Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : elderly

A Study To Assess The Effectiveness Of Podiatric Care On The Risk Of Falls Among The Elderly At The Selected Rural Village Of Puducherry.

Dr.Malliga.M; kaviarasan. C; Dr.Rajeswari.R; Dr. S. Rathidevi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1956-1964

This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of podiatric care on the risk of falls among elderly at the selected rural village of Puducherry.
Materials and Methods:The quantitative research approach was selected for the study with True experimental pretest and posttest design.60 elderly samples were selected through a simple random sampling method with lottery technique. Priortothedata collection, ethical clearance wasobtainedfromtheInstitutionalreviewcommittee.Informed consent was obtained from thestudy participants. A pre-test was done with structured demographic variables, clinical variables and Modified Berg Balance Scale. The intervention of Podiatric care was implemented to the elderly in the study group. The elderly in the control group received normal routine care.The post test was conducted on 14 th day by using Modified Berg Balance Scale for the elderly in the study and control group.The collected data were analyzed based on the above mentioned objectives using descriptive and inferential statistics

Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle exercise on urinary incontinence in elderly patients

Sahas Y Awale; Dr. Tukaram B Zagade; Dr. Mahadeo B Shinde

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 880-887

Background: Urinary incontinence is associated with weakened pelvic floor muscle support due to aging process. Pelvic floor muscle exercise is non pharmacological and non-surgical treatment to reduce severity of urinary incontinence. It helps to strengthening the pelvic floor muscle. This will be helpful to prevent fecal and urine leakage and improve the quality of life in elderly people.
Aim: to evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle exercise on urinary incontinence in elderly patients.
Materials and Methods: A quantitative approach was used to conduct study among 90 elderly patients which were selected by non-probability convenience sampling technique according to inclusion criteria of the sample from Krishna Hospital, Karad. Quasi-experimental one group pre-test, post-test research design was used. The data were collected by self-structured scale on level of urinary incontinence. Informed consent was obtained. The data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistics that include both descriptive and inferential were used to analyze the data.
Result: The pre-interventional means score was 16.311 where as post-intervention mean score was 0.6111 and the values revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in level of urinary incontinence between pre-test and post-test with corresponding p value <0.0001.
Conclusion:The researcher concludes that pelvic floor muscle exercise was effective to reduce the level of urinary incontinence in elderly patients. Pelvic floor exercise is cost-effective and should be first choice of treatment for urinary incontinence.

The functional outcome of intracapsular fracture of femoral neck with modular bipolar prosthesis

Dr. Rakshith Kumar K, Dr. KM Pawan Kumar, Dr. Sunil Santhosh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 278-285

Fracture neck of femur is a leading cause of hospital admissions in elderly age group. The number of such admissions is on a rise because of increased longevity, osteoporosis and sedentary habits. Conservative methods of treatment is not acceptable because it results in nonunion with unstable hip and limitation of hip movement as well as complications of prolonged immobilization like bed sores, deep vein thrombosis and respiratory infections. The present study was a prospective study of 20 cases of fracture neck of femur admitted to hospital. Cases were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria i.e., patients with intra-capsular fracture neck of femur above the age of 50yrs. Medically unfit and patients not willing for surgery were excluded from the study. At the final one year follow up assessment with Harris Hip Score 6 patients (30%) achieved 'Excellent' result, 9 patients (45%) achieved 'Good' result, 2 patients (10%) achieved 'fair' result and 3 patients (15%) achieved 'poor' result. Overall, 75% of the patients achieved an excellent or good result. On enquiry regarding the overall satisfaction with the procedure and return to pre-fracture levels of activity, 8 patients (35%) were 'very satisfied', 12 (50%) were 'fairly satisfied' and 2 (15%) were 'not satisfied'.

Assessing risk factors of 1 year mortality in patients with hip fractures: A hospital-based retrospective cohort study from a developing level 1 trauma centre in Northern India

Dr. Chethan MH,Dr.Himanshu Agrahari,Dr. Arvind Kumar Yadav, Dr.Bhaskar Sarkar, Dr.Siddharth Dubey, Dr. MD Quamar Azam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 308-313

