Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Assessment


EXTENDED PARALLEL PROCESS MODEL IN COVID-19 RISK PERCEPTION AND RISK ASSESSMENT AMONG GENERAL POPULATION

Dr.Vijeth SB, Dr. TejasviHT, Dr. Kotresh M, Dr. Bhoovanachandaran M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1597-1607

assess perceived risk by EPPM(Extended Parallel Processing Model) and the risk of COVID-19 infectionamong general population.
Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted among 185 general population ofChitradurga district. Questionnaire had three parts, 1. Socio-demographic data along with habits and co-morbidities. 2. Risk perception questions (29) with efficacy, defensive response and perceived threats. 3. A predesigned semi-structured questionnaire (24 questions) regarding their attitudes and practices towards COVID 19. Based on which their risk was assessed depending on score.. Chi-square, ANOVA, t-test and binary logistic regression was applied to find significant association.
Results: Among 185 study participants, majority were elders (>60 years) 25.5%, 100 (54.05%) were males, 108 (58.37%) belonged to nuclear family. Perceived risk scores were almost same in all the categories. A total of 106 (57.3%) participants were engaging in danger control processes and 79(42.7%) in fear control processes. Among population, 32.08%, and 44.30% people were in high and medium risk of infection respectively. Everybody is in risk. 85.27% frequently washed hands with soap or sanitizer, 76.8% used mask regularly when they go out, 74.26% do not wash their dress once they come from outside, 70.37% do not wash their shoes, 54.64% use mass transport. Among socio-demographic variables education, type of family and travel history were significantly associated with risk of infection.
Conclusion: Perceived risk was equal in almost all classes. The attitude and practice towards COVID 19 during pandemic was not so impressive.

ASSESSMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF MALARIA FEVER CAUSES, SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS AT THE PRIMARY HEALTHCARE IN MAKKAH CITY AT SAUDI ARABIA

Abdullah Ahmad Alzahrani, Abid Ahmad Masi AlMalki, Marwan Lafy Aljabri, Mamdouh Lafi Aljabri, Yehya Ahmed Almalki, Hassan Owysh Alsolami, Mohammad Lafy Aljabri, Suliman khairat Al Ansari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3979-3991

     Overcoming the scourge of malaria infection is possible when healthcare workers have good levels of understanding and attitudes towards the disease, which will influence their treatment practices. Saudi Arabia and Yemen are the only two countries in the Arabian Peninsula that are yet to achieve malaria elimination. This study assessed Knowledge of Malaria fever causes and symptoms among health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia. Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria.
 Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the knowledge about Malaria fever causes, signs and symptoms among health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia.
Methods: Across sectional descriptive study conducted among including health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city, during the October to December, 2020, the Sample size of medical practitioners. Our total participants were (350).
Results: shows the
Total knowledge of the malaria fever results show the majority of participant had weak information were(62.6%) while average of the Knowledge about participants  signs of the malaria fever were(33.4%) the data ranged from(1-24) by mean ±SD(11.094±4.503) and a statistical significant relation While Chi-square X2 180.109  and P=value 0.001and  that is a significant positive correlation between Knowledge about causes and signs were r= 0.70) and p-value =0.001
 Conclusion: Malaria remains a public health problem in most governorates of KSA region. Health professionals have suboptimal knowledge and practice levels regarding causes, signs, symptoms, standard precautions of infection control, while most of them have positive attitude. The identification and monitoring of malaria transmission hotspots and predictors would enable control efforts to be intensified and focused on specific areas and therefore expedite the elimination of residual malaria from the whole region
 Therefore, it is recommended to enforce their training

REVIEW OF NOTABLE THEORIES OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Odukoya, J. A .; Omonijo, D. O .; Oraetue, H. N .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3779-3789

Aim: This study is a review of three of the most notable theories of emotional intelligence [EI]: The
Bar-On’s model, the Mayer-Salovey’s Model and Goleman’s model. The core research questions are:
Which of the three theories of EI is most focused on the construct of emotion and emotional
intelligence? What are the gaps in the three EI models? Method: The documentary analysis design,
as proposed by Bowen (2009), was adopted in this exercise. Results: Out of the three theories of EI
reviewed, only the Mayer-Salovey model used the cognitive ability test format. The other two used the
self-report format; Furthermore, only the Mayer-Salovey model tends to be more focused on emotion,
though the measurement technique was cognitive mode. The other two models tend to further measure
social and personality domains. Conclusion: In conclusion, the need for more standardized measures
of EI with a focus on emotion was reiterated. There is also need for an adoption of battery of
assessment tools [self-report, gaming technique, covert observation with anecdotal records] to
measure EI. Finally, there is need to place more emphasis on measuring the degree and scope of
emotional hijacks in people, as a more valid indicator of emotional intelligence. Ability to control
emotional hijacks is far more important than recognition and control of emotions in self and in people
around us, though these are also needful.

