Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Practice

A Questionnaire based comparative study to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of “adverse drug reaction reporting,” among 1stMBBS, 2ndMBBS and Post Graduate students in a medical college.

Sudhakar Kodudula, Sindu Punna, Sri Sangeetha .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 759-768

Background and objectives:Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADR) is vital for pharmacovigilance. It is important to gain knowledge regarding adverse drug reaction in the undergraduate level. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of ADR reporting among medical students both undergraduate and Post Graduates. Materials & Methods:This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based study conducted among medical students in a teaching hospital, of south India. There was a total of 24 questions of which 10, 8 and 6 were related to Knowledge, Attitude and Practice respectively. Data was analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 28 for descriptive and analytical statistics.


Muthumareeswari, Dr.S.Sumayaa, M Karpakavalli ,Shreen.S,Dr.V.N.Indulatha, Dr. L.V. Vigneswaran .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3061-3075

 Food labeling is a topical issue and an important tool influencing consumer food choices. It could be an efficient tool to prevent consumer vulnerability to diet-related illnesses such as cancer, high blood pressure, hypertension and obesity, etc.This study seeks to examine the impact of Knowledge, Attitude and practice on food labeling among sports players and non-sports players in India. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) in four cities of Tamil Nadu- Chennai, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Dindigul. Data were gathered using an online KAP Pretest questionnaire from hundred respondents which included 50 sports players and 50 non-sports players. An educational session was conducted for all the respondents and the impact of the intervention was analyzed through a posttest questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviorsof the respondents regarding food labels and Independent t- test was used to examine the significant relationship between pre and post test results among sports and non-sports players and the result 

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward COVID-19 among the Population attending primary healthcare centers in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia 2022

Ahmed Khaled Shukri, Ismail Muhammad Sardar Ali Ahmed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4586-4604

Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic, it has become a major challenging public health problem worldwide. This pandemic has affected all aspects of Population life in almost all nations and among all socioeconomic groups. Population of all types are facing an unprecedented crisis with the rapid spread of COVID-19 and severity of the disease in many infected individuals.  As such many healthcare systems have been overwhelmed and HCWs presented with work load . There is a potential shortage of physical resources, such as ventilators and intensive care unit beds, needed to care for surges of critically ill patients, however, additional medical supplies and beds will be of limited help unless there is an adequate medical workforce, as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to occur in small outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Aim of the study: To assessment the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward COVID-19 among the Population attending primary healthcare centers in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia 2022


Rishabh Kumar, Dr. Tarun Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3780-3801

In India, nearly 1,392,179 cancer cases by the year 2020, and the most common 5 leading
sites are breast, lung, mouth, cervix, and tongue. Trends in cancer incidence rates showed
an increase in cancer in both sexes. Small and repeated exposure to chemotherapeutic
agents was also dangerous because chemotherapeutic drugs are carcinogenic, mutagenic,
and/or teratogenic. They can cause toxicity to multiple organs depending on the type of
chemotherapeutic drug or site of exposure and can also be inhaled in a vaporous form.
So, this research mainly focuses on preventing unintentional exposure and causing cancer
from the exposure due to less knowledge and practice level. To assess the effectiveness
of planned teaching program on knowledge and practice regarding safe handling of
chemotherapeutic drugs among staff nurses in the hospital and to determine the relation
between pre-test and post-test knowledge and practice score. Pre-experimental one-group
pre-test and post-test designs were used. Data was collected with the help of a developed
questionnaire and checklist from 30 staff nurses who were selected by the non-probability
purposive sampling technique. The study was conducted at Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute
and Research center, New Delhi. Data were collected before and after the planned
teaching program. Post-test was taken after 4 days of planned teaching. The finding of
the study revealed that the pretest means ± SD of knowledge was 15.64 ± 4.5 and in
comparison to the mean ± SD post-test score was 20 ± 4.1 and the practice mean ± SD
was 14.86 ± 1.06 and post mean ± SD test was 18.08 ± 0.94. And this shows that the ‘t’
table value was less than the ‘t’ calculated value which shows there was a positive
relationship between the knowledge and practice and there is also a correlation between
knowledge and practice. It also concludes that the planned teaching program was
effective in the knowledge and practice of the staff nurses.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices toward COVID vaccine among medical students in Belagavi- A cross-sectional study

