Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Practice

Self-Medication Among Nurses In A Tertiary Health Facility In Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Hope O. Nwoga; Miriam O. Ajuba; Gabriel C. Ume

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1410-1425

Background: Self-medication (SM) is a global practice that is prevalent in all age groups and in all races. Although it has been successfully integrated into many healthcare systems throughout the world, it still presents with the problems of wrong diagnosis, inappropriate choice of treatment, drug abuse, delayed health seeking behaviour, double medication and harmful interactions, inappropriate storage and administration of expired medicines, medication wastage and in extreme cases death.
Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted at ESUTH Parklane, Enugu Nigeria. A structured pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the consenting nurses. Data was analysed using SPSS version 25 and variables were presented in frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation with the aid of tables. Bivariate analysis was done using chi-square test. The level of significance was set at p value ≤ 0.05.
Results: Most of the nurses were within the 30-39 years age group 95(44.4%). Majority were females 199(93.0%) and married 169(79.0%). Almost all of them were Christians 213(99.5%) and Igbo ethnic group 212(99.0%).
All the nurses have heard about SM but only 181(86.4%) have good knowledge of it. Majority of them have practiced SM in the past one year 185(86.4%). Among those that practiced SM, majority practiced rarely 157(73.4%). The commonest symptom for which SM was practiced was headache 194(90.7%) followed by fever 170(79.4%) and pain 163(76.2%). The commonly used drugs for SM were analgesics/anti-pyretic 194(90.7%) and anti-malarias 187(87.4%). Sources of drugs were majorly from pharmacy shops 195(91.1%). Their major reasons for SM were emergency illness 171(79.9%), mild illness 162(75.9%) and prior knowledge about the illness and its treatment 150(70.1%).Conclusion: There was good knowledge of SM among the studied nurses but their practice was poor as majority practiced SM in the past one year.

Knowledge, Attitude, And Practice Of Medical Staff Toward Covid-19: Sample From Baghdad.

Sahar Abdul-Hassan Al- Shatari; Hassan Hadi Al kazzaz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 117-129

Coronavirus disease pandemic 2019 (COVID-19) is the worst global event after the Second World War. No trustable drugsor vaccine had been discovered for COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic.The study pointed to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among employee in Baghdadhealthfacilities.A cross-section study online survey was conducted from 27th May -19th July 2020, by using of Google-form questionnaire through the emails and social media (Telegram,Viber, WhatsApp, Facebook) or by hand to hand as a hardcopy. Medical-staff in our study had access to the online-link of the questionnaire. The answers Downloaded from the electronic-form of Questionnaire (Google-form) to the computer as an excel file and important to SPSS ver. 23 to be analyzed,frequencies, and percentages calculated.One hundred and seven medical staff (doctors, dentists, and pharmacists) enrolled in this study. The highest percentage of participants was female 72(67.3%), aged 30-39 years 36(33.6%), married 69(64.5%), working in hospital 52(48.6%), family medicine Specialty 30(28.0%), senior 36(33.6). with much-information and good-practice 59(55.1%). A highpercentage of the participants had correct information inDroplets Mode of transmission 103(96.3), Old age as risk group 105(98.1%). The participant's attitude toward partial Quarantine; the highest percentage think it'sincorrect and must stop completely 44(41.1%). Tow-third of them wereworking in quarantine lounges 68(63.5%).Health workers in Iraq neededfurther updating education and training programs about COVID-19 disease. There is a shortage of personal protective equipment in health care facilities.

Attitudes and Behavior Practices Against Covid-19 During the Rapid Rise Period Among University Students In Indonesia

Fransiskus Xaverius Widiantoro; Yosi Maria Wijaya; Florentina Dian Maharina; Chi-Jane Wang

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2393-2404

Despite strict measures taken, the attitudes and behavior practices of university students against infectious viruses remains the most important factor in limiting the widespread of COVID-19 diseases. This study examined attitude and behaviors practice against COVID 19 among university students during the rapid rise period. A university-based cross-sectional study was conducted among university students by the authors’ networks with university or students union in Indonesia. After consenting, participants completed an online survey to assess socio-demographic, health’s habit, family-history of chronic diseases, attitude, and behavior practice against COVID-19. Multivariable analysis was done using linear regression after checking collinearity, and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Totally 543 participants, most of them (78.3%) were female and bachelor students (73.3%). Majority participants showed positive attitude (97.2%) and behavior practice (82,0%) with mean score 2.05 and 2.91, respectively. Education level and smoking habits were significantly different with attitude. The behavior practices were significantly different with age, religion, and exercise. Multiple linear regression showed that younger people were more likely to believe in successful control, and confidence against COVID-19. Being younger, diploma level, and inactive were among the significantly associated factors of poor behavior practices against COVID-19. Our results found that university students had positive attitudes and better behavior practice against COVID-19. Therefore, their attitude and behavior practice must be improved to be prepared for epidemic and pandemic situations. Development comprehensive health education programs are important to increase awareness and to reach sufficient knowledge.