Resourceful Microsoft Excel-Based Course Learning Outcomes Assessment Link with Question Banks

Noaman M. Noaman; Tajeldin O. Mohieldin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5250-5265

This paper presents a resourceful Microsoft Excel-based assessment system that applies question banks for all assignments to assess student learning outcomes according to the weekly schedule of the course. The assessment system is feedbacks the assessment results to the instructor and students for essential improvements for both teaching and learning. A detailed method is described to conduct such assessments based on the weekly distribution of the course material related to its syllabus. Each week course instructor selects assignment from the available bank of questions and aligns each question and its grade percentage to each course learning outcomes to measure student learning outcomes. The method uses the Excel Program to randomly select assignment questions (Test, Exam, Project, Homework) related to the course material taught during the specified week or weeks from question banks. The question banks can be modified regularly by the instructor by adding new questions and aligning them to the related course learning outcomes for each week. The Excel software automatically combines the assessment results from all questions for each assignment to reveal the level of student achievement of course learning outcomes. This combination of formative and summative assessment allows the instructor to continuously revisits and stress on those topics in which students perform unsatisfactorily to assure that student learning outcomes are achieved by the conclusion of the course. The results can then be utilized to close the learning and assessment loop, by incorporating the necessary modifications to the course or courses in the curriculum and start a continuous improvement cycle. The results of the current assessment system are applied to selected electrical engineering courses is rather encouraging. Specially, mechatronics bachelor level courses were assessed using the current method and the outcomes of the assessment process are presented in this paper.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF PATIENTS ATTENDING IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE ABOUT THE SEASONAL INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATION AT MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH 2019

Sabah Ali Alwahat, Ahmad Muhymeed Alqurashi, Maram Mofareh Alotaibi, Jamilah Hamid Almalky, Hussam saleh hassan heji Fouad Mohammed Alshehri, Adil Awad Mobark Allehyani, Talal Ghali Salman Alsehli, Yahya Ali Dosh, Eyad mohammed ali shelaiyah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 314-326

Background
seasonal influenzavaccination is essential for population health. However, despite its strong recommendation, studies indicated a low rate of vaccine response. Influenza is a serious disease that can cause hospitalization, intubation, and death in high-risk groups. Influenza complications are due to changes in the immune, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Patients  with an influenza infection are at increased risk of severe illness and complications and have a higher mortality and morbidity rate. Despite the significant role of seasonal influenza vaccination in preventing and minimizing the serious complications of influenza infection in patients, unsatisfactory compliance still exists for vaccination. Vaccination against influenza is the main way to reduce the substantial health burden that seasonal influenza causes, and is the primary tool to prevent influenza infection. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that all people above age 6 months receive the influenza vaccination annually unless contraindicated
. Aim of the study:To explore knowledge and attitudes of patients attending in Primary Health Care about the seasonal influenza Immunization at  Makkah Al-Mokarramah 2019.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 participants from  health care centers in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used. It includes questions on sociodemographic variables, knowledge, attitude, and vaccine response. during the September to December 2019.
 Results:the majority of participant (50.5%) have average of the knowledge towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.0%) of participant high while Range(3-9) and Mean ±SD(6.390±1.781), X225 P=0.001also shows the majority of participant (50.5%) have average of the knowledge towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.0%) of participant high while Range(3-9) and Mean ±SD(6.390±1.781), X225 P=0.001
Conclusion:The study showed poor knowledge and attitude toward seasonal influenza Immunization among patients and general population but a relatively accepted rate of vaccine response. Vaccination response was associated with knowledge, marital status, education, and age. This study recommends implementation of the health educational programs to increase the knowledge to the patients and general population.

Assessment of Prevalence of Workplace Violence among Nurses and Physicians at Emergency Department in Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah, 2019.

Zahid Mohammed Zahid Serdar, Mane Mueen Shalah Alotaibi, Samirah Tawfiq S Albeladi, Adnan Awadh Alwuthaynani, Hanan Abdullah Turkstani, Sara Mohammed Barahim, Hadi Helal Alotaibi, Abdullah Abed Alotaibi, Hayat Abdullah Alzahrani Babaynjy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 585-596

Background
Workplace violence (WPV) is a serious worldwide concern, especially for health care professionals when
compared with workers in other industries. Violence in the health care sector harms both patients and health
care professionals and causes enormous economic losses. Victims of WPV show signs of anxiety, depression,
and low efficiency in their work performance, which may decrease the quality of the service that they provide.
Among health care professionals, nurses who have direct contact with patients face numerous risks related to
WPV. Therefore, it is important to recognize risk factors that can be used to reduce the incidence of WPV
against nurses. Emergency healthcare workers (HCWs) have a high risk of exposure to violence with negative
personal consequences. Violence is an occupational hazard in hospitals. Occupational researches have gradually
shifted focus from traditional, visible environmental risk factors, such as physical, chemical, biological exposure
or ergonomic problems, to the invisible, psychological harm that maybe present in the workplace.
Aim of the study: To assessment of Prevalence of Workplace Violence among and Nurses and Physicians at
Emergency Department in Primary Health Care Centers and confirm the factors influencing such violence.
Method: Cross-sectional analytical study has been conducted at emergency departments (EDs), Primary Health
Care Centers in Makkah city, during data collection period 2019, the total sample has been (400) nurses and
physicians.
Results: Regarding the age the highest age were (35.0%) were (30-40) years and the data ranged from (22-57)
by mean ±SD (38.315±9.816), were females (57.0%)while males. The majority of the participated nurse were
(67.0%), followed by doctor were (33.0%). Regarding the qualification, the majority of participated heave
Bachelor were (28.0%) followed by Resident (21.0%), the participated experience in from 6-10 years were (31.
0%).More than half of the participants were yes to physical or verbal violence and their percentage was (75.
0%).Conclusion: Workplace violence was prevalent, and verbal abuse was the commonest type among HCWs in
emergency departments of PHC. Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an
important concern in occupational health. Almost half of the ED nurses and physicians experienced one or more
WPV incident.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF PATIENTS’ RIGHTS IN FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SENIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS

Sawsan ghaith alsharif, Mohmmad Ateeg Alsubhi, Naeem Eid Alsubhi, Majed Masud Hassan Al-Zahrani, Ghassan Ghazi Marghalani Mohammed Medreq FI Allh R. Almehmadi, Amin Khalaf Ghazi Almaamery, Basim Salman M Almehmadi, Mohammad Motlaq Alsolami, Meshal Salman M Almhemadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 216-227

Background:
Little is known about the implementation of the patient bill of rights (PBR) in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, the basic law of governance states that “the State shall look after public health and provide health care for every citizen.” Accordingly, in 2001, the Ministry of Health (MOH) established the General Directorate of Patients' Relation to look after patients' rights and in 2006 was able to publish the first edition of patients' bill of rights (PBR) in Saudi Arabia, which was endorsed in 2010 by the National Society for Human Rights in Saudi Arabia. On November , 2011, the International Conference on Patients' Rights was organized in Saudi Arabia. On December , 2011, a new edition of PBR was published. This was presented at the National Conference on Patients' Rights in Saudi Arabia organized by the MOH on April , 2012.The social system in Saudi Arabia is very supportive for patients and their families and in most hospitals patients have access to free health care services. Professionals, including future physicians are expected to respect patients’ rights, but if they are not familiar with the contents of the bills of rights.
 Aim of the study:To assess the knowledge of the Importance of Patients’ Rights in from the Perspective of senior medical students in Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city at Saudi Arabia.
 Methods: a cross-sectional study design descriptive study conducted was conducted at College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah, the study was conducted at sixth and fifth academic level (male and female sections)Our total participants were (400).
Results:shows that the majority of participant approximately (40.0%) were aged <35  years, while data Range (23-59) Mean ±SD (41.112±6.258), gender that male students represent (62.0%) of the participants also that of the(54.75%) participants have average knowledge of the patients’ rights knowledge , (42.5%) have high knowledge of the patients’ rights knowledge, and the data ranged from(8to30)by mean+ SD (21.661+3.879),the X2(177.365) and a statistically significant level, p=0.001
Conclusion: Incorporating patient priorities and preferences into their healthcare can improve desirable proximal outcomes related to communication such as the patient feeling heard, understood, respected and engaged in their care. Knowledge of the senior medical students regarding patients` rights is generally acceptable.

ASSESSMENT OF PREVALENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC USE FOR PEDIATRIC ACUTE VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CLINICS IN MAKAH CITY IN SAUDI ARABIA 2019

Mohammed Meyassr Melybari, Khulood Nader Felemban, Emran Hasan Fallatah, Hesham Abdullah Ganim, Sultan Hymid Al-Hazmi, Moawad Ayed Allihyani, Manal Salmi Alsadi Saeed Hassan Abdullah ALqurashi, Afraa Mohmad Bassuoni, Ayman Salem Ajyeeb, Sameer Mohammad Ali Albishri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 492-500

Background
Antibiotics are the most commonly used drug group in hospitalized patients and primary health clinics as they are all over the world. Inappropriate or unnecessary use of antibiotics leads to adverse effects related with antibiotics, occurrence of resistant microorganisms, and increased therapeutic cost. With the Budgeting Application Instruction, which entered into force in 2003 for controlling antibiotic use, approval of an infectious disease specialist (IDS) was required for use of some differences in antibiotic knowledge and attitudes between parents of Medicaid-insured. It is unknown whether understanding has improved and whether previously identified differences persist.Efforts to reduce antibiotic misuse and overuse are necessary to curb additional increases in antibiotic resistance in developed and developing countries also in KSA saw increases in antibiotic use for children during the last 2 decades, no educational campaigns for patients and professionals, and introduction of new vaccines. ​
Aim of the study: To assessment of prevalence of antibiotic use for pediatric acute viral gastroenteritis attending the primary health clinics in Makah city in Saudi Arabia 2019.
Method: This is a cross-sectional study, thirty questions of children years of age who had suffered from acute gastroenteritis during the March to June, 2019 was conducted attending the primary health care centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. our total participants were (80).
Results:Oral antibiotics were preferred by 45.0% followed by intravenous route (30.0%), and intramuscular route in 8.75%. Antibiotics less than week were prescribed in about 43.0%. Duration from 7-14 days was recorded by 20%. Long-term antibiotics were prescribed by 3.0%. Questioning about the seasonal break out of viral gastroenteritis as stated by study individuals.
Conclusion: must be Antibiotic use based on consultation with an infectious diseases specialist decreased inappropriate antibiotic use. Acute gastroenteritis is a major source of morbidity and mortality among young children in developed and developing countries. Enter pathogenic viruses are regarded as particularly relevant causative agents.

