbek and Russian languages in the context of the
sociolinguistic sphere. Against the background of consideration of borrowing,
it is necessary to define the scope of their value and use.
1) To find out the reasons for the transition of German borrowing
words with the help of the Russian language to the Uzbek
2) To analyze the similarities and differences of lexical borrowings in
the recipient language.
Materials and methods. The material for this study was linguistic
scientific articles, abstracts and monographs. In the course of the study,
a descriptive method was used to establish the status of German borrowings in
the Uzbek and Russian languages, which implies the interpretation and
classification of the material, which makes it possible
to understand and generalize the corresponding theoretical material.
Results. The research results are as following: to identify three main periods
of adaptation of borrowings in the recipient language: penetration into
speech, selective borrowing, rooting in the language. Determine the level of
borrowing, the impact of German borrowing on the development and changes
of Uzbek - German and Uzbek - Russian bilingualism. The specificity of
the development of the number of borrowings at all levels of the language
systems of the Uzbek and Russian languages is one of the important points in
the study of bilingualism.
Conclusions. Despite different opinions and definitions of the term
borrowing, most linguists agree that borrowing is the process of moving from
a source language to a target language, whether in a direct or indirect
form. Under the influence of interference, this article examines changes in the
borrowing of languages, as well as the use of the recipient language in
the system. Features of these stages may have an impact to
the internal and external factors. The impact of extra linguistic situations on
bilingual speech needs to be monitored. Borrowing is a process, appropriate
for both bilingual and monolingual situations. In many situations,
the borrowed elements of the language are adapted to one stage or another at
all language levels, i.e. are transformed in accordance with the norms of the