Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Root canal

Outcome and effectiveness of ultrasonically activated irrigation on root canal disinfection and periapical healing. A systematic review.

Suhael Ahmed , Sultan Ismail Alshammari ,Mohammed Abdallah Almana, Sultan Khalid Alsuayri, Ohoud Hamoud Alshammari , Shouq Mohammed Aljohani , Renad Mohammed Alasmari, Aljowhara Allaboon, Farhan Jassam AlShammary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3830-3845

Irrigation is an essential part of root canal treatment because it improves the debridement and disinfection of areas that tools are unable to thoroughly clean. Remote parts of the root canal system are frequently difficult to clean using irrigation that is mostly done with a syringe and a needle. As a result, various more complex techniques have been introduced. Ultrasonic irrigant activation is probably the most widely used adjunct method, and it has been compared with syringe irrigation in multiple studies. However, very few attempts have been made to summarize the available evidence.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasonic irrigant activation during primary root canal treatment of mature permanent teeth to syringe irrigation in terms of cleansing and disinfecting root canals and healing of apical periodontitis.
Methods: An electronic search was conducted of the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Web of science and Scopus databases using both free-text key words and controlled vocabulary. Additional studies were sought through hand searching of endodontic journals and textbooks. The retrieved studies were screened by 2 reviewers according to predefined criteria. The included studies were critically appraised, and the extracted data were arranged in tables.
Results: The manual and automated searches turned up 957 titles, out of which 8 articles were selected for the systematic review. This evaluation comprised of randomized trials and in vitro research. In comparison to syringe irrigation, ultrasonic activation did not speed up the healing of apical periodontitis in teeth having a single root canal. The in vitro microbiological research reported a range of contradictory findings. Ultrasonic activation was superior to syringe irrigation in the removal of pulp tissue fragments and hard tissue debris.
Conclusion: As a result of inadequate evidence that was provided, no firm clinical recommendations could be made although ultrasonic activation does provide an alternate debridement mode in curved root canals

Assessment of efficacy of two different root canal irrigating solutions during root canal therapy: A comparative study

Sofia Ganai, S Vijay Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3989-3992

Background: The present study was conducted for evaluating and comparing two different
root canal irrigating solutions during root canal therapy.Materials & methods:Assessment
of 20 freshly extracted mandibular first premolar were obtained and were broadly divided
into two study groups with 20 specimens in each group; Group 1- Root canals irrigated
using 2.5% NaOCl for 1 min only, and Group 2- Root canals irrigated with 2% CHX
gluconate for 1 min followed by 3 ml of 2.5% NaOCl solution. The cleaning ability of
irrigating solutions was evaluated using the smear layer score system. All the results were
recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analyzed by SPSS software.Results: Mean
smear layer score among specimens of group A and group B was 4.5 and 4.2 respectively.
Non-significant results were obtained while comparing the mean smear layer score.
Conclusion:From the above results, the authors concluded that both the irrigating
solutions are equally effective in removing smear layer.

Irrigation in pediatric dentistry: A review

Dr. Susheel Kumar; Dr. Musaib Syed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7610-7616

Success in primary teeth is mainly achieved by complete removal of the debris and necrotic tissue. However, complete removal of the debris and necrotic tissue is done by the root canal irrigants along with mechanical instrumentation. Studies have shown that combination of two or more irrigating solutions in a specific sequence will help to achieve optimal irrigation. Present review of literature provides information of about intra canal irrigant used in pediatric dentistry.


Deepika Yadav; Avdesh Sharma; Paroma Sinha; Apurva Pawar; Shafia .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8135-8145

Background and Aim: Traditional methods for establishing working length include the use of radiography which is technique sensitive in both their exposure and interpretation. Electronic apex locators are well known for accurate determination of working length. This study was aimed to compare the working length using two different electronic apex locaters and to compare the electronic apex locator method with radiographic method. Materials & Methods: Authors studied fifty single rooted teeth of patients of ages 15-30 years. The root canals were further instrumented to size 20 K file. Two apex locators Root ZX II and ProPex II with identical frequencies were used. The position of the major foramen in relation to the anatomic apex and the presence of apical resorption were evaluated for each tooth by surgical microscope at 15X. Measurement was read to the nearest 0.5mm and the actual working length was established by subtracting 0.5mm from the true canal length. The distances measured between the two Electronic Apex Locator groups were compared. Statistical Analysis and Results: Data was sent for statistical analysis using statistical software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. 50 measurements for each Electronic Apex Locators were obtained. The mean distance between the file tip and the minor diameter was +0.0060 mm (±0.49 mm) for the Root ZX II. The mean distance was +0.0170 mm (± 0.55 mm) for the ProPex II.