Dr Hemavathe S, Dr Abhinandan Wali, Dr Sriram T R, Dr Aniketh Manoli, Dr Chandra Metgud

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 222-230

Context/Background: COVID-19 is an emerging and rapidly evolving situation. Though several vaccines have been developed and brought into general use, vaccine hesitancy still exists among the public. Assessing the awareness toward COVID vaccine among medical students is important since their perception and practice will have a significant impact on their family members, friends and relatives.
Aims/Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices toward COVID vaccine among medical students.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Belagavi between May - June 2021. A total of 802 students participated in the study. A framed questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID vaccine was distributed to each participant.
Results: Most of the study participants were female (51%), and most of them were in the first year of their course at the time of the study (23.6%). Majority of them received COVID-19 related information from healthcare workers (72.7%). 92.8% and 92.6% of the participants responded that the vaccines control COVID-19 and it was by developing antibodies, respectively. 70.5% said that the vaccines should not be given to immunocompromised individuals. 82.2% of the participants have taken 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccination. Almost all participants (98.8%) felt that even after vaccination other measures like social distancing, wearing mask and avoiding social gathering are to be followed.
Conclusions: The findings in the present study show good knowledge, positive attitude and practice towards COVID-19. It is necessary to keep on with further education and training strategies to get a better understanding and positive attitude toward the pandemic for all medical students.


Abhishek Pathak, Ajay Pillai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 218-225

Aim: To evaluate the antibiotic knowledge, practise, and attitudes among Indian dentistry practitioners.
Material and methods: Dental professionals were the subjects of a descriptive cross-sectional research. The dentists were included in the sample because it was convenient for them to do so. Google forms were used to distribute the surveys to the participants, while those who couldn't be reached online were given paper copies of the survey. All forms were included in the research exclusively from dental professionals in India who gave their informed permission. Participants were guaranteed complete anonymity and data confidentiality.
Results:  A total of 100 dental practitioners participated in the research and completed the questionnaire, including 74 (74%) females and 26 (26%) men. Their average age was 27.58±3.69 years. More over half of the 52 participants (52%) said antibiotics helped them recover from colds and coughs. About 55 (55%) of participants believed that newer and more expensive antibiotics had no influence on effectiveness. Antibiotic resistance was known to around 91 percent of the population. Approximately 72 (72%) of participants disagreed that antibiotics were a safe treatment, while 75 (75%) disagreed that antibiotics were the first drug of choice in cough and sore throat. Antibiotic resistance was identified as an issue in India by the vast majority of participants (86%). Approximately 68 (68%) were opposed to maintaining antibiotic stockpiles at home. 55 (55%) of the 100 dentists polled prescribed antibiotics based on symptoms. Most dental practitioners administered antibiotics for intra and extraoral sinus drainage, severe facial edoema, dental trauma, pericoronitis, open extraction, and periapical abscess. Amoxicillin was the most popular medicine (69%) followed by Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (25%) Almost every dentist has likely replied favourably to the request for a medical history.
Conclusion: Although dentists in the current research were found to have understanding of antibiotic prescription, it was found that there is an undeniable gap in training and perspective of dentists with respect to antibiotic recommendations. Therefore, dentists will need to improve their use of antibiotics by updating their procedures over time.

A study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of menstrual hygiene among women of reproductive age group in a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Aakansha Mahajan, Dr. Shagufta, Dr. Neha Majotra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1765-1771

Background: Menstruation is a normal physiological process and determines reproductive health. Poor menstrual hygiene can lead to various urinary tract, vaginal infections, skin infections or even pelvic inflammatory disease.
Aims: To assess the knowledge of menstrual hygiene among women of reproductive age group i.e.; 15-49 years attending the OPD of a tertiary care hospital and to assess their attitude and practices regarding the same.
Methods: A cross sectional observation study where an interview was conducted among 100 women of reproductive age group (15-49 years) attending the OPD clinic of our hospital over a period of 6 months and data was analysed according to that.
Results: Mean age of the participants was 32.43 ± 7.74 years. Out of 100 participants, 68% had good overall knowledge regarding menstruation.62% were using commercially available disposable sanitary napkins, 28% were using washable cloth and 10% were using homemade reusable cloth napkins. 70% of the participants were practicing good menstrual hygiene practices. 45% of the participants had local complaints suggestive of reproductive/urinary tract infection associated during menstruation out of whom 35% were not following satisfactory menstrual hygiene practices.
Conclusion: Menstrual hygiene is an important aspect of reproductive women's health. Unsatisfactory menstrual hygiene management acts as a risk factor for reproductive tract infections. This calls for spreading awareness to bring about a change in attitude and practices regarding the same.

