Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Computed tomography


The effect on CT size-specific dose estimates of mis-positioning patientsfrom the iso-centre

Arif Jauhari; Choirul Anam; Mohd Hanafi Ali; William Ian Duncombe Rae; Siti Akbari; Tina Meilinda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 155-164

This study evaluates the effect of mis-positioning of patients in relation to the iso-centre in CT examinations on the dose received by phantoms with various diameters. Phantoms with water-equivalent diameters (Dw) ranging from 8.5 cm to 42.1 cm were scanned using a GE Optima CT scanner with exposure factors as follows: 200 mA, 120 kVp, 1.375 Pitch, 50 cm field of view (FOV), 5 mm beam collimation, and 1 s rotation time. Doses were measured using the CT dose profiler (RTI Electronics). After obtaining doses in every hole of the phantoms, weighted doses were computed. It is found that the dose decreased with an increase in the Dw. The ratio of the doses when positioned off-centre by 2 cm and 4 cm with respect to the iso-centre have p-values of 0.914 and 0.919, which shows no significant difference (p> 0.05).

Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions in Comparison to Computed Topography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Mohamed Fouad Mostafa Ahmed; Walid Ahmady Abd El-Dayem; Talaat Fathy Aly; Mohamed Ibrahim Magdy; Mohamed Ali El-Nady

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2500-2509

Background and aims:To evaluate the advantages of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the
assessment of detailed structures of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) compared to computed
tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Tropical medicine department,
Zagazig university hospitals and in Internal medicine department at Kasr Al Aini Hospitals,
Cairo University, in the period between March 2018 and March 2020. The study included 72
patients with PCLs, 29 were males and 43 were females, there ages ranged from 25 to 75 years.
All cases were subjected to the following careful history taking, thorough clinical examination,
laboratory investigations (CBC, LFTs, KFTs, Coagulation profile, serum amylase, serum CA
19.9), imaging (CT and/or MRI abdomen), endoscopic ultrasound examination and EUS-FNA
biopsies using the 22G or 19G needle.
Results:Validity of abdominal CT/MRI imaging, EUS, cytopathology and EUS with
cytopathology was calculated using diagnostic performance depend on sample 2x2 contingency
tables generation. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy and their corresponding 95%
CI were calculated. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant, p-value < 0.001 was
considered highly statistically significant, and p-value ≥ 0.05 was considered statistically
insignificant.

Application of Computed tomography in jaw lesions: A comprehensive review

Mandeep Kaur; Ramandeep Singh Punia; Ramandeep Singh Brar; Ravinder S Saini; Mamta Malik; Sanjeev Laller

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 5269-5275

Radiology is an essential aid to the diagnosis, treatment planning and monitoring of oral diseases. Advances in imaging technology have revolutionized our ability to study image and understand pathology on a macroscopic level. Digital radiology is the next step in the evolution of radiology, its features like significant reduction in radiation exposure, the ability to digitally manipulate the captured image to produce a more diagnostic image,
reduction in time between exposure and image interpretation, and digital documentation of patient’s records make it a valuable diagnostic aid in hands of a clinician. New diagnostic modalities, like computed tomography has revolutionized dental diagnosis by multi planar reconstructions and allowing virtually any view to be selected, making three dimensional imaging possible by a few clicks on the computer. Hence; we aim to summarize some of the important aspects of role of Computed tomography in jaw lesions.

ARCUATE FORAMEN OF ATLAS: DO I NEED TO DIAGNOSE?

Yanova Elvira Umarjonovna; Mardieva Gulshod Mamatmuradovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2989-2997

It was found that the joint presence of bone and vascular changes in the
craniovertebral region, or even one of them, can lead to a clinically significant
decrease in cerebral blood flow. One of the fairly common anomalies is the arcuate
foramen, which does not have a characteristic clinic and is disguised as other
pathologies.
Purpose.To analyze the computed tomographic characteristics of the bone
jumper of the first cervical vertebra.
Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of computed tomographic
examinations of the upper cervical spine in 479 patients using 3-dimensional (3D)
reconstruction was carried out. The patients' age ranged from 12 to 85 years. In 61 
patients, Kimmerle anomaly was diagnosed. The average age of men was 39.7 ± 6.3
years, women - 44.8 ± 6.7 years.
Results.When conducting a computed tomography of the brain of patients with
Kimmerle's anomaly, in 25 cases out of 42 - signs of vascular encephalopathy, in 11
cases signs of cerebellar atrophy and in 5 cases - single cysts. In 84% of patients with
Kimmerle's anomaly, who underwent 3D CT of the cervical spine, osteochondrosis
was noted and in 21% - spondylosis, in 74% of cases combined with degenerative
changes in the intervertebral disc. In 70% of patients with Kimmerle's anomaly, there
is a bilateral arrangement of the atlas bone jumper. With a one-sided arrangement, the
atlas bone jumper is often located on the left. The vaulted hole was located on both
sides equally often. The anteroposterior dimension of the arcuate foramen on the right
is 5.4 ± 2.32 mm, on the left - 5.9 ± 2.43 mm. Vertical dimension - 3.35 ± 1.83 mm
on the right, 3.49 ± 1.87 mm on the left. The incidence of the anomaly was 12.7%.
Conclusions.A spondylogenic factor, in the form of Kimmerle's anomaly, can
cause impaired craniovertebral circulation, given the combination with ischemic
changes in the computed tomographic picture of the posterior parts of the brain.
Additional research is needed to assess the state of the vascular bed and blood flow in
the vessels, which will provide the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular
disorders in patients with Kimmerle's anomaly.