Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : MRSA


Dr. Rohit Sinha,Dr. Namdeo Suryawanshi,Dr. Bhausaheb Anil Mundhe,Dr Abhishek Subhash Goenka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1870-1878

Background:Major cause of mortality in low-income countries is respiratory infections
which are also the third most common cause of death globally. VAP (Ventilator-associated
pneumonia) is a vital form of hospital-acquired pneumonia which signifies pneumonia seen
in subjects that are mechanically ventilated for a minimum of 48 hours following
tracheostomy or tracheal intubation
Aims: The present study was conducted to assess the microbiological profile in subjects with
Ventilator-associated pneumonia and to assess the bacterial profile in these subjects. The
study also assessed the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria linked with ventilatorassociated

Bacteriological profile of orthopaedic implant site infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care hospital

Santosh Kumar, Dharitri Mohapatra, Sasmita Khatua, Nirupama Chayani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1207-1217

Orthopaedic implant site infection is one of the major surgical site infection in orthopaedic surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Due to the use of implants, which are foreign to the body, orthopaedic trauma surgery is at the grave risk of microbial contamination. Overall 5% of the internal fixation devises get infected. The incidence of infection after internal fixation of closed fractures is generally lower (0.5-1%), where as in case of internal fixation of open fractures, the incidence is still higher and may exceed 30%. The prevalence of orthopaedic implant site infection reported in India is about 2.6%.

Study of risk factors, bacteriological profile and antibiogram of surgical site infections in a tertiary care teaching hospital

Dr.Sadaf Guldin, Dr.Ghulam Hassan Bhat, Dr.Sameena Jawaid, Dr. Anjali Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2837-2845

Introduction: Surgical site infections (SSI) constitute a major public health problem worldwide and are the second most frequently reported nosocomial infections. They are responsible for increasing the treatment cost, length of hospital stay and significant morbidity and mortality.Aim: To isolate, identify and study bacteriological profile of surgical site infections,with  antibiogram.Materials and Methods: Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs from 190 patients clinically diagnosed of having SSIs and were processed as per standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. This Prospective study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2016 to December 2016) in the Department of Microbiology at Yenepoya Medical college hospital, Mangalore, India.Results:. Out of total 190 samples, 170 (89.4%) yielded bacterial growth.Most common predisposing factors causing surgical site infections were patients having Diabetes mellitus(23.53%) followed by Smokers(14.12),Hypertension(11.76).Escherichia coli (24.12%) was the commonest organism followed by Staphylococcus aureus(18.82%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.24%) and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (14.12%). Antimicrobial profile of gram positive isolates revealed maximum sensitivity to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Linezolid, whereas among gram negative isolates Imepenem, Piperacillin-tazobactam, and Amikacin were found to be most sensitive.Conclusion: The rate of SSI observed in this study was comparable to other similar studies, however we observed a higher degree of antimicrobial resistance. Adherence to strict infection control measures, maintenance of proper hand hygiene and optimal preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative patient care will surely reduce the incidence of SSIs.

Staphylococcus aureus: An Overview of Discovery, Characteristics, Epidemiology, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Sensitivity

Narin A Rasheed; Nawfal R Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1160-1183

Staphylococcus aureus is an important infectious pathogen in health sector and communities. S. aureus was first described by the Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogaston in surgical abscess in 1881. It causes various infections ranged between simple to life threating infections. Owing potent toxins and other virulence factors enabled the bacteria to be very virulent. Additionally, acquisition of antimicrobial resistant genes increased the challenge in treating the infections caused by bacteria especially methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) that are often multidrug resistant strains. The circulation of MRSA between health settings and communities resulted in changing even the genetic map for the strains in both places. Vancomycin was used for years and still acts as the drug of choice for treating MRSA infections but recently the resistance to vancomycin has risen and vancomycin resistant S. aureus were recorded. Consequently, different regimes were used like combination of antibiotics to reduce the resistance rate to antibiotics if they were used as a single drug and practiced the control measures at health settings to reduce the spread of MRSA strains. At last, global health organizations call for research and finding new antibiotics agents and put MRSA on the top list of infectious agents that need more antibiotics.