Knowledge, attitude and practice of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students- a research survey

Dr Izna, Dr. Mushtaq Ahmed Chowdhary, Dr Asim Naik, Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari, Dr. Heena Dixit Tiwari, Dr. Priyanka Bhagat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5887-5891

Aim: The purpose of the present research was to assess the knowledge, attitude and
practice of hand hygiene amongst undergraduate medical students studying in this
Methodology: A self- administered questionnaire based cross sectional study was done
amongst medical students at our institution. Based on their responses, a scoring system
was devised and their knowledge, attitude and practice were graded as good (>75%),
moderate (50-74%) and poor (<50%).
Results: Of the 140 participants were involved in the study, we found that majority had
moderate knowledge on hand hygiene. But the overall attitude of the respondents
towards hand hygiene was not satisfactory and only few showed good hand hygiene
Conclusion: This study reveals the wide gaps in the knowledge, attitude and practice of
hand hygiene among the medical students and hence the need for conducting regular

Assessment Level of Knowledge about Weaning and Its Practice among Mothers Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, 2021

Homied Mohammad Amer Alsufyani, Abdulmoneem Abdullah algahtani, Hussain Jaber Mohammad Aqeeli, Ahmed Ali Alghamdi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3077-3091

Weaning is a complex process of a gradual introduction of complementary foods to the infant’s diet. It is recommended that solid food is introduced between 6 and 12 months of age. Weaning is difficult and potentially dangerous time for infants’ growth and mother’s education is an established determinant of its success. Little is known about weaning attitudes or practice among mothers in the Saudi Arabia. The weaning is a process by which the baby gets used to eating adult's food slowly and relies less and less on breastfeeding (BF). It should start between four and six months of age. It is an important public health strategy for improving the child health.e origins of the word ‘weaning’ are traceable to the AngloSaxon expression “wenian” meaning “to become accustomed to something different” . Weaning from breastfeeding is considered a natural and inevitable stage in the development of human child. Weaning is a complex process involving adjustment to a range of nutritional, immunological, biochemical, and psychological changes.

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices about Biomedical Waste Management among Nursing Professionals in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bhubaneswar,Odisha.

Kulumina Dash; Minati Das; N.K. Satapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1127-1142

Biomedical waste (BMW) management is an issue of major concern of all healthcare providers and healthcare establishments as the waste produced during the course of healthcare activities carries potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Biomedical waste management has recently emerged as an issue of present concern not only to hospitals, nursing home authorities but also to the environment. The bio-medical wastes generated from health care units depend upon a number of factors such as waste management methods, type of health care units, occupancy of healthcare units, specialization of healthcare units, ratio of reusable items in use, availability of infrastructure and resources etc. The proper management of biomedical waste has become a worldwide humanitarian topic today. Many studies across the country have shown that there are still deficiencies in the Knowledge, attitude and practices of the health care professionals in the organizations. Hence, A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding biomedical waste management among nursing professionals in a tertiary care hospital Bhubaneswar, Odisha. With due consideration to nursing personnel’s availability, accessibility, feasibility, and resources, we decided to include (n=100) of them in our study. The number of nursing personnel was selected by simple random sampling in their respective department/specialty. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, practices and attitude of the nursing personnel regarding biomedical waste management. Overall, the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards biomedical waste management among the nursing professionals were satisfactory. Complete hepatitis B vaccine coverage among nurses (100%) in our study is attributed to hospital policy of free immunization to high risk groups. Such policy decisions do have a positive impact on work efficiency of nurses by creating a sense of being protected.