Recent advances in endodontic irrigation devices

Alagarsamy Venkatesh; Kanthari., B.D.S.; Newbegin Selvakumar Gold Pearlin Mary; Arunajatesan Subbiya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2110-2114

The endodontic success relies on chemo mechanical preparation, removal of microbial toxins, irrigation and complete obturation of the root canals. The key part of the treatment is hand and rotary instrumentation to eliminate microorganisms from the primary rootcanal by the action of direct mechanical cleaning.The maingoal of instrumentation is to facilitate disinfection,effective irrigation and filling.The intricacy of rootcanal morphology provides curved apical third,apical deltas, narrow isthmi, oval and ribbon shaped canals cannot be mechanically cleaned.Bacteria can flourish in these untouched areas and it turned out to be a challenging objective to endodontic and also a real cause for pulpal and periapical diseases.Complete disinfection of canal is difficult with single irrigating solution use of two or several irrigating solutions obtain the goals of effective and safe irrigation. Irrigation has been performed with plastic syringe it allows good control of needle depth. The purpose of this article is illuminate the methods of effective and safe irrigation on the latest advancements


Gayathri Karthikeyan; Surendar Sugumaran; Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2088-2096

The endodontically treated teeth with extensive loss of tooth substance have numerous problems due to significant reduction in the capability to resist a myriad of functional forces Today, it is accepted clinical practice to use a post to retain the coronal restoration after a tooth has been endodontically treated when significant amounts of the coronal tooth structure is missing. The aim of the study is to assess the number of prefabricated fiber posts placed in the lower anterior with 2 or more walls present. After analysing 86,000 patient records , the sample size chosen for the study was 24 patient records. The data that was collected was tabulated in excel and then imported into SPSS software. Incomplete data were excluded from the study. Chi square test was the statistical test employed for statistical analysis and it was noted that the most prevalent prevalent gender to undergo this treatment were female (66.67%) , most prevalent teeth to be treated was 31, 32, 42 (21.21%) and most prevalent wall present was 2 walls ( 69.70%). Correlation between the patient age and the no of walls were seen to be statistically significant p
= <0.05 (p=0.001). Within the limits of this study, the prevalence of prefabricated fiber post in lower anterior teeth was most commonly seen in females among the lower canines. Significant association was present between the number of walls present and age .No significant association was present between the number of walls present with gender and type of teeth. Fiber reinforced posts are the most preferred posts to be used in anterior teeth, due to its flexural strength being similar to that of dentin and also better distribution of stress among the remaining tooth structure.


K.Ajith Kamath; Surendar Sugumaran; S Haripriya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2082-2087

Mandibular second premolars are one of the most complex among detention in humans. They often present with several patterns of complexities. It also varies based on age, sex, race etc. In the present study by a retrospective manner, we have assessed the occurrence of number of canals in mandibular second premolars in South Indian Population. Case records of 86,000 patients availing treatment at Saveetha Dental College between June 2019 and March 2020 were analysed, and the required data was extracted. 550 teeth were chosen for the study. Statistical analysis of the extracted data was done using SPSS software (SPSS Version 23.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) Graphs were derived. Correlations were made based on gender of the patients and type of tooth.Within the limits of the study the occurrence of more than one canal was more prevalent in females(11%) as compared to males(9%) in the south indian population.(P<0.05). Also the occurrence of a single canal was more prevalent in 45(44%) as compared to 35(40%)(P>0.05). More correlations can be studied by doing similar studies in larger populations and studies can be done based on geographical location and races