ASSESSMENT THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE REGARDING CHILDHOOD ASTHMA AT MAKAH CITY IN SAUDI ARABIA 2019. ACROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Mohammed Hussain Alahmadi, Nabeel Hussain Alharbi, Fahd Mohammed Alahmadi, Osamah Faisal Alganawy, Ahmad Rjaallah Al Saadi, Fardus mahmoud ibrahim Altakroni Sumaiah Mohammed Falattah, Maha Adnan Sabbagh, Effat Mogbel Al Mwalad, Azzah Zamil Alzaid Alsharif

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 406-415

Background:Asthma, the most common chronic illness in children is responsible for more school absenteeism than any other single chronic childhood condition. Acute asthma attacks while at school can cause considerable disruption to scheduled school activities, broadening its impact on school participation. Children with asthma face multiple challenges that encompass learning how to cope with. Bronchial asthma (BA) is a public health problem in all countries irrespective of their level of development, being generally under-diagnosed and undertreated, and most asthma-related death commonly occurs in low-income and lower-middle income countries. As for Saudi Arabia, it is estimated that more than 2 million Saudis have asthma, and the percentages range from 8% to 25% in Saudi children. In 2004, the highest prevalence of asthma was reported by physicians in Saudi Arabia (25%). Bronchial asthma is a serious disease since it is very common disease in Saudi Arabia, and it doesn’t only affect the individual physiologically, however it also affects the individual’s quality of life, leading to missing days from school or work, emergency hospital visits, hospitalization, and caregivers and parents’ time and effort. Consecutively, it affects the whole community.
Aim of the study:To assessment the knowledge of the regarding childhood asthma at Makah city in Saudi Arabia. 2019.
Method:A cross-sectional study was conducted   attending the primary health care centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. An asthma knowledge questionnaire was used to measure the knowledge. during the April to June, 2019, participants were (800).
Results: Regarding awareness of the participant toward asthma study results show the majority of participant had average information were(59.0%) while weak awareness were(22.0%) the data ranged from(6-28) by mean ±SD(16.577±5.87).
Conclusion:The bronchial asthma knowledge in the Saudi Arabian population is insufficient, and efforts should be carried out to spread asthma knowledge to the people. Bronchial asthma management should include patients, parents, and public awareness regarding the disease, its symptoms, medications.

ASSESSMENT OF THE PREVALENCE OF USING DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AMONG PHYSICALLY ACTIVE ADULTS IN MAKKAH ALMUKARRAMAH2019

Abdulrahman Saleh Alaql, khalid Nassir Ahmed Balbaid, Ahmad Sami Alnajjar, Ahmed Muslem Almehmadi, Ahmed Awadh Salem Alghamdi, FaizHamed Althobaiti Mazen Muslim Muhammad AlMatrafi, Ammar Abdulhaq Ahmed Alshaikh, HamdanKallabAabdan Alqurashi, Mohammed JaberJobaier Al Omairi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 256-267

Background:
Adequate nutrition is essential for maintaining health and well-being. Apart from nutrition intake through diet, supplement use is prevalent worldwide, supplements are commonly used to replenish the body with essential nutrients that are important in regulating the body’s metabolic processes, The use of supplements, which may be defined as multi-vitamins, single vitamins, single minerals, herbal supplements, oil supplements and any other dietary supplementation, the economic boom in Saudi Arabia indirectly, prompted the use of dietary supplements in the last two decades. Must to investigate the prevalence of dietary supplement use and its association with socio demographic. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a fast growing economic country that has affected its general population in various ways including a transition in daily lifestyle patterns and dietary intake habits.
Aim of thestudy: to Assessment of the prevalence of Using Dietary Supplements Among Physically Active Adults in Makkah ALMukarramah 2019.
 Method:Cross-sectional study design. The current study was conducted at   Sports and Physiotherapy Center and fitness time centers at Holy Capital of Makkah, during the October to December, 2019,Our total participants were (400).
 Results: that a significant difference between age and using supplements in the study while Chi-square 24.413& p-value= 0.001. Most age of participants use supplements from 23-35years were constitute (30.0 %), the gender that no significant difference between using supplements and gender in the study while Chi-square 1.437& p-value 0.911 less than 0.05 , regarding education show that significant difference between education status and using supplements in the study while Chi-square 14.827& p-value more than P=0.022.
.Conclusion: Supplements were commonly used among female students, The prevalence of dietary supplement use was high and was significantly associated with socio demographic and lifestyle factors.A substantial proportion of populations take supplements. Further investigation into the social, psychological and economic determinants that motivate the use of supplements is required, to ensure appropriate use of supplements among adults and the most commonly used supplements.

ASSESSMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION AMONG MARRIED WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINICS, MAKKAH (2019)

AmalsaeedAmer saleh, Sana Ali barnawi, Funoon Omer Alansari, Nadeentalal khayame, ‏Afnan Adnan Abdullah Bukhari‏, ‏Ohoud Mohammed Alzahrani, ‏Ghadamohammad fallata Hanan Faisal Rashed Alharbi, ‏Maha Abdullah Alsharif, AishahAeyd Albarqi, Hadeel Khalid Hamed Alshanbari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 513-522

Background
     Contraception is an effective mean of Family Planning (FP) and fertility control, promotes maternal and child health. It is interesting to explore the perception and use of contraceptives among Saudi women. The usage of contraceptive has  a significant part in reducing fertility and control of population, which in turn is important for the development of the nation. Despite the advancements in current methods of contraception, unintended pregnancies are still widespread in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which adversely impacts the well-being and health of women and their families. Unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge to the reproductive health of young adults in developing countries. students are an important high-risk group in any society and emergency contraceptives can prevent unintended pregnancies and its consequences in this high risk group, contraception is unique among medical interventions in the breadth of its positive outcomes. An effective means of Family Planning (FP) and fertility control promotes maternal and child health.
Aim of the study: The study aimed to assessment the level of knowledge of emergency contraception among married women attending antenatal clinics, Makkah (2019).
Methods: cross sectional descriptive study has be conducted using saudi women who fulfilling the inclusion criteria, used to randomly select women from Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Makkah in Saudi Arabia . using a well-structured pretested questionnaire composed of four main parts to collect the data. Our total participants were (200).
Results: the majority of the participants answer the correct timing of emergency contraceptive pill (Within 5 days) were (86.0%)while IUD (Within 5 days) were (77.0%) while Total Knowledge regarding emergency contraceptive the majority of participants answer yes were (88.0%), regarding the ever using emergency contraception the majority of participants answer no were (75.0%).
Conclusion: In the light of the above results, there is an urgent need to improve the knowledge of Saudi women in age of fertility towards the use of modern contraceptives, low utilization was notices mainly due to religious concerns. Awareness programmers should be organized by the management on emergency contraception and other modern contraceptive methods.

Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life among Patients Smoking attitudes attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia (2019)

Saud Abdulhai Gari, Muhammed Musa Yahya Sufyani, Hisham Ali Abdo Ali, Amna Mahmoud Ibrahim Altakroni, Ahmed Abdul Rhman Ahmed ALQarni, Mazin Ibrahim Rasheedy, Ahmed Suwailem Saleem Almehmadi, Fatma Saleh Alharbi, Waleed Mohammed Omar Almahaily, Abdulrahman Saad Alsaedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 274-287

Background
Smoking is now well established as a recognized cause of cancer, lung disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke; it is considered the single most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. Additionally, epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between smoking and psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found high rates of smoking among selected populations of persons with mental illness, whereas general population surveys have demonstrated a significant association between current smoking and psychiatric symptoms.
     The World Health Organization has reported that more than 4 million annual deaths are attributed to tobacco consumption; this is projected to be10 million annually in 2030. Conversely, smoking cessation reduces health risks and improves quality of life. In particular, the cumulative risk of dying of cancer, cardiovascular and lung diseases can be drastically reduced if smokers quit, even at an advanced age.Objective: To assessment the health-related quality of life (HRQL) among Patients Smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Aim of the study Aim of the study: The study aimed at assessing the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive stud conducted from January, 2019 to December, 2019 in four Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC)in Makkah, the Sample size of Patients Smoking Attitudes attending PHC. Our total participants were (80). Results: the specific medical diseases significantly associated with smoking were Musculoskeletal disorders and  Central nervous system diseases  were (P < 0.001 and=0.033 ) and X2 25.481and 3.554 with the Negative in age (25-35) of the patients was (66.67% and 11.11% ) while in Positive age patients was (33.33% and 83.33%) while all anther medical diseases no significantly associated with smoking .Conclusion . the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes  attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah smokers with smoking history show significant impairment in the physical and mental domains of HRQL in comparison to never-smokers. Postgraduate studies, workshops and training are indeed necessary to help PHCPs' to understand the significance of the role they play in implementing SCC for patients, individuals, family and the community effectively.

ASSESSMENT THE LEVELS OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE PREVALENCE MIGRAINE HEADACHE AMONG HEALTHCARE PROVIDERSIN PHC CENTERS IN MAKKAH CITY, SAUDI ARABIA, 2019

Hattan Kamal Khan, Mahdi Abdulrahman Alyamani, Ali Mohammed Safar Alzahrani, Khalied Mohammed Noor Jamal, Khalid Mater Alharbi, Fahad Ali Hassan Kaleem, Ahmed Ali Doshi5 Salem Zammam Ateq Alnadwi, Amal Mohammed Kalbi, Abdulmoti Hassan Saqar Alhothli, Nouf Abdulrahman Abdullah Melebary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 327-338

. Background
Migraine poses a significant burden for patients, and it has multiple diagnostic and management challenges, particularly among primary health-care workers ( physicians, nurse, administrative). Migraine is a public health problem and it is the third most common cause of disability among individuals below the age of 50. In spite of the multiplicity of the studies concerned with exploring the disease epidemiology and nature worldwide, data from Saudi Arabia are lacking.  Migraine is one of the most critical concerns among healthcare providers and other relevant stakeholders in the health sector. It is one of the significant causes of disability among older patients (aged 50-years and above). Saudi Arabia has had its share of the health issue with the ever-increasing prevalence of migraine in the country. Despite the concerted and collaborative efforts among major stakeholders on the provision of the assessment of the identified health problem, data from Saudi Arabia mostly lack, especially on the epidemiology of the health condition. According to the recent reports from the Global Burden Disease (GBD), migraine ranks third among the leading cause of disability globally. The prevalence rate varies significantly within the Arabian countries; Saudi Arabia (12%), Qatar (72%), and Oman (83%).
 Aim of the study: To assessment the levels of knowledge of the prevalence  Migraine headache among healthcare providers in PHC centers in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia, 201
9 Method:Across-sectional study among healthcare providers who works in primary health care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah 2019, the study has been conducted healthcare providers who works in PHC centers in Makkah city KSA. Was conducted using questionnaire designed during August 2019. The questionnaire collected the socio-demographic factors, a migraine screen questionnaire (MS-Q) Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire (MIDAS), our total participants were (200)
Result:Conclusion:Knowledge regarding migraines diagnosis and treatment was inadequate among healthcare providers , which could detrimentally influence the patterns of referral to secondary health-care facilities, severity of symptoms was accompanied by poor quality of life in terms of social and professional aspects. There was a lack of awareness in majority of subjects about migraine leading to underdiagnosed, under treatment and with high use of over the counter medications. There is a need for proper awareness campaigns in Saudi population and also healthcare providers.

