Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : immunopathogenesis


HANTAVIRUS AND ITS ASSOCIATED IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS

Ananya R; Smiline Girija; Ezhilarasan D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2030-2037

Hantavirus is a zoonotic virus manifesting two vital clinical symptoms viz., hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome. With a sudden onset of fatigue, fever, and body aches, in extreme cases can lead to shortness of breath and had resulted in major outbreaks in past decades. Pro- inflammatory cytokine responses and reticulo endothelial systems take the lead role in establishing the immuno-pathogenesis of the hantavirus disease. The virus genome consists of these segments of negative stranded RNA, where the large (L) segment encodes the viral RNA polymerase, the medium (M) segment the glycoprotein precursor which is co-translationally cleaved into the envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc, and the small (S) segment the nucleocapsid protein (N). Hantavirus are divided into Old world and New world hantavirus based on the geographic regions in which they occur. They are strictly associated with their reservoirs hosts which are rodents, but from recent researches reported, also insectivores. Both innate and cellular immune responses function effectively in evading the viral replication, however the mutations and the typical variations in the virus finally establishes a disease in humans. This review thus provides an overview on hanta virus and its associated immune-pathogenesis.

Bats: A Natural Hub For Pathogenic Viruses

J. Aparna; Dr.A.S.Smiline Girija; Dr.MP. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2982-2996

The bats are abundant, diverse, and common in the geographical habitat. Such mammals offer us resources but their value is underestimated and many of their populations and habitats are at risk, even endangered. Some of the living characteristics of the bat species like food choices, colonial or solitary disposition, population structure, flying ability, seasonal migration, and regular movement patterns, torpor and hibernation, life span, roosting habits, echolocation ability, susceptibility to viruses make them exquisitely suitable hosts of viruses and other agents of disease. Bats can carry more human pathogens than other animals because bats prefer to live close to one another. The articles used in the present study were the articles that were collected from search engines like pub med, Google scholar, bio – RXIV, Med – RXIV, Cochrane, and also two primary Chinese databases. The relevant articles were collected from the period of 2000 to 2020 (to date). It is a five-step process in the selection of articles – identification of clear objectives, identification of relevant articles, selection of data, data extraction, analysis and report. This review focuses on the association between the bats and its co-existence with viruses in causing potent viral diseases.