Purpose: Proximal femoral fracture is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in
elderly group patientswith 11-23% of mortality is reported to occur at 6 months and 22-29%
at 1 year. Despite the huge burden of osteoporosis, there is paucity of data regarding
epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of fragility hip fractures in Indian population. As
most of the published literature are from western world, we conducted the study to look for
risk factors for early-mortality in hip fracture in Indian sub-continent and compare the same
with published literature.
Methods: Total of 174 patients were available for final evaluation. Primary outcome was to
see the mortality in elderly patients undergoing operative treatment and the secondary
outcome measures were predictors of mortality in this age group with regard to age, sex,
Charlson comorbidity index, injury severity score, pre-operative ASA grading, injury-surgery
duration and length of hospital stay. Cox proportional regression hazards regression
modelling was performed to assess the effect of different variables on time of mortality.
Results: Mean age of the patients was 70.56 (± 8.05) years. Mean Charlson Comorbidity
Score was 1.68 (± 1.54; 2SD). Mean time from injury to operation time was 35.59 (±19.02; 2
SD) hours and the mean length of hospital stay was 4.78 (± 1.68; 2 SD) days. Mortality at
one-year after surgery was 18.4%.On univariate and multivariate regression analysis variables
significantly associated (p<0.05) with ‘Mortality’ are: Age, Charlson Index, Charlson Index
Category, Injury to operation time(Hours), Length of hospital stay and pre-operative ASA
Conclusion: We suggest that, without a dedicated hip-fracture protocol in a resource-poor
set-up, early aggressive management to optimize patients for surgery and surgical
intervention as soon as feasible lead to early return to pre-fracture status and reduces early

Health Related Quality of Life for elderly people with Common Chronic Diseases in Patients Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah- Al Mokarramah, Saudi Arabia 2021

Mahmood Mohammad alqurashi, Abdullah Eidhah Misfer Almalki, Zayed Saad Alzhranae

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3227-3242

Although worse Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) among elderly people   has been widely described, it remains unclear whether this is due to differential reporting patterns, or whether there is a real difference in health status. Chronic diseases can have a profound impact on the health and quality of life of elder, not to mention the financial burden that is often associated with long-term illness. But specialists in gerontology and the emerging field of anti-aging medicine are quick to point out that while the risk of disease and disability undoubtedly can increase with advancing years, poor health is not an inevitable consequence of aging, According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) a lot of the sickness, disability, and even death associated with chronic disease can be avoided through preventive measures Older population is expected to be increased in Arab countries including Saudi Arabia in coming decades.  On the contrary, Arab countries are not paying attention to this increasing number of elderly people and most of the time; family is responsible for the increased demand of care for the elderly people.Aim of the study: To assess the health-Related Quality of Life for elderly people with Common Chronic Diseases in patients Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah- Al Mokarramah, Saudi Arabia 2021. Method:  This cross-sectional study was carried out on 300 elderly people with age ≥ 60 years. Quality of life was assessed using Arabic translation of WHO Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL) questionnaire. Screening of cardiac diseases and depression was done using Framingham and PHQ-2 questionnaires, respectively. Results: In our study in table 3 show, the majority of the participants those who did Framingham risk score  classified as intermediate risk with constitutes of (62.0%) followed by high risk with constitutes of  31.0% while a significant were P-value=0.001and  X2=136.86 regarding the PHQ-2In our study the majority of the participants Positive were(69.0%) while a significant were P-value=0.001and  X2=42.563, regarding the QOL the majority of the participants Good were(50.0%) while a significant were P-value=0.001and  X2=67.92 Conclusion: Improve service quality and increase clinics responsible for providing Common Chronic Diseases  patients with health information

Effects of laser therapy versus laser acupuncture on rheumatoid arthritis elderly patients

Afnan Sedky Adly; Zahra M. Serry; Mohamed Shehata; Mohamed Amr; Heba Ahmed Ali Abdeen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2717-2725
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.08.03.316

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is regarded as the commonest and one of most known
inflammatory arthritis. Our study was to determine the effects of laser therapy and laser
acupuncture therapy on RA elderly patients.
Subjects and Methods
Forty patients with age of 65 to 75 years were being randomly allocated to 2 groups. Group(A)
included twenty participants having RA treated via low level laser therapy. Group(B) included
twenty participants having RA treated via laser acupuncture. All the patients underwent
treatment by methotrexate. Treatments were provided three times each week to the two groups
for twelve weeks.Independent laboratory technician and statistician were blinded to the study

The impact of galvanic vestibular stimulation on elderly balance

Faten Mohamed Hassan; Akram Abd- Elaziz; Hany Ezzat Obaya; Shawky A. Fouad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1833-1846

Background: Imbalance still a common and fatal problem among the elderly population, increasing morbidity and mortality rate in society among the elderly, This study assessed the efficacy of galvanic vestibular stimulation on balance in the elderly.
Subjects and methods: Forty elderly patients of both sexes (23male and 17female) their age ranged from 60 to 70 years old were selected from the outpatient clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. The forty patients were divided into two groups; each group consisted of twenty patients. Group (A) performed a program of balance exercises in addition to galvanic vestibular stimulation 3times/week and group (B) control group performed a program of traditional balance exercises. The balance was assessed at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks of treatment.
Results: Showed that there are no significant differences (P>0.05) for Biodex scores of both groups as the post- treatment mean values ± SD of the biodex scores for both groups (A and B) were (3.70±1.69 and 4.19±1.70), respectively and no significant differences for functional reaching test scores (P<0.05) as the post- treatment mean values ± SD of functional reaching test scores for both groups (A and B) were (21.61±2.44 and20.26±2.99), respectively.
Conclusion: it was found that galvanic vestibular stimulation was not considered an effective intervention in improving balance in elderly > 60 years.

