Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Gestational age


SONOGRAPHIC ASSESMENT OF GESTATIONAL AGE BY THE FETAL KIDNEY LENGTH AND VOLUME AFTER 18 WEEKS OF GESTATION IN LOCAL POPULATION

DR. MADAN MOHAN BABU, DR. SURESH A DR. ABHISEK SAHA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 286-294

Obstetric care begins with determining gestational age, which has the least variability in early pregnancy. This current study was planned to provide an overview of fetal kidney length and volume as a useful adjunct parameter for better determination of gestational age.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Normal singleton pregnancies from 18–40 weeks of gestational age, referred to the department of Radio-diagnosis and Imaging at VIMS & RC, Bangalore. Fill PC-PNDT [Prenatal Diagnostic Technique] form i.e Obstetric ultrasonography were performed using Affinity 50 G pro ultrasound scanner using a 3.5 MHz convex probe. Images were recorded in the system as DICOM.
RESULT
Out of 200 patients who presented themselves for routine obstetric ultrasound scan within the period of study, 150 patients met the inclusion criteria [18th week of gestation to term] and were selected for the study while patients were excluded from the study for the following reasons; for not remembering their LMP, fetus with IUGR, 10 patients presented with oligohydramnios, poly-cystic renal dilated renal pelvis. It correlates strongly with gestational age while the relationships between right and left kidney lengths with gestational age were established. However no correlation of gestational age with volume. Fetal kidney length increases with increase in FGA and shows excellent intra and inters class correlation coefficient which suggests good agreement and reproducibility of measurements. 

Estimation of gestational age of fetus with the help of fetal fibular length: By real time ultrasonography

Dr. Manisha Kumari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 2045-2049

Introduction: The ultrasound is a sound wave beyond the audible range of frequency. Clinical application of ultrasound in obstetrics was introduced and popularized by Donald & Glasgow in 1958, the advantage being that the ultrasound is a noninvasive technique causing minimum discomfort to the patient and practically no side effect on the fetus.
Materials and Methods: In present study an analysis will also be made of the variation in the gestational period, associated with the fibular length and socioeconomic, physical and medical factors recorded from obstetric and gynecological records. The patients included in this study were of 13 weeks to 40 weeks of fetal gestational age as diagnosed during the antenatal examination by gynecologist. The present study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, in coordination with the Department of Radiodiagnosis, LLRM Medical College, Meerut, in pregnant women a during 2ndand 3rd trimester. Ultrasonographic measurement of fibular length was done in Radio diagnosis Department of LLRM Medical College, Meerut.
Results: At the 14 weeks of the gestation the mean calculated fibula length was 15.7mm and at 20 weeks was 29.33 mm. The mean fetal fibular length of 51.92 mm was recorded at the age of 30 weeks of gestation whereas the same was 74.51mm at 40 weeks of gestation.
Conclusions: Dating of fetus by fetal fibular length is more accurate than the other fetal parameters and it was found more predictive than other fetal parameters.

Role of fetal renal length measurements in estimation of gestational age

Dr S.Swetha Reddy, Dr M. Laxmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10340-10349

Introduction: For the management of obstetric cases, it is very important to know the
EDD. But in our set up most of the women do not know the date of LMP and hence it is
difficult to predict the EDD. Therefore, ultrasound examination plays an important role
in determining the EDD.
Aims: To formulate the ideal length of fetal kidney to the corresponding gestational age
and to study of echo pattern of fetal kidney and its correlation with pregnancy outcome.
Materials and methods: 200 pregnant women with known LMP were taken for the
study. Gestational age by LMP was calculated and it ranged from 20 weeks to 40 weeks.
All the cases were subjected to ultrasound examination. Besides other information
through USG, special emphasis was made to calculate USG gestational age by
conventional method of measuring BPD. FL. AC. At the same time the renal length and
renal medullary echo pattern was examined in all the cases. The cases were grouped
according to the gestational age by LMP and mean renal length was calculated for each
gestational age group.
Results: It was observed that there was a wide variation in renal length for the
gestational age group of 20-30 weeks. This variation narrowed down from the 30-40
weeks of gestational age group. There was a definite correlation between the renal
length with the gestational age by LMP. It was found that USG with standard
parameters gave ± 3 weeks difference form LMP EDD, whereas the EDD calculated by
renal length gave a difference of ± 2 weeks. The prediction interval was narrowed from
±3 weeks to ± 2 weeks when renal length was used instead of the standard USG
parameters i.e., there was ± 1 week difference between EDD by renal length and EDD
by USG.
Conclusion: Examination of fetal renal medullary echo pattern helps us in identifying
high risk pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction and helps us in
management decisions.