Self-Medication Among Nurses In A Tertiary Health Facility In Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Hope O. Nwoga; Miriam O. Ajuba; Gabriel C. Ume

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1410-1425

Background: Self-medication (SM) is a global practice that is prevalent in all age groups and in all races. Although it has been successfully integrated into many healthcare systems throughout the world, it still presents with the problems of wrong diagnosis, inappropriate choice of treatment, drug abuse, delayed health seeking behaviour, double medication and harmful interactions, inappropriate storage and administration of expired medicines, medication wastage and in extreme cases death.
Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted at ESUTH Parklane, Enugu Nigeria. A structured pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the consenting nurses. Data was analysed using SPSS version 25 and variables were presented in frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation with the aid of tables. Bivariate analysis was done using chi-square test. The level of significance was set at p value ≤ 0.05.
Results: Most of the nurses were within the 30-39 years age group 95(44.4%). Majority were females 199(93.0%) and married 169(79.0%). Almost all of them were Christians 213(99.5%) and Igbo ethnic group 212(99.0%).
All the nurses have heard about SM but only 181(86.4%) have good knowledge of it. Majority of them have practiced SM in the past one year 185(86.4%). Among those that practiced SM, majority practiced rarely 157(73.4%). The commonest symptom for which SM was practiced was headache 194(90.7%) followed by fever 170(79.4%) and pain 163(76.2%). The commonly used drugs for SM were analgesics/anti-pyretic 194(90.7%) and anti-malarias 187(87.4%). Sources of drugs were majorly from pharmacy shops 195(91.1%). Their major reasons for SM were emergency illness 171(79.9%), mild illness 162(75.9%) and prior knowledge about the illness and its treatment 150(70.1%).Conclusion: There was good knowledge of SM among the studied nurses but their practice was poor as majority practiced SM in the past one year.


Mohammed Abdul Mateen Dr. Muhammad Shehbaz Mohammad Asifuddin Mohammed Asrar ali khan Dr.Manognya podila Dr. Shiva Damaracherla Dr. Uma challa Konka saha Habeeba Musharraf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9623-9633

Introduction: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was recognized and has caused serious illness and numerous deaths. The ultimate scope and effect of this outbreak are unclear at present as the situation is rapidly evolving. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with main clinical symptoms such as a dry cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty in breathing.
Objective:  To assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of medical students towards corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Materials and Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in India from September 2020 to February 2021. Participants were recruited using a snowball sampling technique and all data were collected via an online self-reported questionnaire using Google Forms ( as the data collection period coincided with implementation of the COVID-19 lockdown policy in India. Socio-demographics characteristics, social interaction history, information-seeking behavior, as well as knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19 were collected through a self-reported questionnaire. A p-value of <0.04 indicated statistical significance.
Results: A total of 2000 eligible participants completed the survey, 71.5% of whom were female, and their mean age was 19.4 years old (SD = 2.1). Almost all had sufficient knowledge (87.1%) and good preventive practice (93.6%) towards COVID-19; however, there was also a rather low level of positive attitude recorded, at 65.7%. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the female participants, and the receiving of information from the official websites, reported a significantly higher level of good practice. Besides, students who had a high level of sufficient knowledge and positive attitude towards COVID-19 were more likely to have good preventive practices (All p<0.001).
Conclusion: Many undergraduate medical students in India had positive attitude and practice against COVID-19, yet only a few had adequate knowledge. This warrants further interventions to keep them updated with COVID-19 evidence to maximize their potentials in raising public awareness on COVID-19.

Enhancing student’s writing through pre-writing activities

AllanazarovaMamura Akhmedovna; AkhmedovaKhulkar Olimjonovna; DjuraevaKhosiyatkhon Khamidovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3118-3130