ASSESSMENT OF THE TRAITS OF EPILEPSY IN CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN IN THE IN THE OUTPATIENT NEUROLOGY CLINICS IN MAKKAH, AT SAUDI ARABIA 2019

Hani Ahmed Alhazmi, Anas Mohammed Alodhaibee, Fatima Gayeb Aldajani, Emad Omar Dahlawi, Najwa Shaker Allhyani, ShikhahGayeb Aldajani Majed Mohammad Mousa Mokhtar, Salman AbdulrahimDakhilallah Almalki, MatooqHasan Noah, Rania Oudah alobairi, Abdulmohsenmusleh alsokheri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 448-456

Background: Epilepsy is the most prevalent neurological condition and is one of the most prevalent non-infectious diseases in the world. It has been reported that epilepsy is the commonest disorder encountered in most pediatric neurology clinics in the developing world.Epilepsy is a neurological disease characterized by two or more unprovoked seizures. It is an abnormal electrical firing of neurons. The morbid fear of having an unpredictable seizure not only affects the patients' physical function, but also emotional well-being, cognitive function, and social function, Epilepsy is a category of progressive and complicated neurological diseases characterized by epileptic seizures of an intermittent and crippling nature . It is the most prevalent non-infectious, neurological condition in the world. It has been reported that epilepsy is encountered in most pediatric neurology clinics, especially in the developing world. It is characterized by various neurological abnormalities, one of them is epilepsy. Epilepsy is difficult to control, as it is able to aggravate motor disorders and disrupt cognitive function, ultimately worsening the long-term outcome.
 Aim of the study: To Assessment of the traits of Epilepsy in Cerebral Palsy Children in the in the outpatient neurology clinics in Makkah, at Saudi Arabia 2019.
 Method:A cross-sectional study has be conducted using snowball sampling strategy. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and will be sending to the study participants through social media platforms and email. Study participants will be recruited across in the outpatient neurology clinics in Makkah in Saudi Arabia about awareness of the epilepsy in Cerebral Palsy Children and association with socioeconomic status in KSA. Our total participants were (120).
Results: In our study showed that the only (44.00%)of the participated were(25-35)years while (33.00%)were(<25)years, regarding the Education the majority of the participated school were (47.50%), the majority of the participant were Saudi  (65.00%) while non-Saudi were(35.00%) . The majority of the participated the family monthly income < 5000 SAR were (68.33%), followed by 5000 to 10000 SAR were(16.00%). 
Conclusion:the geographic variables were significantly associated with the risk of epilepsy in children with CP. Patients with epileptic CP had a higher odds ratio of several neuropsychiatric diseases, including mental retardation, ophthalmologic problems, hearing impairment, and hydrocephalus.

ASSESSMENT OF PREVALENCE OF WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AMONG NURSES AND PHYSICIANS AT EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS, MAKKAH, 2019

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 351-362

Background:  Workplace violence (WPV) is a serious worldwide concern, especially for health care professionals when compared with workers in other industries. Violence in the health care sector harms both patients and health care professionals and causes enormous economic losses. Victims of WPV show signs of anxiety, depression, and low efficiency in their work performance, which may decrease the quality of the service that they provide. Among health care professionals, nurses who have direct contact with patients face numerous risks related to WPV. Therefore, it is important to recognize risk factors that can be used to reduce the incidence of WPV against nurses. Emergency healthcare workers (HCWs) have a high risk of exposure to violence with negative personal consequences. Violence is an occupational hazard in hospitals. Occupational researches have gradually shifted focus from traditional, visible environmental risk factors, such as physical, chemical, biological exposure or ergonomic problems, to the invisible, psychological harm that maybe present in the workplace.
Aim of the study: To assessment of Prevalence  of Workplace Violence among  and Nurses and Physicians at Emergency Department in  Primary Health Care Centers and confirm the factors influencing such violence.
Method: Cross-sectional analytical study has been conducted at emergency departments (EDs), Primary Health Care Centers in
Makkah city, during data collection period 2019, the total sample has been (400) nurses and physicians.
Results: Regarding the age the highest age were (35.0%) were (30-40) years and the data ranged from (22-57) by mean ±SD (38.315±9.816), were females (57.0%)while males. The majority of the participated nurse were(67.0%), followed by doctor were(33.0%). Regarding the qualification, the majority of participated heave Bachelor were (28.0%) followed by Resident (21.0%), the participated experience in from 6-10 years were (31. 0%).More than half of the participants were yes to physical or verbal violence and their percentage was (75. 0%).Conclusion: Workplace violence was prevalent, and verbal abuse was the commonest type among HCWs in emergency departments of PHC.  Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an important concern in occupational health. Almost half of the ED nurses and physicians experienced one or more WPV incident.

ABOUT ASSESSMENT THE LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF PARENTS ASTHMA IN THEIR CHILDRENAT MAKAH CITY IN SAUDI ARABIA 2019

Faisal Ali Maroof, Nozhah Ahmad Sulimani, Maha Marzoq Almawalad, Azzah Abdallah Ashi, Qassem Mohammad Alammari, Manahal Ahmad Alharbi Amani Ahmad Alsharif, Khalid Mohammad Alyami, Shroog omar albshri, Bashayer Ahmed alharbi, Azmi Abbas Hashem Albarakati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 416-426