Clinical Study of Neonates Born to Mothers with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP)

Gajula Ravi, Janardhan Reddy Pulluru, Suraboina Satishkumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10414-10423

Background:Globally, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are one of the major
causes of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. These disorders are
characterized by increase in blood pressure (BP) which may be present before or
appear for the first time during pregnancy after 20 weeks with or without proteinuria
or evidence of multiorgan involvement and have been classified into preeclampsia (PE)
and eclampsia syndrome, chronic hypertension (CH), PE superimposed on CH, and
gestational hypertension. The HDP may complicate 5%–10% of all the pregnancies
with the prevalence of 6.9%–7.9% in India. Studies have shown that HDP accounts for
around 16% of 2.6 million stillbirths and 15% of perinatal deaths globally. Higher rates
of adverse perinatal outcome such as preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth asphyxia,
stillbirth, and early death have been reported worldwide in women having
HDP.Prematurity and preterm birth are documented as the most common cause of
perinatal death in Indian women with HDP. The present study was conducted with the
aim to know the type of hypertension affecting the pregnant women and perinatal
outcome.Aims and objectives:To determine the outcome of neonates born to mothers
with Hypertensive Disorders of pregnancy in comparison with neonatal outcome in
babies born to normotensive mothers.
Materials and Methods: A comparative case control study will be performed on
Neonates fitting into inclusion criteria from JAN 2019 to Jun 2020 and a
prestructuralperforma will be used to obtain detailed History taking, Clinical
examination .The comparison will be done between two groups. The study group, which
will include neonates born to mothers with either gestational hypertension,
preeclampsia or eclampsia. The control group, which will include all babies born to
normotensive mothers, matched forgestation with the study group during the study
period.
Results: The results showed that the primary and the secondary outcomes in the study
group was significantly poorer compared to control group. There was significantly high
rate of death among the neonates born in the study group (p< 0.05).Also there was
higher rate of meconium stained amniotic fluid (16%), more requirement of surfactant
(14%) and more requirement of NICU admission (31%) among the study group. There
was also higher rate of IUGR (20%) as well as higher rates of Low birth weights among
study group.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HEMOSTASIS DEPENDING ON HEMORRHAGIC AND ISCHEMIC BRAIN DAMAGE IN PREMATURE NEWBORNS

MadjidovaYakutkhon Nabievna; AkhmedovaZiyodaShakhabiddinovna .; AzimovaNodira Mirvasitovna; NasirovaDilfuzaShavkatovna .; KhalilovaAliyeEmirasanovna .; AmritdinovaFarangizShakhabiddinovna .; BakhramovMakmudjonSaydullo ugli .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1130-1133

In this article, some indicators of the hemogram in premature newborns are studied. The analysis and comparison of the obtained indicators in children with hemorrhagic and ischemic lesions of the central nervous system was carried out. Small distinctive features were revealed in intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebral ischemia

The Use Of Abdominal Aorta Length In The Fetuses’ After 34 Weeks Of Gestation For Calculating Gestation Age Among Primigravida Healthy Women

Dr Najlaa Hanoon; Dr Wisam Akram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 139-149

Aim of the stud; To verify the correlation between abdominal Aorta Length in the fetus and gestational in weeks between 34- 40 weeks
Type of study; Case Control
Methods; a healthy pregnant women were chosen who’s age between 15-40 years all are primigravida and conceived within 3 months of marriage. They were between 34- 40 weeks in gestation. Their last menstrual period was know and recorded in addition all were scheduled for ultrasound examination for measurement of the abdominal aorta length, femoral length and biparietal diameter.
Result; a highly significant correlation was found between abdominal aorta and biparietal diameter and femoral length . In addition a highly significant correlation was found between gestational age calculated by their LMP and abdominal aorta. In addition a highly significant correlation was found between gestational age and abdominal aorta length. A non linear exponential equation was constructed with lowest mean of sum of squares=1, and coefficient of correlation= 0.97 between abdominal aorta length and gestational age in weeks. From this equation a reference table built which contains value for the abdominal aorta between 34- 40 weeks for 1,2.5,5,10,90,95, and 99 centiles. After the building of this table further 35 women were taken for assessment of this table. Only 2 were miss calculated, the Kappa Cohen coefficient=0.93
Conclusion; a table by which the gestational age can be calculated between 34-40 weeks by measuring the abdominal aorta. However under no circumstances this table may be used apart from assessment applications. Further studies are required to verify its accuracy