Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : FNAC

Role of FNAC For Cytological Evaluation of Peripheral Palpable Lesions in People Living with HIV/AIDS

Preeti Pathak, Mayank Sharma, Vinny Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2347-2351

Introduction: AIDS, the acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (sometimes called “Slim disease”) is a fatal illness caused by a retro-virus known asthe Human Immuno- deficiency Virus (HIV) which breaks down the body’s immune system, leaving the victim vulnerable to a host of life-threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders or unusual malignancies.
Aim: To evaluate the role of FNAC as a cytological investigative tool in the diagnosis of various superficial and palpable lesions in people leaving with HIV/AIDS.
Methods: This was a randomized and double-blind study conducted on 57 patients suffering for HIV/AIDS who presented with superficial and palpable lesions and subjected to fine needle aspiration using 22 or 23 gauge needle with all aseptic universal precautions to the Dept. of Pathology, Govt. Medical College Kota (Rajasthan) and associated group of hospitals between August 2015 to January 2018.
Results: Male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Cervical and Axillary group of lymph nodes were the predominant peripheral palpable lesions accounting for 59.66% cases. Commonest cytodiagnosis were Tubercular lymphadenitis in 43.86% cases followed by Reactive lymphadenitis in 21.05% cases.
Conclusion: FNAC is a reliable, safe and cost effective for the diagnosis of peripheral palpable lesions in HIV infectedindividuals.

Clinical profile of patients with benign parotid disease at a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Arunkumar Tukaram,Dr. Md. Zaheeruddine Ather,Dr. Arunkumar Bhavikatti,Dr sharankumar Jabshetty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 184-189

The analogue of the parotid gland is the first gland to form in humans. Lesions of the parotid
gland are fairly easy to recognize mainly because of the location and limited number of
structures present here. Tumors of parotid gland are believed to represent approximately 2%
of head and neck tumors. Parotid gland tumors account for 70- 80% of all tumors of salivary
glands. Patients visiting to surgery department with parotid swelling were subjected to careful
history taking, complete clinical examination, and examination of facial nerve integrity.
Clinical diagnosis made was confirmed with USG (ultra sonography) parotid and FNAC (fine
needle aspiration cytology). 14(70%) patients in antegrade group vs. 13(76.47%) patients in
retrograde group had pleomorphic adenoma, 5 (25%) patients in antegrade group vs.2
(11.76%) patients in retrograde group had Warthin’sTumor,1(5%) patients in antegrade group
vs.2 (11.76%) patients in retrograde group had Recurrent Pleomorphic Adenoma.


Sherihan AboElyazed Mohamed; Mohamed Reda Halawa; Yara Mohamed Eid; Maram Mohamed Maher; Lamyaa Salem; Salah Hussein Elhalawany

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 325-334

Background: The Prevalence of thyroid nodules is rising nowadays, luckily most of
them are benign. The risk of malignancy 5-15%, which necessitates the ultimate need to
accurately distinguish benign from malignant nodule to avoid unnecessary
thyroidectomy with risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, postoperative
hypothyroidism and lifetime thyroid replacement therapy, and other complications
related to surgery and anaesthesia. Recent evidence suggests that circulating miRNA
might have probable advantage as diagnostic or prognostic markers for numerous
cancers. Given their reproducible and constant presence in sera, miRNA profiles have
emerged as a non-invasive method to categorise a wide variety of human cancers. This
study aimed to evaluate a possible relationship between the expression level of
circulating miRNA-222 and the histological outcome of euthyroid patients undergoing
thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNAC. This study included 45
euthyroid patients with inderteminate thyroid nodules diagnosed with ultrasound and
FNAC which planed for thyroidectomy. Quantitative assay of serum micro RNA-222
expression by quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) performed
preoperatively, and results compared with postoperative histopathology.
Results: The incidence of thyroid nodules was predominant in female gender in benign
group and malignant group. Risk of malignancy increases as TI-RADS and Bethesda
scores increases. Also, larger nodule in size has a more risk of malignancy (p= 0.027).
Expression level of circulating miRNA-222 in serum can’t differentiate between benign
and malignant patients where there was no significant difference between them
statistically (p=0.905). Circulating miRNA-222 was a poor predicator for malignant
nodules with sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 32.43%, with high negative predictive
value (NPV=75%).
Conclusion: Although circulating miRNA-222 has been identified as novel minimally
invasive biomarker for preoperative prediction of malignant nodules, but in our study,
it did not show a value as a tool for discrimination of malignant nodules. Ultrasound
remained important procedure in preoperative prediction and management of thyroid
nodules especially when correlating to nodule size which had positive correlation with
malignancy in our study.

Marking the eye of the tiger: A Prospective Study Comparing USG aided surface marked FNAC versus blind FNAC in thyroid swellings

Dr. Ashwin Varghese Alexander; Dr. George Thomas; Dr. Karuna Sandra Thomas; Dr. Avinash Abraham Alexander; Dr. Jathin Sam Thekkethil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 6492-6497

Introduction: Thyroid swellings are one of the most common clinical findings in the neck region. It is important to diagnose the exact pathology prior to treating such conditions. FNAC is now an inexpensive, dependable and safe diagnostic test for the assessment of diffuse thyroid pathologies and thereby, avoiding the redundant surgeries. Ultrasound guided FNAC has the potential to reduce insufficiency rates and is considered as the optimal cytological method for diagnosis. Hence in our study we intend to compare the results of marked FNAC and ultrasound-guided FNAC of thyroid swellings and find out the diagnostic reliability of marked FNAC and ultrasound-guided FNAC using histological conclusion as the gold standard. Methods: 100 subjects with thyroid swelling were selected. They were randomly divided into two groups - marked FNAC and ultrasound-guided FNACs were performed in them respectively. The obtained findings were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. These patients subsequently underwent surgery and followed up for over 2 and half years. Results: Ultrasound guided FNAC results revealed 64% benign lesions and 29 % of malignant lesions, and marked FNAC revealed 54% benign and 20% malignant cases. Histological gold standard diagnosis included 57 % benign and 43 % malignant cases. Conclusion: Marked FNAC of thyroid swellings is more expedient and economic as related to ultrasound guided FNAC. Nevertheless, the diagnostic output in ultrasound guided FNAC is significantly more in terms of accurateness