Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : politics


Uzbekistan As A "Showcase Of The Soviet East" In Issues Of Foreign Policy And International Relations

NuriddinovErkinZuhriddinovich .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1011-1023

The article examines the issue of Uzbekistan's place in matters of foreign policy and diplomatic activity in the system of the totalitarian Soviet state. The fact is substantiated that, in spite of the constitutional foundations given to the sovereign republics the right to independently conduct foreign policy activities, in practice they were limited. The reason for this was that an ideologized, command-administrative system of government dominated in the Union State, concentrated in the hands of the central body of the Communist Party.
The situation has changed somewhat since the second half of the 40s of the 20th century. After the end of World War II, in connection with the change in the international situation in the world, some softening was made in relation to the representation of foreign policy on the part of the Union republics. On this basis, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was established in Uzbekistan. However, the activities of this ministry were limited in the rights to conduct an independent foreign policy and participate in international relations. This is what the article proves that Uzbekistan, like other republics of the Union State, was given only the role of unquestioning executors of foreign policy guidelines imposed "from above". And in front of the world community, Uzbekistan was presented by the Union Center as a "showcase of the Soviet East", allegedly involved in full participation in international activities.
But, in spite of all the harshness of the totalitarian regime, the Uzbek people, proceeding from the intellectual, economic, spiritual and moral potential of the republic, made every effort to represent Uzbekistan on the world stage, even on behalf of the USSR. In this regard, the article highlights the role of representatives of the Uzbek people who showed their talent in the diplomatic field on behalf of the Soviet state. Based on the agrarian-industrial, scientific and cultural-spiritual potential, the contribution of Uzbekistan to the development of the export potential of the Union State is revealed.

Reviews Herbert Marcuse's Thoughts On Critical Theory

Nur Khasanah; Fatah Syukur; Abdul Wahib; Achmad Irwan Hamzani; Havis Aravik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6566-6575

Critical theory was one of the most phenomenal philosophical discussions of the late 19th century. The critical theory was initiated by the Frankfurt School with one of its characters being Herbert Marcuse. Marcuse analyzed various social inequalities due to the industrialization of technology capitalism. This research will review Herbert Marcuse's thoughts on critical theories. This research uses a philosophical short article, which is to study Herbert Marcuse's thinking in an ideal state. Data used in secondary data and analyzed descriptively qualitatively. The results showed that Herbert Marcuse was an inspiration for the 'new left' movement and the first generation of the Frankfurt School. Marcuse's doctrine of the political system and social system was very radical from orthodox communists. Capitalism society was the source of Herbert Marcuse's study, which was regarded as a modern society. Herbert Marcuse criticized the capitalist society that gave rise to a One Dimensional Society that was largely drugged by various false and pseudo interests. Social democracy was also criticized by Marcuse. Ideally, social democracy contains humanitarian values that uphold equality, justice, and freedom.

Psychological Warfare through New Media: Framing Political News Media Contents to Understand Student’s Psychological Emotion in Malaysian Higher Education Institutions

Amelia Yuliana Abd Wahab; Abdul Rahman Abdul Razak Shaik; Munir Shuib

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 491-504

The emergence of Internet as the ‘fifth estate’ with the introduction of new media has changed the landscape of political communication. The media audiences connect through the Internet in obtaining the information are in the midst of transition from relying on the traditional mainstream media to the alternative media, especially on the political news contents. The engagement with these political media contents stimulate the psychological emotion of the media audiences. The paper’s main objective is to understand students’ psychological emotion based on the political news media contents framed by the ‘independent’ News Portals. The political media contents were selected based on the salience of news highlighted in the new media for the months of November and December 2019. The participants for the studies were divided into TWO (2) Focus Group sessions, comprising eight (8) participants in each session. Eleven (11) selected specimens – political media contents framed in the various independent News Portals were vetted by the experts to be used in the evaluation procedures for the studies. The studies used the International Positive Negative Affective Schedule Short Form (I-PANAS- SF) as the references for the participants to express their psychological emotions triggered from the selected specimens. From the evaluation, a new 69-items Emotion Words (EWs) were compiled, consisting of both positive and negative EWs. Based on the analysis of findings from the Repertory Grid (RepGrid) Form filled by the sixteen (16) participants, the study managed to capture five ‘constructs’: confusing historical facts, leadership credibility of the politicians, knowledge to handle sensitive issues, appreciation on War History and accurate historical facts that triggered the psychological emotion of these participants. Subsequently, from the specific objectives, the studies managed to develop TWO additional new outcomes, (i) The Affective Lexicon and (ii) RepGrid Form based on the political media contents framed in the new media. All the data were managed in the ATLAS.ti Software. Finally, the findings from the study are recommended to be applied for the future studies as a basis for better understanding of the psychological warfare in the new media that triggers human emotions in politics.