Enhancing student’s writing through pre-writing activities

AllanazarovaMamura Akhmedovna; AkhmedovaKhulkar Olimjonovna; DjuraevaKhosiyatkhon Khamidovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3118-3130

Writing is a complicated capability that provides communication between the people by
means of graphic signs. Like speaking, it is a productive skill; we record our messages to
convey them to the recipient.
Many writing initiatives have been discussed as ways to improve student writing.
However, in order for teachers to successfully teach writing, they must be exposed to a
variety of classroom-tested approaches (Williams J, 2012, p.89). Besides, teaching how to
write effectively is one of the most important life-long skills educators impart to their
students. When teaching writing, educators must be sure to select resources and support
materials that not only aid them in teaching how to write, but that will also be the most
effective in helping their students learn to write.
According to the ideas of Dan Kirby and Tom Liner (Inside Out: Strategies for Teaching
Writing, p.32) succeeding as a writing teacher requires a pragmatic awareness of
educational politics and the conflicts and questions within our discipline and a solid grasp
of public notions about how writing classes should look, what skills are most important for
students, and why writing might be useful or important. Public opinion often disagrees
with instructional practices that are informed by research and by teachers’ experiences with
students. They also mentioned that teaching writing is challenging; it may be one of the
toughest jobs a teacher faces. If we are teaching in a middle school or a high school
classroom, we know the depth of the challenges that large classes, students whose first
language isn’t English, or russian and excessive absences—as well as the challenges we
discussed previously—present for teaching and learning anything. Too many teachers
work in schools clogged with test-prep demands and follow-the-script teaching
expectations. It’s not much of a surprise, then, if some teachers try to avoid writing
instruction entirely while others adopt the latest ―Teach Writing Quickly!‖ off-the-shelf
product to make their lives a little easier. Effective teaching of writing takes time: time for
practice, time to share writing, time to complete pieces of writing, and time to respond to
and evaluate all of that writing. Many teachers are afraid of teaching writing precisely
because it takes lots of time, in class and out. To teach writing well, we don’t look some
place ―out there‖ for rules, formulas, and mimicry. We begin, instead, by teaching students
to attend to their inner language, to their individual sensations, perceptions, emotions,
incipient understandings, observations, and perspectives. Writing, like all other acts of
creation, develops from the inside out.
Last but not least, it should also be noted that teaching and learning to write can seem
complicated for both teachers and students, but with the huge contribution of writing
techniques and activities the writing classes are more likely to be intriguing and

Knowledge, Awareness And Practice Of Dental Practitioners Regarding COVID-19 Pandemic- A Cross-Sectional Study

Anmol Bagaria; Shivam Bhardwaj; Ritu Sharma; Vaishali .; Vipul Anand; Pratik Prakash Bumb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4625-4630

Background: The present study was conducted to assess knowledge, awareness and
practice of dental practitioners regarding COVID-19 pandemic.
Materials & Methods: 240 dental practitioners of both genders were provided with a
questionnaire regarding knowledge and practice regarding COVID-19 pandemic.
Results: 80% showed that SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of COVID- 19. 85% replied that 2-14
days is the incubation period of Covid- 19, 75% correctly replied that 6.8 % is the
incubation period for COVID- 19 and 82% replied that rRT-PCR is the laboratory test
available for detection of COVID- 19. 80% replied yes in order to provide treatment to
infected patients and 10% replied no. In response to question whether masks, head cap and
sanitizer protect against virus, 74% replied yes, 18% replied no and 8% replied don’t know.
The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Dental practitioners had sufficient knowledge, awareness and practice
regarding COVID-19 pandemic.

Prevalence Of Knowledge And Importance Of Hand Washing And Its Technique Among School Children In A Semiurban Place In South India

Dr.Subramanian . V; Dr.Santosh Kumar K; Dr.Sruthi N. Anandhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3623-3630

Background: Developing countries have an increased burden of communicable diseases which are influenced by poor personal hygiene practices. Hand washing, especially with soap and water at all critical times has been accepted worldwide as an effective intervention to prevent the spread of communicable diseases. Despite the proven effectiveness, the practice of effective hand washing is found to be poor in developing countries. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge and practice of hand washing among school students, who are at an increased risk of communicable diseases like diarrhoeal diseases, ARI’s and other hygiene related diseases
Methods Design and Setting: An institution-based cross sectional study was carried out among 440 students in a school in South India. A validated semi-structured questionnaire containing 36 questions was used to collect the required data after getting a consent.
Place of study: Schools around Saveetha medical college hospital, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Chennai.
Results:The study was conducted among 440 students among which 255 were boys and 186 were girls. Majority of children in the population have general know the importance of hand washing in day to day life as 88.18% (n= 388). The awareness about the substance that they use for washing their hands ,the time at which they washed their hands, the reason for hand washing , the awareness about infections prevented by hand washing, the awareness about hand washing technique and the steps involved, the availability of soap or sanitizer in the school were all studied and children showed good knowledge and practice about hand washing .
Conclusions: To conclude, the knowledge regarding hand washing is good, but the practice of hand washing and hand washing with soap and water after using the toilet is poor. This study suggests that awareness about practice of hand washing is needed in children.


Bipin .; Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha .; Kiran kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1605-1621

Forensic odontology deals with legal investigations in which it primarily involves the identification of the offender by comparing dental records to a bite mark left on the victim. It is especially used for the application of the principal of law and criminal investigation.Aim of the study is to evaluate knowledge and awareness on forensic dentistry. This special brand deals with the dental evidence obtained from the victim. As the field of forensic dentistry focuses on the methods of detection, collection and analysis of bite mark remains is very helpful in crime investigations to analyse the acquired evidence. In the past decades oral pathologists had major responsibilities in developing forensic science. A cross sectional study on undergraduates was carried out using a questionnaire with close ended questions. The survey had 15 questionnaires circulated in Google forms and 100 responses were obtained from the population, representation of data was in pie chart and bar graphs. Majority of the study population answered yes as they feel forensic odontology is very much essential to deal with crime investigation. 62.7% of the study population responded positively where they are able to differentiate the work of forensic anthropologists and a forensic odontologist first. The students' knowledge on forensic odontology and what it deals with, was significant with the year of study where final year students are more aware about forensic odontology. P value = 0.00(<0.05) which is statistically significant. This study concludes that most of the participants have knowledge and awareness on the role of forensic dentistry among dental undergraduates.