Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Gender

Comparative study of obesity between men and women: Review

Zainab khidhair hussain; Israa Hasan Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 367-378

Obesity is disorder in a foremost nutritional health it’s developed with countries developing. Also is known as increasingin fat accumulation that lead toproblem in health, besidesmay coin one of the reasons lead toloss of life,the obesity not effect on adults just but effect onoffspringand juveniles. In some ofinhabitants the incidence of obesity is superior in female than in male; on the other hand, the variation degree of the between the genderdifferby country.Obesity is generally measured by body mass index and waist circumference, Obesity are classified according to body mass index into:Pre obesity sort 1 : (25 - 29.9) kg/m2, Obesity sort 2 : (30 - 34.9 kg/m2) and extreme obesity sort 3: (40 kg/m2) or greater. Obesity is described by a pathologic condition with augmented overall of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol while reduced of HDL levels.There are many hormones causes pathophysiology of fatness such as adipokines, gutcorrelated hormones and ghrelin, numerous studies have revealed that the association among fatness and the metabolic sickness such as Insulin resistance, activity of lipoprotein lipase in muscle reduction and free fatty acids increasing. Conclusion: Obesity and overweight different between men am women according to quality of life in different population and countries

Demographical Differences In Academic Optimism Among Secondary School Teachers Of Bhutan

Dr. Nimisha Beri; Dorji N

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6433-6438

The study on academic optimism was done with consideration to three dimension; teacher sense of self-efficacy, trust in students and parents, and academic emphasis in relation to different demographical differences such as gender, nature of services and qualification of the teachers of secondary school of Bhutan. The researcher used TAO-S set by Wayne K. Hoy (2010) consisting of 9 items. The sample consists of 308 teachers with equal numbers of male and female teachers working in two district of the country. Researcher used convenient sampling technique to collect the data for this quantitative research. To make the research worthy and relevant the t-test and ANOVA statistical techniques were used. The result shows the insignificant relationship and does support the null hypothesis statements. But in the data generated by the ANOVA and supported post-hoc test, it is found out that their does exist minute differences between B.Ed and PCCE in teacher trust to parents and students which may bring changes to academic optimism. As the overall academic optimism shows strong compliment towards all three demographical dimensions this minute differences is suffice with no differences in all. Thus the growth in academic optimism is at potential and as a result the teachers, students, parents and schools will be equally benefited. Further researcher recommend some of the areas not covered such as salary, types of incentive, age factors and many more that that may contribute a lot for the future study.

Motivation To Participate In Basketball Among Undergraduate Students In Universities In Kurdistan, Iraq

Andam Hawez Baiz; Nguang Ung Siong; Zulakbal Abd Karim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 6019-6034

The main purpose of this study is to examine undergraduate students’ motivation to participate in Basketball in universities in Kurdistan, Iraq. The participants are first year undergraduate students who study physical education course in universities in Kurdistan. In this study, survey study is used and Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) is used as research instrument to collect data from all the participants motivated by intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and autonomous motivation to participate in Basketball based on gender difference and frequency of participation. There are 608 participants (441 male students and 167 female students) in this study. Mann-Whitney U test(M-W) shows significant difference in motivation to participate in Basketball among undergraduate students in Iran based on gender and frequency of participation. Intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment and extrinsic motivation such as Identified Regulation, Introjected Regulation and External Regulation strongly motivates the female students to involve in learning and improving Basketball skills and also experiencing pleasure as well as being part of exciting experiences. This study also shows that the frequency of participation among undergraduate students in Basketball is increased by extrinsic motivation (Identified Regulation, Introjected Regulation and External Regulation). Therefore, these results also clarify that motivation to participate in Basketball based on frequency of participation and gender is closely related in extrinsic motivation

Modern educational technologies. Gender equality

Yakubova Maryam; Muhammadieva Oliya Narzullaevna; To`laganov Rustam Xudoyqulovich; Radjapova Natalya Bazarovna; Gimozutdinov Radik Galimovich; Shaymardonov Ravuf Narzulloevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 6147-6153

This article deals with modern educational technologies and gender equality. Technology-oriented fields are still mostly male dominated. Increasing the number of women in natural science and technology careers remains an elusive goal in EU countries. Although gender equality and nondiscrimination have been critical, longtime concerns in education, gender-related divisions continue to occur in the field of technology and the subjects that pupils decide to study. Also, significant variations between girls’ and boys’ interest and behavior have been documented in technology education. In today’s society, technology education plays an important role in providing children with opportunities and in improving their ability to interact with everyday technologies. Technology education also equips children with the necessary knowledge to perform a wide variety of jobs. In order to introduce a more equitable gender balance in higher education, technology-oriented fields, and, consequently, in the corresponding labor market, we must continue to expand our knowledge on the impact of current technology education and focus on gender-related issues. This chapter aims to discuss gender-related topics in technology education and careers. Could technology education have an impact on women and girls or potentially influence their advancement in technology-oriented fields? With the goal of achieving greater gender equality in technology fields, this chapter concludes with further directions for research and suggestions for new ways of thinking.