"Evaluation of Effect Of Dietary Advice Along With New Complete Dentures On Nutritional Status In Edentulous Patients"- An In Vivo Study


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2099-2103

Background: The relationship between the oral health and nutritional status in the elderly is complex and controversial. It has been suggested that poor oral health and a decreased ability to chew have a profound influence on food selection, diet and thereby the nutritional status of the individual. Edentulous individuals consume diet that is lower in fruits, vegetables, protein and fiber as compared to dentate individuals due to decrease in ability to chew. If or not a combination of dietary advice along with prosthetic rehabilitation improves dietary intake is still not very clear. So, we are aimed to give dietary advice along with prosthetic treatment and thought of evaluating their nutritional status through OHIP-EDENT, Mini Nutritional Assessment test and serum ferritin levels at baseline, 6 months and 12 months.
Method/Outcome: A type of observational study in which 25 patients will be recruited after seeing into the inclusion and exclusion criteria and then these patients will be given complete denture prosthesis along with nutritional advice and the outcome will be assessed using OHIP-EDENT, Mini Nutritional Assessment Test and Serum Ferritin levels at baseline six and nine months. Expected Results: Simple dietary advice that can be implemented by a dentist would be more practical in clinical practice than tailored dietary counselling. So, giving simple nutritional advice in combination with new complete denture would improve nutrient intake among edentulous individuals

Expression Of Interleukin-6 Levels In Elderly Sarcopenia

Resliany Rachim; Agus Sudarso; Shanti Pricillia Makagiansar; Syakib Bakri; Haerani Rasyid; A Makbul Aman; Hasyim Kasim; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2837-2844

Background/Aim: Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive loss of muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse clinical outcomes such as physical disability, reduced quality of life, and death. Oxidative stress and inflammatory processes are known as factors that trigger sarcopenia by releasing the catabolic stimuli of IL-6. Based on this we study the dynamics of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in elderly sarcopenia in Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar.Method: This study was an analytic cross-sectional design conducted at the Geriatric Polyclinic of Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar in March-June 2020. The assessed variables were degree of sarcopenia (probable sarcopenia, sarcopenia, dan severe sarcopenia) based on The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2) criteria, age, sex, number of comorbids, and IL-6 levels examination. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive statistical calculations and frequency distribution as well as the Independent-t statistical test, and Anova test. Results: Studied from 82 subjects (51 females, 62.2%) with the mean of 68.95 years of age. The prevalence of probable sarcopenia was 40.2%, sarcopenia 8.5%, severe sarcopenia 6.1%, and normal 45.1%. IL-6 levels were found to be significantly increased according to the severity of sarcopenia (normal, 52.81 ng/; probable sarcopenia, 67.47 ug/L; sarcopenia, 135.36 ng/L; and severe sarcopenia, 287.99 ng/L). Based on age, IL-6 levels increased significantly with age (60-74 years, 63.28 ng/L; 75 years, 139.35 ng/L). Based on the number of comorbids, IL-6 levels increased significantly according to the number of comorbids (1-3 comorbids, 52.86 ng/L; 4 comorbids (120.84 ng/L). Conclusion: In the elderly subject, IL-6 levels increases according to the severity of sarcopenia. IL-6 levels also increases with age, and the number of comorbids.


Manali Deb Barma; D Sri Sakthi; Jayashri Prabakar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2078-2086

Systemic diseases have higher risk of compromised oral health like tooth loss, higher lifetime caries experience thus emphasising the significant relationship between systemic disease and oral conditions. Dental caries is considered a serious public health problem affecting the long term prognosis of teeth and contributes to a major global burden of oral diseases among adults. Hence, this study aims to assess the caries risk profile among adults with systemic disease. A retrospective study was conducted among 61 participants aged 35 years and above. Data was collected using the electronic patient records, between the time period of August 2019 - January 2020, yielding a total of 61 participants with complete data. Plaque accumulation score using Loe and Silness Index, dental caries experience, salivary flow rate, fluoride exposure were recorded and entered into Cariogram application, to generate a pie chart in order to categorise patients into different caries risk groups. Descriptive statistics and Chi square were performed to analyze the data. The mean age of the participants was 55.2±10.9 years. Among all participants, 40.9% had diabetes. When categories into different caries risk groups, 37.1% were categorised into “high medium risk” group. Statistical significant value of p <0.05 was found between cariogram score and systemic disease. Systemic diseases have a significant effect on the deterioration of oral health, especially in terms of carious lesions. Caries risk assessment should be carried out compulsorily for patients with systemic diseases to reduce the burden of dental caries, as an early assessment will lead to better prognosis and better quality of life.