Background
Children with asthma face multiple challenges that encompass learning how to cope with. Bronchial asthma is a public health problem in all countries irrespective of their level of development, being generally under-diagnosed and undertreated, and most asthma-related death commonly occurs in low-income and lower-middle income countries. Family management of asthmatic children is affected by several factors, primarily the parent’s knowledge and attitude toward asthma. In 2004, the highest prevalence of asthma was reported by physicians in Saudi Arabia (25%). Bronchial asthma is a serious disease since it is very common disease in Saudi Arabia, and it doesn’t only affect the individual physiologically, however it also affects the individual’s quality of life, leading to missing days from school or work, emergency hospital visits, hospitalization, and caregivers and parents’ time and effort. Consecutively, it affects the whole community, asthma, the most common chronic illness in children is responsible for more school absenteeism than any other single chronic childhood condition. Aim of the study: To assessment the level of Knowledge of parents about asthma in their children at MakahMethod: A cross-sectional study was conducted   attending the primary health care centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. An asthma Knowledge of parents about childhood asthmawas used to measure the knowledge. During the October toNovember, 2019, participants were (200).
Results:Knowledge of the participant toward asthma study results show the majority of participant had average information Myths and beliefs regarding asthma were(65.0%) while Range (9-18) Mean± SD(12.144±4.15), regarding the General knowledge about asthmashow the majority of participant had average information were(51.0%) while Range (4-15) Mean± SD(11.58±3.15), also Knowledge about associated aspects of asthmathe majority of participant had average information were(78.0%) while Range (5-10) Mean± SD (7.108±2.011).
Conclusion:The asthma knowledge in the Saudi Arabian population is insufficient, and efforts should be carried out to spread asthma knowledge to the people among the parents and guardians of asthmatic children. asthma management should include patients, parents, and public awareness regarding the disease, its symptoms, medications, and highlight the misconceptions about asthma medications at both hospital level and community, for better control of asthma, more effort is needed to educate caregivers and to enhance them.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE OF ASTHMA AND RELATED SYMPTOMS IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CLINIC IN MAKAH CITY IN SAUDI ARABIA 2019.

Muhannad Abdulhamid Almalk, Abdulmhosen Abdullah Allehyani, Asmaa Dakkel Najm Alsulami, Najlaa Eid FadelAllah Alharbi, Khlood Musalam Abbad Al harbi, Amal Mafarh Abdullah Al otaibi Badr Jaber Albeshri, Nawaf Saad M Alhusayni, Faisal Khalid Hamzah Alghamdi, Bandar Shabeb Almqati, Mamdouh Ahmad Albishri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 483-491

Asthma is a global problem, its prevalence varies among different countries and cities and age groups. In children, asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality.Bronchial asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. In recent years a consistent increase in the prevalence of asthma has been reported from various regions of the world. Concomitantly, the social and economic impact of the disease is also increasing. Children with asthma face multiple challenges that encompass learning how to cope with. Bronchial asthma (BA) is a public health problem in all countries irrespective of their level of development, being generally under-diagnosed and undertreated, and most asthma-related death commonly occurs in low-income and lower-middle income countries .As for Saudi Arabia, it is estimated that more than 2 million Saudis have asthma and the percentages range from 8% to 25% in Saudi children. In 2004, the highest prevalence of asthma was reported by physicians in Saudi Arabia (25%).
Aim of the study:To Assessment of knowledge of asthma and related symptoms in school-age children attending the primary health clinic inMakah city in Saudi Arabia 2019.
Method:A cross-sectional study was conducted attending the primary health care centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. An asthma knowledge questionnaire was used to measure the knowledge. During the March to June, 2019, participants were (80).
Results:General knowledge about asthma the majority of participant had average information were (43.75%) while weak Knowledgewere (12.25%) the data ranged from (4-15) by (Mean± SD) (12.113±4.12), while Knowledge about associated aspects of asthma the majority of participant had average information were (67.5%) while weak Knowledgewere (12.25%) the data ranged from (5-10.) (Mean± SD), (6.387±2.75).
Conclusion: In conclusion, the screening methodology adopted in this study could be applied for all children at the beginning of the school year, being simple and noninvasive measure. The prevalence of asthma in school children in is greater than that reported from most developing countries and closer to the rates reported indeveloped countries. Avoidance of pet's ownership at home, improving social class and premarital counseling for atopic persons are all recommended

ASSESSMENT OF THE PREVALENCE OF INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATION AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER IN MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH 2019

Raghad Jameel Alhajaji, Atef Mohammad Raffa, Turki Abdulqader Dawaji, Asmah Ali Miswak, Haneen Mohammad Alshanqity, Abdulrahman Ahmad Alshamrani Wael Abdulqader Gamloo, Juman Maid Albajaly, Fahad Abdulmukrem Alsulami, Raeed Mustafa Rommani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 394-405

Background:
      Influenza is a seasonal epidemic with main symptoms that include fever, cough and muscle aches. Fever is a big distinguishing component between a cold and influenza. Some other common symptoms which may or may not be seen with a cold as well are headache, chills, loss of appetite, fatigue and sore throat. diabetes, influenza is a significant burden on the healthcare systems. A significant issue and a significant big health concern happen every year is looking how we could mitigate and manage it and obviously take the burden off the health care system. Diabetic patients, as other chronic diseases patients, could catch the influenza infection, which is a respiratory infection caused primarily by influenza A and Influenza B. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide. It is a number of metabolic disturbances that is characterized and identified by the presence of hyperglycemia in the absence of treatment.
Aim of the study: to assessment of the Prevalence of Influenza Immunization among Diabetic Patients attending Primary Health Care Center In Makkah Al-Mokarramah,2019.
 Methods: A Cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in the city of Makkah among diabetic patients attending  Primary Health Care Center during  the October to December 2019, the Sample size patients participants.  Our total participants were (300).
Results: shows the majority of participant (39.5%) have average level of total attitude of diabetic patients towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.5%) of participant weak while Range(7-19) and Mean ±SD(13.065±3.822), X211.59 P=0.003.Conclusion: Undermining the effect of influenza and misconceptions on the effectiveness of the vaccine could much be improved by increasing awareness and knowledge, seasonal vaccination among diabetics in KSA is low. Level of knowledge and perception are the main barriers to vaccination. Health care provider’s advice may be an important key predictor of previous influenza vaccination and they should continue to educate and encourage all diabetics to get vaccinated for influenza at least once yearly.