Causal Attributions, Successfulness And Performance Of Higher Education Students In Sciences

Vijay Kumar; Jyoti Bhalla; Dr. Sorabh Lakhanpal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 3325-3334

The present study was aimed to investigate the significant differences among the second, fourth and sixth semester undergraduate students of Sciences on the scores of causal attributions. The analysis was done on the basis of gender and successfulness. The term successfulness used in the present study depicts the perception of the students about their success or failure on the achieved score. The current study examined the causal attributions of 254 students from 2nd, 4th and 6th semesters of Bachelor of Sciences (B.Sc.). In order to find the significant differences with respect to gender and perceived success or failure, two-way MANOVA was used and on getting significant group differences, two-way ANOVA was conducted as a follow up test. The results indicated no gender difference on the subscales of causal dimension scale, further, there exists no significant interaction effect of gender and successfulness. However, both successful and unsuccessful students differ significantly with respect to their causal attributions.

Sexual Violence Against Women: A Horrific Picture Of COVID- 19

Seema Shukla; Dr.PavitarParkash Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6337-6343

Sexual violence is a pervasive and fastest-growing crime in the society of India. Many ranking agencies have placed India in the first place in gender-based sexual violence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sex crimes that happened during the lockdown in India. The study discussed the factors involved in strangers and acquaintances rapes during COVID -19. The incidents of sexual violence have been studied from the different parts of India during the different stages of lockdown. The news wascollected from different online news outlets. The result indicates that the lockdown has intensified the cases of sexual violence against women. The evidence shows that men are committing strangers and acquaintance rape due to stress, unemployment, boredom, and having no fear of being caught. Frustration can be a major cause of sexual violence crimes. Another major reason for sex crimes during COVID -19 is social disorganization.

Women's Issue And Its Historical-Retrospective Discourses In Turkestan In The Late Of Xix And Early Xx Centuries

Yusupova Dildora Dilshatovna; Madaeva Shahnoza Omonillaevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 6218-6228

This article is devoted to the issue of women in Turkestan in the last century, which includes parandja, discourses on parandja, the "Khudjum" movement, the role of women in spiritual and enlightenment life, social status in the family, the religious and political situation in Turkestan, the factors that led to the religious situation , gender characteristics have been analyzed in a historically retrospective, philosophical context. It also seeks to broaden the views of Eastern and Western ideologists on the subject of the parandja, the issue of women in Islamic and Sharia law, their rights, as well as a broad approach to the original goals and objectives of the work done in the discovery of a new modern female image.
At the end of the article it is stated in the proposals and comments that it is important to study and analyze the religious and political life of the past in order to find solutions to the problematic situations related to the religious factor in Uzbekistan today.


M.B. Sai Keerthana; G. Sridevi; S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 850-868

Emotional intelligence is the ability of a person to control and react according to emotions and feelings. Emotional intelligence is an inborn ability that makes people recognise, learn, feel, understand the emotions they are going through. Emotions are nothing but feelings that should be used properly as it has a huge impact in our lives. Emotional intelligence has an impact on various characters and attitudes of a person like self confidence, responsibility, adaptability, and self awareness. Emotional intelligence usually helps a person during a team performance rather than an individual performance. A standard set questionnaire designed was used to assess emotional intelligence among dental students. The study shows that the majority of the students have knowledge about emotional intelligence and intellectual capability. The present study concluded that the majority of the students are self aware and are able to manage their stress and emotions better. They were found to be self confident , trustworthy and adaptable and flexible. Among all of the students females are seen to cope up with their stress and are able to manage their emotions better than male participants

Different Types Of Veneering Techniques Planned For Cases Requiring Smile Correction - A Retrospective Study.