Writing is a complicated capability that provides communication between the people by
means of graphic signs. Like speaking, it is a productive skill; we record our messages to
convey them to the recipient.
Many writing initiatives have been discussed as ways to improve student writing.
However, in order for teachers to successfully teach writing, they must be exposed to a
variety of classroom-tested approaches (Williams J, 2012, p.89). Besides, teaching how to
write effectively is one of the most important life-long skills educators impart to their
students. When teaching writing, educators must be sure to select resources and support
materials that not only aid them in teaching how to write, but that will also be the most
effective in helping their students learn to write.
According to the ideas of Dan Kirby and Tom Liner (Inside Out: Strategies for Teaching
Writing, p.32) succeeding as a writing teacher requires a pragmatic awareness of
educational politics and the conflicts and questions within our discipline and a solid grasp
of public notions about how writing classes should look, what skills are most important for
students, and why writing might be useful or important. Public opinion often disagrees
with instructional practices that are informed by research and by teachers’ experiences with
students. They also mentioned that teaching writing is challenging; it may be one of the
toughest jobs a teacher faces. If we are teaching in a middle school or a high school
classroom, we know the depth of the challenges that large classes, students whose first
language isn’t English, or russian and excessive absences—as well as the challenges we
discussed previously—present for teaching and learning anything. Too many teachers
work in schools clogged with test-prep demands and follow-the-script teaching
expectations. It’s not much of a surprise, then, if some teachers try to avoid writing
instruction entirely while others adopt the latest ―Teach Writing Quickly!‖ off-the-shelf
product to make their lives a little easier. Effective teaching of writing takes time: time for
practice, time to share writing, time to complete pieces of writing, and time to respond to
and evaluate all of that writing. Many teachers are afraid of teaching writing precisely
because it takes lots of time, in class and out. To teach writing well, we don’t look some
place ―out there‖ for rules, formulas, and mimicry. We begin, instead, by teaching students
to attend to their inner language, to their individual sensations, perceptions, emotions,
incipient understandings, observations, and perspectives. Writing, like all other acts of
creation, develops from the inside out.
Last but not least, it should also be noted that teaching and learning to write can seem
complicated for both teachers and students, but with the huge contribution of writing
techniques and activities the writing classes are more likely to be intriguing and

Knowledge, Awareness And Practice Of Dental Practitioners Regarding COVID-19 Pandemic- A Cross-Sectional Study

Anmol Bagaria; Shivam Bhardwaj; Ritu Sharma; Vaishali .; Vipul Anand; Pratik Prakash Bumb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4625-4630

Background: The present study was conducted to assess knowledge, awareness and
practice of dental practitioners regarding COVID-19 pandemic.
Materials & Methods: 240 dental practitioners of both genders were provided with a
questionnaire regarding knowledge and practice regarding COVID-19 pandemic.
Results: 80% showed that SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of COVID- 19. 85% replied that 2-14
days is the incubation period of Covid- 19, 75% correctly replied that 6.8 % is the
incubation period for COVID- 19 and 82% replied that rRT-PCR is the laboratory test
available for detection of COVID- 19. 80% replied yes in order to provide treatment to
infected patients and 10% replied no. In response to question whether masks, head cap and
sanitizer protect against virus, 74% replied yes, 18% replied no and 8% replied don’t know.
The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Dental practitioners had sufficient knowledge, awareness and practice
regarding COVID-19 pandemic.


Bipin .; Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha .; Kiran kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1605-1621

Forensic odontology deals with legal investigations in which it primarily involves the identification of the offender by comparing dental records to a bite mark left on the victim. It is especially used for the application of the principal of law and criminal investigation.Aim of the study is to evaluate knowledge and awareness on forensic dentistry. This special brand deals with the dental evidence obtained from the victim. As the field of forensic dentistry focuses on the methods of detection, collection and analysis of bite mark remains is very helpful in crime investigations to analyse the acquired evidence. In the past decades oral pathologists had major responsibilities in developing forensic science. A cross sectional study on undergraduates was carried out using a questionnaire with close ended questions. The survey had 15 questionnaires circulated in Google forms and 100 responses were obtained from the population, representation of data was in pie chart and bar graphs. Majority of the study population answered yes as they feel forensic odontology is very much essential to deal with crime investigation. 62.7% of the study population responded positively where they are able to differentiate the work of forensic anthropologists and a forensic odontologist first. The students' knowledge on forensic odontology and what it deals with, was significant with the year of study where final year students are more aware about forensic odontology. P value = 0.00(<0.05) which is statistically significant. This study concludes that most of the participants have knowledge and awareness on the role of forensic dentistry among dental undergraduates.