khaled ibraheem alqurashe, Mufleh Falhan D Almagati, Yaseer ahmad saigh, Mazin Munir I Matar, Fhad Abdalqader A Khoojh, Helal Hussain A Zamil, Essa Safar S Algamdi Abdul Rahman Abdullah M AlGhamdi, Mohammed Saleh Alghamdi, Salem Hammad Alotaibi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 437-447

Background: Lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence are very common in the general population and increase in prevalence in association with age. Urinary incontinence in particular is still seldom discussed by patients, many of whom delay seeking healthcare for the condition. Urinary symptoms have a considerable impact on morbidity and quality of life. Older people encounter multiple barriers in gaining treatment for their problem and are unfortunately less likely to be given evidence-based treatment than younger people. Urinary incontinence means a person leaks urine by accident. While it may happen to anyone, urinary incontinence is more common in older people, especially women. Incontinence can often be cured or controlled. The body stores urine in the bladder. During urination, muscles in the bladder tighten to move urine into a tube called the urethra. At the same time, the muscles around the urethra relax and let the urine pass out of the body. When the muscles in and around the bladder don’t work the way they should, urine can leak. Incontinence typically occurs if the muscles relax without warning.
Aim of the study: This study aims to assessment the prevalence of urinary incontinence among elderly patients attending the primary health care centers in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, KSA.
 Method: A cross-sectional study will be conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-reported UI among elderly patients attending primary health care centers in Makkah Al-Mukarramah in date collection period. Our total of simple is (400) elderly patients
Results : A total of is (400) elderly patients .The majority of the respondents were females (57.14% ), Malays (42.86 %), The age of the respondents ranged from 25-65 years, with a mean of 37.87±12.088 years showed positive correlations between degree of symptoms and signs of diagnosis of incontinence and degree the Frequency of symptoms Where (r = 0.578) and have statistical  a significant relation where p < 0.001).
 Conclusion:Urinary incontinence is common and often disturbing Saudi elderly, our study found that the prevalence was it adversely impaired their quality of life (QOL). Elderly age and parity were significantly related to impaired QOL. We acknowledge the fact that urinary incontinence is a common and poorly understood problem in our community.  Another problem in the elderly age group is cognitive impairment, which also contributes to urinary incontinence. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is most likely underestimated.


Ayman Ibrahim Mzjaji, Jalal Ibrahim Mzjaji, Hossam Hassan Esawi, Ahmad Huwaymid Alowfi, Sultan A. Alhazmi, Suhaib Talal Alsulimani, Salman Fudlaldeen Jan, Turki Moghli Alaslani, Fahad Salem Alsolami

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 150-161

Psychiatric disorders in Saudi Arabia, mainly depression are estimated to have high prevalence. More than 6 decades ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as “a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Bircher, 2005 defined health as “a dynamic state of well-being characterized by a physical and mental potential, which satisfies the demands of life commensurate with age, culture, and personal responsibility”. Health has been defined by various authors, who have always emphasized its mental component.In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the number of older persons worldwide. Globally, more than 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression. Elderly persons are more vulnerable to depression. By the year 2020 depression would be the second major cause of disability adjusted life years lost, as reported by the World Health Organization. depressive symptoms are common among older people and are associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Depression is a mental illness which causes persistent low mood, a sense of despair, and has multiple risk factors.
 Aim of the study: To assessment the determinant and prevalence of depression among elderly attendees in primary health Care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah.
Methods:Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among elderly patients attending to clinic in PHC at Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the October to December, 2019, validated questionnaires concerning demographic data and knowledge scores on depression among elderly. Our total participants were (400). Results:show that the Family history of depression (70.0%) is the most common clinical variables also show that of the(45.0%) participants have negative depression , (23.0%) have moderate depression,  and the data ranged from(0to 16)by mean+ SD (7.254+2.88).
Conclusion:Depression is associated with a deficiency in the cognitive state, with familial partner risk being an influential factor that may be preventable. Depression constitutes a health problem among Saudi geriatrics in in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, especially among elderly, those having history of chronic diseases and those having sensory impairment. These results provide insight for all health care workers caring for the elderly, researchers in the field of Geriatrics, and health educators into the particular care needs of elderly patients in Makkah, KSA.