Biogenic Nanoparticles From Allium Sativum And Its Bioactives Applications

Shwetha Subbanna; Gopenath TS; Kanthesh M Basalingappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 212-232

Recent development in the synthesis of nanoparticles relies on the use of green chemistry with safe, biocompatible materials to manufacture composites, structures, and formulations based on nano for specific applications. The basic goal of green nanoparticle synthesis is to make use of the element's specific physicochemical and biological properties by linking bioactive from prokaryotes and eukaryotes for applications in various basic and applied science fields. Biogenic methods have the potential to provide advanced strategies for surface/material modification in the increasing carbonaceous materials market.
Garlic is an extensively studied herb known for possessing a wide variety of bioactive. The major proportion of garlic bioactive is organosulfur or thiol based organic compounds that have numerous biological and therapeutic activities and thus target biogenic nanocomponents and formulations for synthesis. There is, however, very scant literature on its use in the agriculture sector. The present review focuses on the synthesis of garlic related nanoparticles and their applications across various scientific fields, and their potential environmental implications when used in agriculture.

Infective Organisms With Their Changing Antibiotics Sensitivity Trends In Orthopedics Implant Surgery Infections

Mangal Mohammad Naeem; Khalid M. Qasem; Orya Mujeeburrahman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 5349-5352

Objective: To know about the various pathogens causing infection in orthopaedic implant surgeries and their antibiotic sensitivities.
Methods: This prospective study was conducted jointly in Departments of Orthpaedics and Trauma of Kausar Hospital, Afghan Hospital and Emergency Hospital, Kabul, from April 2019 to April 2020. All patients having close fractures of long bones including humerus, radius/ulna, femur and tibia requiring open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) were included. Patients data was noted on a preformed proforma. Patients were followed up to 6 months.
Results: 30 patients out of 650 developed Surgical site infection were selected. 23 were male and 7 were female patients. Age range was from 5-75 years. Staphyloccus Aureus including Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus Aureus MRSA was most common cultured organism, followed by E Coli and pseudomonas. 23 cases yielded single organism, 5 cases yielded 2 organisms, 1 case yielded 3 organisms. There was no organism growth in one case.
Conclusion: Staphylococcus Aureus including MRSA is the main cause of surgical site infection in orthopedics implant surgery. Other bacteria like E.Coli may cause surgical site infection. Antibiotics should be prescribed according to culture and sensitivity reports.

Nasal Carriage And Antibiogram Of Staphylococcus Aureus Amidst Healthcare Personnel From A Teaching Hospital In Coastal Karnataka, India.

Fathimath Raseena; Sevitha Bhat; Archana Bhat; Radhakrishna M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4820-4826

Background: S.aureus is an increasing cause of infections in both immunities and hospitals. It is also a frequent colonizer of the skin and nose. The incidence of hospital-acquired and community-acquired S.aureus infection has risen associated with the simultaneous increase of drug-resistant strains called methicillin resistance S.aureus.Aims and objectives: To determine S. aureus and MRSA's nasal carriage rate among healthcare workers of a teaching hospital, detect the mecA gene, MIC of Vancomycin, and Mupirocin in MRSA isolates.Materials and methods: A total of 285 health care workers from a teaching hospital of coastal Karnataka has participated in this study. Both anterior nares were swabbed and processed in the microbiology laboratory. Standard bacteriological methods identified isolates. PCR confirmed MRSA strains. Results: A total of 285 healthcare workers in a teaching hospital were screened for nasal carriage of S.aureus. Out of 285, 45 (15.8 %) healthcare workers were screened positive for S.aureus. Fifteen (5.3%) were Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA). All the MRSA strains were confirmed by mecA gene detection by PCR.Conclusion: The rate of prevalence of MRSA carriage (5.3°/c) in healthcare workers was relatively low. There was no vancomycin-resistant S.umum.t, and MIC creep to vancomycin to MRSA was not observed. Two mupirocin- resistant .S. aureus and significant numbers of Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS) were identified. These findings highlight the urgency for application to infection control measures that aim to decrease M RSA transmission.