Abdullah Ahmad Abdullah ALZAHRANI, Thuraya Ahmad Rumbo Mishal Saad Al nofaie, Massad Jumah Al Khattabi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 114-124

Health care associated infections (HCAI) are one of the most serious and complex worldwide health problems. Commitment to standard precautions (SPs) and infection control (IC) measures are important to all healthcare providers (HCP) to prevent occupational exposure to hazardous materials. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are particularly more prone to blood-borne pathogens through contact with infected blood and body fluids during their work. It is based on the presumption that every person is infected or colonized with an organism that could be transmitted in the healthcare setting and thus health care workers need to apply infection control practices during the delivery of health care.Health care worker at risk of health associated infection (HAIs) due to their exposure to the patients during carrying out their duties. Health care workers in primary health care centers are the first to detect and to prevent the spread of infection. Standard precautions are regarded as an effective means for protecting health care worker, patients and community.
 Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the level of Knowledge and practices of infection control standard among health care workers at the primary healthcare level in Makkah City.
Method:  A cross sectional study enrolled HCWs (doctors, nurses, lab workers) from 10 primary healthcare (PHC) centers in in Makkah, during the April to June, 2021, Our total participants were (200)
.Results:the knowledge regarding standard precautions of infection control study results show the majority of participant had average information were(55.0%) while weak knowledge were(21.0%) the data ranged from(5-18) by mean ±SD(12.15±3.11), also the Nationality is a significant relation between knowledge and Practices increase in the non-Saudi healthcare workers were mean+ SD respectively (12.980±2.606, 6.603±1.510), compared to the Saudis had adequate level of knowledge Practices where (T=-5.33, T=-6.152) and P-value=<0.001.
Conclusion: There was a gap between the actual and desired Knowledge and practices of Healthcare providers regarding IC. Continuing education programs are needed to improve their Knowledge and practices scores towards SPs and IC measures in order to reduce HCAI, inadequate knowledge particularly concerning the disposal of sharp instruments and hand hygiene were also detected. The studies highlighted the necessity of the provision of a comprehensive training program to ensure compliance with infection control measures by HCWs.


Eman Meshal Saad Alotibi, Shaker Musleh Alhuthali, Rayan Fawzi Abdrabalrasol Jelani, Ayman Ghazi Hameed Almehmadi, Saleh Ahmad Naseef, Wadie Kamel Hassan Munshi Aziza Abdulah Almarzouki, Ashwaq A. Qawas, Murad Munawuier Alsaedi, Khalid Mohammed Saad Alzahrani, Majid Saeed D Alsaaidi, Hassan Ali Altherwi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 523-532

Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills Research experience is invaluable to the physician's evidence-based practice as it imparts skills such as literature search, collecting, and analyzing data and critical appraisal of evidence.Training for research skills and experience of research early in career has been associated with continued professional academic work and may help inform residents' career decisions. The medical education system in India does not incorporate research methodology as a part of the curriculum. It is seen that research programs in medical colleges get the lowest priority. There are a numbers of reasons, including lack of funding and manpower resources, responsible for the poor quality in research-oriented medical education. Research is a systematic process to achieve new knowledge, science or invention by the use standard methods. Health research has an impact on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and especially on health care programs policy.
Aim of the study:To assessment of the Knowledge toward medical research among health care worker in the primary health care at Makkah 2019.
Method:This is a cross sectional studyconducted at primary health care at Makkahbetween August 2019 and October 2019 was carried out on sample size (190) would be. In order to account for non-response and achieve more generalizable results, the investigator will increase the sample size up to (200) . sampling technique has be used then simple random.
Results:majority of our study weak Knowledge were constitutes (42.0%). While the average of Knowledge were constitutes (39.0%) but high were constitutes (19.0%) and the Range is (1-10) while Mean ±SD (5.113±2.011). Also a significant correlation between Knowledge toward medical research were P-value<0.001
Conclusion:In the present study, it had been found that postgraduate physicians in the primary health care had unsatisfying knowledge of health research. they'd positive attitude towards research, however they didn't remodel their data , but they failed to transform their knowledge  due to lack of time and lack of research curriculum. There is need to encourage postgraduate students to carry out research through provision of technical assistance and essential infrastructure during their postgraduate training program.