ASSESSMENT OF THE PREVALENCE OF URINARY INCONTINENCE AMONG ELDERLY PATIENTS ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTRES IN MAKKAH AL-MUKARRAMAH

khaled ibraheem alqurashe, Mufleh Falhan D Almagati, Yaseer ahmad saigh, Mazin Munir I Matar, Fhad Abdalqader A Khoojh, Helal Hussain A Zamil, Essa Safar S Algamdi Abdul Rahman Abdullah M AlGhamdi, Mohammed Saleh Alghamdi, Salem Hammad Alotaibi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 437-447

Background: Lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence are very common in the general population and increase in prevalence in association with age. Urinary incontinence in particular is still seldom discussed by patients, many of whom delay seeking healthcare for the condition. Urinary symptoms have a considerable impact on morbidity and quality of life. Older people encounter multiple barriers in gaining treatment for their problem and are unfortunately less likely to be given evidence-based treatment than younger people. Urinary incontinence means a person leaks urine by accident. While it may happen to anyone, urinary incontinence is more common in older people, especially women. Incontinence can often be cured or controlled. The body stores urine in the bladder. During urination, muscles in the bladder tighten to move urine into a tube called the urethra. At the same time, the muscles around the urethra relax and let the urine pass out of the body. When the muscles in and around the bladder don’t work the way they should, urine can leak. Incontinence typically occurs if the muscles relax without warning.
Aim of the study: This study aims to assessment the prevalence of urinary incontinence among elderly patients attending the primary health care centers in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, KSA.
 Method: A cross-sectional study will be conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-reported UI among elderly patients attending primary health care centers in Makkah Al-Mukarramah in date collection period. Our total of simple is (400) elderly patients
Results : A total of is (400) elderly patients .The majority of the respondents were females (57.14% ), Malays (42.86 %), The age of the respondents ranged from 25-65 years, with a mean of 37.87±12.088 years showed positive correlations between degree of symptoms and signs of diagnosis of incontinence and degree the Frequency of symptoms Where (r = 0.578) and have statistical  a significant relation where p < 0.001).
 Conclusion:Urinary incontinence is common and often disturbing Saudi elderly, our study found that the prevalence was it adversely impaired their quality of life (QOL). Elderly age and parity were significantly related to impaired QOL. We acknowledge the fact that urinary incontinence is a common and poorly understood problem in our community.  Another problem in the elderly age group is cognitive impairment, which also contributes to urinary incontinence. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is most likely underestimated.

THE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF QUALITY ON THE SAUDI HEATH CARE SYSTEM IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN MAKKAH

Nawar Hamad Mohammad Alfahmi, Khaled Fawzan gazi Alholaife, Abdulmohsen masraj Alfahmi, Faisal Mohammed Al-Nofaie, Hassan Fuad Labban, Fayez Abdul Rahman Fayez Al-Shehri,Abduljalil Ahmed Nojoom, Majed Faraj Alharthi, Majed Mohammedeid Almihmadi, Youssef Dakhilallah Nafea Aljehani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 170-181

Background:
Primary health care, the basis of universal health coverage, needs to be assessed on its performance through Saudi health care quality system and future opportunities to serve the Saudi Arabian population increase the chance of desired health outcomes. Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in its health care system by establishing health care infrastructures to improve health of the nation. However, it remains to be seen whether it is efficient and effective in providing health care services needed. In spite of substantial improvements in the Saudi Arabian health services sector in the past few decades, the country is facing a number of challenges in its primary health care system. These challenges include increased demand because of rapid population growth, high costs of health care services, inequitable access, concerns about the quality and safety of care, a growing burden of chronic diseases, a less than effective electronic health system, poor cooperation and coordination between other sectors of care, and a highly centralized structure.
Aim of the study: This study aims to determine the impact of quality on the Saudi Heath care system in primary health care centers in Makkah on satisfaction of Saudi people.
 Method:A cross-sectional studydesign. The current study was conducted male and female in primary health care centers in Makkah.the study randomly sampled. The total sample size will be (300) participated. female and male.
Results:Regarding Patient satisfaction about study results showed that the majority of participants were high satisfaction proportions (65.7%) while average satisfaction were (31%) While The Range (50 – 113) Mean +SD (89.913±11.636). Regarding Patients satisfaction about Patients satisfaction about social and behavioral characteristics results show that the majority of participants were high satisfaction proportions (64.3%) while average satisfaction were (33.3%) While the Range (28 –56)Mean+SD(46.796±5.9636)
Conclusion:The Saudi Arabian health care system needs comprehensive reform with a focus on primary health care.There is substantial variation in the quality of Saudi primary care services. In order to improve quality, there is a need to improve the management and organization of primary care services. Professional development 
strategies are also needed to improve the knowledge and skills of staff.