Harsh Kasabwala; Kiran Kumar Pandurangan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3053-3061

Background:Due to the increasing esthetic demands in today's world it becomes necessary to study various treatment options which enhance an overall aesthetics of an individual. One of the most important topics in contemporary dentistry is re-establishing a patient lost dental esthetic appearance. In cases where aesthetics plays an important role such as restoring the anterior teeth, clinicians mostly prefer a conservative yet aesthetic approach instead of restoring the teeth with full coverage crowns. In such situations direct and indirect veneers play an important role. So therefore, it becomes necessary to study direct and indirect veneers.Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of direct and indirect veneers used in smile correction.Materials and Methods:It is designed as a retrospective study. A total of 111 patient records where veneering with direct and indirect technique was planned were acquired. It was done by analysing records of 86000 patient data who were treated from March 2019- March 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the frequency and percentages of direct and indirect veneers . Chi square test was used to evaluate the association between age and gender with the type of veneering technique. SPSS version 20 software was used to perform statistics.Results: Out of the total cases evaluated, 78. 4 % of the cases were planned for indirect veneering and 21.6% of the cases were planned for direct veneering. There was a significant association between age of the patient and the type veneering technique planned p value 0.001 and no significant association between the type of veneering and gender of the patient p value 0.790Conclusion:Within the limitations of the study, Indirect veneering technique was found to be more convenient and it was performed much more as compared to that of direct veneering technique. There is a positive association between age of the patient and type of veneering technique planned for them.


Nashwah Hinaz; Raghu Sandhya; Ashok V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3202-3212

Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of people worldwide. Secondary caries is a disease that occurs on the tooth surface after the restoration has been used for a period of time. It is also known as recurrent caries and is predominantly seen cervically or gingivally on restorations.The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of gender and tooth position with secondary caries in class V restoration. Data was collected from June 2019 to March 2020 from the patient records of an institution, Chennai. The inclusion criteria included individuals with an existing restoration, adults above the age of 18 years. d=Data was entered and excel tabulation was done in a methodical manner: [ serial number-age-name-gender-tooth number-presence of secondary caries-site] and statistical analysis using SPSS was done to obtain results.Out of the 28 cases in the study, 23 (82.15%) were males and 5 (17.85%) were females. 11 patients (39.28%) had secondary caries in relation to class V restoration in anterior region and 17 patients (47.22%) in posterior region.Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that male population had more often secondary caries in association with class V composite restoration than the females. Posterior teeth had more association with secondary caries in class V composite restoration than the anterior teeth. However gender did not affect the presence of secondary caries on teeth sites.


Nor Syakirah binti Shahroom; Arthi Balasubramaniam; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1081-1090

Dental erosion is a public health problem as it may affect various age groups and gender. It may lead to dentin hypersensitivity and eventually pulpal exposure if the erosion is severe and not treated which causes pain. Therefore, the study was done to find the association of gender with dental erosion. A retrospective study was conducted using University hospital patient records from July 2019 - March 2020. A total of 149 case sheets were reviewed. The data variables such as socio-demographic data, presence of dental erosion and number of teeth involved with dental erosion were retrieved and analyzed. Results were present with frequency distribution and chi-square test for association. Dental erosion was prevalent in males (64.4%) than females (35.6%). The age range of the patients included in the study was 21-80 years old out of which 21-40 years (14.8%), 41-60 years (57%) and 61-80 years (28.2%). Erosion in maxillary teeth involving 0-5 (85.8%) was the highest followed by 6-10 (14.1%) and erosion in mandibular teeth involving 0-5 (87.9%) was the highest followed by 6-10 (11.4%) and 11-15 (0.7%). There was no statistically significant association between gender, age with dental erosion in maxillary and mandibular teeth (p>0.05). Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that dental erosion was prevalent in males of early 60’s and there was no association between gender, age with dental erosion in maxillary and mandibular teeth.

Assessment Of Maxillary Single Complete Denture Treatment In A Private Dental College: A Retrospective Study

A Paul; Ashok V; Deepa Gurunathan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3192-3201

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the frequency of the number of patients who undergo maxillary single complete denture in a private dental college, Chennai.
Materials and Methods: The data were reviewed from patient records in a private dental college from a particular time period of June 2019 to March 2020. The data collected was then tabulated in excel and exported to SPSS by IBM. The outputs were obtained through statistical analysis..
Results: The results obtained were based on age, the most common age groups found were 44- 49 years. Based on gender, the gender predilection was towards females. The total number of patients who were diagnosed was greater than the number of patients who underwent treatment ( 51.2%) Conclusion: Within the limits of the study, the maxillary complete dentures are the most prevalent in the female gender of the age group 44-49 years of age. The number of patients treated were less compared to the number of patients diagnosed with partial edentulous maxilla.


Sharon keziah.V Sharon keziah.V1; Dr. Deepika Rajendran; Dr. R. Pradeep Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1237-1246

Denture Stomatitis( DS) is one of the common denture related complications in patients wearing dentures after years of denture use. There have been various studies on its prevalence despite the fact that its exact etiology is still unknown. Removable dentures have served as an important prosthesis in dentistry, whereby it helps in regaining the phonetics and masticatory functions as well as esthetics in edentulous patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors that can cause denture stomatitis in denture wearers. This study was designed as a retrospective clinical study. All the patients with removable dentures (Complete dentures , Removable Partial dentures , Cast partial denture ) were taken into account and the data was retrieved. The data was analysed and results were recorded.Out of the 1415 subjects wearing dentures (complete or partial ) , 80 were found to have denture stomatitis in which 57.4% were women and 42.6% were men. The majority of the DS patients were in the age group range of 51-80 years. Temporary partial dentures (50%) were the most prevalent type of prosthesis in patients with denture stomatitis. When the medical history was reviewed most of the patients did not have any underlying systemic diseases(61.1%) did not have any medical condition, (18.5%) were diabetic, (11.1 %) were hypertensive. When all the diabetic patients(2577) were evaluated , 9.32% had denture stomatitis .In the study, it was observed that denture stomatitis was prevalent in elderly patients with slight female predilection. Diabetes was the most prevalent systemic illness associated with denture stomatitis


Karthikeson. P.S; Arvind S; Kiran Kumar P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1121-1127

Malocclusion is a common development disorder which can create a negative impact on children and adults. Angle had classified malocclusion into class I, class II , class III based on upper and lower molars. Prevalence of malocclusion varies among different populations based on their ethnicity. This study aims to find out the prevalence of class II dental relation among permanent dentition patients in our population. The study is done among patients who came to the dental college. Patient data is collected from dental case records of patients with permanent dentition. With the collected data, class II malocclusion prevalence among patients were evaluated. Results were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Out of 37756 patients, 1017 patients (2.69%) had class II malocclusion among permanent dentition. 52.95% were males and 47.05% were females. Prevalence of Class II div I was higher (88%) than class II div 2 (12%). Chi square test done between type of malocclusion and gender was found to be insignificant with P value of
0.564. Within the limitations of the current study, it was found that prevalence of class II malocclusion was less in our population with no significant difference in distribution among males and females. 


Gayathri R Menon; Kiran Kumar Pandurangan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1691-1700

Tooth wear is a multifactorial condition which can lead to the loss of dental hard tissue which is enamel and dentin. Attrition is mechanical wear of tooth as a result of function or parafunctional habit caused due to tooth to tooth contact. Attrition on the occlusal surfaces of teeth is happening throughout life which results in esthetic disfigurement, occlusal disharmony, pulpal trauma and impaired function. Premilarily diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures of tooth wear is necessity and an important part of day today practice. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine prevalence of tooth wear based on age and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with age groups of 27-73 years and reviewing the 86,000 patient records between June 2019 to November 2019. A total of 58 patients were evaluated for category, age and gender of tooth wear. The Collected data were recorded by evaluating the clinical photographs and examination. Data were collected and tabulated in the excel sheets which were Imported to the SPSS version 20 for statistical analysis. Out of 58 patients 53.4% were males and 46.6% were females. The prevalence of tooth wear is more among 61-70 years of age with male predilection. The most prevalent type is category 2 followed by category 1 and category 3.


B Vivek Babu; Dhanraj M; Samuel Raj Srinivasan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1370-1376

Dental injuries result in functional , esthetic and psychological disturbance accompanied by great concern.Traumatic dental injuries are due to the physical impact on a tooth and its surrounding tissues which may be direct or indirect trauma to the teeth may result either injury of pulp, with or without damage of crown or root displacement of the tooth from the socket. The most frequent causes of these injuries are falls, sport activities, bicycling, traffic accidents. A cross sectional retrospective study of, study population will 100 adult patients visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospital with tooth fracture . Data was gathered and analyzed. The data was tabulated and Chi square analysis done using IBM SPSS software version 20. With the limited population and parameters of this study, there is a more prevalence of tooth fracture in male over females .The most common tooth involved in fracture is 21.Traumatic dental injuries are recognized as a public dental health problem worldwide.